Abstract

This paper presents an optically wavelength-tunable and intensity-switchable dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (DDCLC) spherical microlaser with an azo-chiral dopant. Experimental results present that two functions of optical control — tunability of lasing wavelength and switchability of lasing intensity — can be obtained for this spherical microlaser at low and high intensity regimes of non-polarized UV irradiation, respectively. If the DDCLC microdroplet is subjected to weak UV irradiation, azo-chiral molecules may transform to the bent cis state at a low concentration rate. The effect can slightly decrease the local order of LCs and thus the helical twisting power of the CLC in the microdroplet. As a result, the CLC pitch may become slightly elongated, which will cause the gradual red-shift of both omnidirectional PBG and lasing emission of the DDCLC spherical microdroplet. In contrast, when the microdroplet is subjected to strong UV irradiation, numerous azo-chiral molecules may simultaneously change to bent cis-isomers to seriously disarrange the helical texture of the CLC, which will quickly deform the PBG and deactivate the lasing emission of the microdroplet. Prolonged irradiation of a blue beam after strong UV irradiation may cause the cis azo-chiral molecules quickly convert back rod-like trans-isomers, which may then regenerate the CLC Bragg onion and PBG structures and reactivate the lasing emission of the microdroplet. Optical control of the DDCLC spherical microlaser is realized on a scale of seconds and minutes when UV irradiation is strong and weak, respectively. The 3D DDCLC spherical microlaser is a highly promising controllable 3D micro-light source or microlaser (e.g., all-optical 3D single photon microlaser) for applications of 3D all-optical integrated photonics, laser displays, and biomedical imaging and therapy, and as a 3D UV microdosagemeter or microsensor.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

2007

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of reflection of choleterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, C.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, T.-H. Wei, C.-W. Chen, A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, C. Doyle, S.-T. Wu, “Tuning the photonic band gap in cholesteric liquid crystals by temperature-dependent dopant solubility,” Opt. Express 14(3), 1236–1242 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

P. V. Shibaev, R. L. Sanford, D. Chiappetta, V. Milner, A. Genack, A. Bobrovsky, “Light controllable tuning and switching of lasing in chiral liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2358–2363 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, G. A. DeRose, A. Yariv, “InGaAsP annular Bragg lasers: theory, applications and modal properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 476–484 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

S. Furumi, S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, S. Mashiko, “Electrical control of the structure and lasing in chiral photonic band-gap liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 16–18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Muñoz F, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, “Ultraviolet lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 26(11), 804–806 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

1993

Barberi, R.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bartolino, R.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bobrovsky, A.

Brady, D.

Bunning, T. J.

A. Muñoz, M. E. McConney, T. Kosa, P. Luchette, L. Sukhomlinova, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, B. Taheri, “Continuous wave mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals with a pitch gradient across the cell gap,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2904–2906 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, “Optically switchable, rapidly relaxing cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9651–9657 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of reflection of choleterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Busch, K.

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional nanostructures for photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S.-H.

Chanishvili, A.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-H.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, C.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, T.-H. Wei, C.-W. Chen, A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-W.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, C.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, T.-H. Wei, C.-W. Chen, A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.-J.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, C.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, T.-H. Wei, C.-W. Chen, A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiappetta, D.

Chilaya, G.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cipparrone, G.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coles, H.

H. Coles, S. Morris, “Liquid-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
[CrossRef]

DeRose, G. A.

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, G. A. DeRose, A. Yariv, “InGaAsP annular Bragg lasers: theory, applications and modal properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 476–484 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, C.

Essig, S.

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional nanostructures for photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fan, B.

Finkelmann, H.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y.

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, C.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, T.-H. Wei, C.-W. Chen, A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, A.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Furumi, S.

S. Furumi, S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, S. Mashiko, “Electrical control of the structure and lasing in chiral photonic band-gap liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 16–18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Genack, A.

Genack, A. Z.

Green, W. M. J.

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, G. A. DeRose, A. Yariv, “InGaAsP annular Bragg lasers: theory, applications and modal properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 476–484 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hrozhyk, U. A.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, “Optically switchable, rapidly relaxing cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9651–9657 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of reflection of choleterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

Huang, S.-Y.

Huang, Y.

Humar, M.

Inoue, K.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoue, Y.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jau, H.-C.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, C.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, T.-H. Wei, C.-W. Chen, A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ji, T.-D.

Kim, S. T.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kopp, V. I.

Kosa, T.

Kubo, H.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, C.-T.

Ledermann, A.

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional nanostructures for photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.-R.

Lin, K.-L.

Lin, S.-H.

