Abstract

In this work, InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with PN-type quantum barriers are comparatively studied both theoretically and experimentally. A strong enhancement in the optical output power is obtained from the proposed device. The improved performance is attributed to the screening of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) in the quantum wells and improved hole transport across the active region. In addition, the enhanced overall radiative recombination rates in the multiple quantum wells and increased effective energy barrier height in the conduction band has substantially suppressed the electron leakage from the active region. Furthermore, the electrical conductivity in the proposed devices is improved. The numerical and experimental results are in