Lin, T.-H.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, C.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, T.-H. Wei, C.-W. Chen, A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.-H.

Lo, K.-Y.

Luchette, P.

Mashiko, S.

S. Furumi, S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, S. Mashiko, “Electrical control of the structure and lasing in chiral photonic band-gap liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 16–18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mazzulla, A.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McConney, M. E.

Milner, V.

Mo, T.-S.

Morris, S.

H. Coles, S. Morris, “Liquid-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Munoz, A.

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, A.

Muñoz F, A.

Muševic, I.

Oriol, L.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Otomo, A.

S. Furumi, S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, S. Mashiko, “Electrical control of the structure and lasing in chiral photonic band-gap liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 16–18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ozaki, M.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palffy-Muhoray, P.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Muñoz F, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, “Ultraviolet lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 26(11), 804–806 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papen, G.

Petriashvili, G.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sanford, R. L.

Scheuer, J.

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, G. A. DeRose, A. Yariv, “InGaAsP annular Bragg lasers: theory, applications and modal properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 476–484 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S. V.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, “Optically switchable, rapidly relaxing cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9651–9657 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of reflection of choleterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shibaev, P. V.

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Shibaev, R. L. Sanford, D. Chiappetta, V. Milner, A. Genack, A. Bobrovsky, “Light controllable tuning and switching of lasing in chiral liquid crystals,” Opt. Express 13(7), 2358–2363 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiozaki, Y.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shyu, C.-Y.

Sipe, J. E.

Staude, I.

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional nanostructures for photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sukhomlinova, L.

Tabiryan, N. V.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, “Optically switchable, rapidly relaxing cholesteric liquid crystal reflectors,” Opt. Express 18(9), 9651–9657 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of reflection of choleterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taheri, B.

A. Muñoz, M. E. McConney, T. Kosa, P. Luchette, L. Sukhomlinova, T. J. White, T. J. Bunning, B. Taheri, “Continuous wave mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals with a pitch gradient across the cell gap,” Opt. Lett. 37(14), 2904–2906 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Muñoz F, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, “Ultraviolet lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 26(11), 804–806 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thiel, M.

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional nanostructures for photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vithana, H. K.

von Freymann, G.

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional nanostructures for photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wegener, M.

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional nanostructures for photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.-H.

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, C.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, T.-H. Wei, C.-W. Chen, A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

White, T. J.

Wu, S.-T.

Yang, P.-C.

Yariv, A.

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, G. A. DeRose, A. Yariv, “InGaAsP annular Bragg lasers: theory, applications and modal properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 476–484 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, H.-C.

Yokoyama, S.

S. Furumi, S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, S. Mashiko, “Electrical control of the structure and lasing in chiral photonic band-gap liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 16–18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

Adv. Funct. Mater.

G. von Freymann, A. Ledermann, M. Thiel, I. Staude, S. Essig, K. Busch, M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional nanostructures for photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 20(7), 1038–1052 (2010).
[CrossRef]

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Optical tuning of reflection of choleterics doped with azobenzene liquid crystals,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 17(11), 1735–1742 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

U. A. Hrozhyk, S. V. Serak, N. V. Tabiryan, T. J. Bunning, “Photoinduced isotropic state of cholesteric liquid crystals: novel dynamic photonic materials,” Adv. Mater. 19(20), 3244–3247 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Finkelmann, S. T. Kim, A. Munoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, “Tunable mirrorless lasing in cholesteric liquid crystal elastomers,” Adv. Mater. 13(14), 1069–1072 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Chilaya, A. Chanishvili, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, P. V. Shibaev, “Reversible tuning of lasing in cholesteric liquid crystals controlled by light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(4), 565–568 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inoue, H. Yoshida, K. Inoue, Y. Shiozaki, H. Kubo, A. Fujii, M. Ozaki, “Tunable lasing from a cholesteric liquid crystal film embedded with a liquid crystal nanopore network,” Adv. Mater. 23(46), 5498–5501 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

A. Chanishvili, G. Chilaya, G. Petriashvili, R. Barberi, R. Bartolino, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. Oriol, “Phototunable lasing in dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5353–5355 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Furumi, S. Yokoyama, A. Otomo, S. Mashiko, “Electrical control of the structure and lasing in chiral photonic band-gap liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 16–18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T.-H. Lin, H.-C. Jau, C.-H. Chen, Y.-J. Chen, T.-H. Wei, C.-W. Chen, A. Y.-G. Fuh, “Electrically controllable laser based on cholesteric liquid crystal with negative dielectric anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 061122 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

J. Scheuer, W. M. J. Green, G. A. DeRose, A. Yariv, “InGaAsP annular Bragg lasers: theory, applications and modal properties,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(2), 476–484 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nat. Mater.

W. Cao, A. Muñoz, P. Palffy-Muhoray, B. Taheri, “Lasing in a three-dimensional photonic crystal of the liquid crystal blue phase II,” Nat. Mater. 1(2), 111–113 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

H. Coles, S. Morris, “Liquid-crystal lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(10), 676–685 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Supplementary Material (2)

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» Media 2: MOV (5175 KB)     

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for measuring the lasing spectra of the DDCLC spherical microlaser and recording the CCD microscopic lasing pattern as well as the CCD microstructure of the DDCLC microdroplet via the POM with crossed polarizers. To perform the optically controllable lasing experiment of the DDCLC spherical microlaser, one UV light source (peak wavelength: 365 nm) and a blue laser (wavelength: 442 nm, He-Cd laser) are used to irradiate the cell for changing the structure of the microdroplets and thus modulate associated lasing emission.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured absorption and fluorescence emission spectra (black and blue curves, respectively) of 0.5 wt% P597 doped in CLC at isotropic state. The red dotted curve presents the measured reflection spectrum of the planar CLC which indicates the spectral position of the stop band of the CLC.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variations in (a) the lasing emission spectrum of the DDCLC spherical microlaser and (b) its peak intensity and corresponding full-width at the half maximum (FWHM) with pumped energy at E = 3.9−13.4 μJ/pulse. (c) The CCD lasing patterns recorded via a POM with crossed polarizers at E = 3.9, 6.7, and 13.4 μJ/pulse.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical wavelength-tunability of the lasing emission of the DDCLC microlaser. (a) Variation of the lasing spectra of the DDCLC spherical microlaser with increasing UV irradiation time (tUV). (b) Variations of the lasing wavelength of the DDCLC microlaser with increasing tUV from 0 min to 20 min at a weak intensity of 472 μW/cm2 and increasing relaxation time (trelax). The moment is set as trelax = 0 once the UV irradiation is turned off. (c) Corresponding CCD lasing patterns recorded via POM with crossed polarizers at increasing tUV.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

All-optical intensity-switchability of the lasing emission of the DDCLC spherical microlaser. The upper sub-figure in (a) and the CCD images in (b) show the lasing spectra and lasing patterns of microdroplet, respectively, before and after the irradiation of a strong UV beam with 2.8 mW/cm2 for tUV = 5 s (black and red curves, respectively), and that after the irradiation of a strong blue laser beam with 2.03 mW/cm2 for tB = 30 s (blue curve) following the strong UV irradiation. Through the first cycle of successive irradiation of the strong UV and blue beams, the lasing output of the spherical microlaser can be switched off and then switched on. The bottom sub-figure shows the repeatability of the all-optical switching of the microlaser. The red (blue) solid and dotted curves represent the measured lasing spectra for switching-off and switching-on the microlaser, respectively, via the second (third) cycle of successive irradiation of the strong UV and blue beams.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variations in the CCD image for the structure of the DDCLC long-pitched microdroplet (pitch = 3 μm) with the azo-chiral dopant observed via the POM with crossed polarizers before and after the UV irradiation with (a) a weak intensity of IUV = 127 μW/cm2 for tUV = 20 min (Media 1) and (b) a strong intensity of IUV = 3.05 mW/cm2 for tUV = 5 s (Media 2). (c) A model for explaining the mechanisms of the optical tuning and switching DDCLC spherical microlaser at weak and strong UV irradiations, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Evolutions of measured absorption spectrum of 4.54 wt% azo-chiral dopant dissolved in alcohol (a) under the strong UV irradiation with 2.8 mW/cm2 at increasing tUV from 0 s to 10 s, (b) under the weak UV irradiation with 472 μW/cm2 at increasing tUV from 0 s to 60 s, (c) after turning off the strong UV irradiation at tUV = 10 s in (a) or the weak UV irradiation at tUV = 60 s in (b), and (d) under the blue-beam-irradiation with 2.03 mW/cm2 at increasing tB from 0 s to 20 s following the turning off of the strong or weak UV irradiation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Evolutions of measured reflection spectrum of a homogeneously-aligned DDCLC plane cell with the azo-chiral dopant when the cell is irradiated with (a) weak and (b) strong UV beams with 475 μW/cm2 and 2.8 mW/cm2, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The CLC textures observed under the POM with crossed polarizers based on a homogeneously-aligned DDCLC plane cell (a) before and (b) after the strong UV irradiation with 2.8 mW/cm2 for 30 s. The length of the white bar is 50 μm.

Equations (1)

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N C t = q σ N T I N C τ C ,

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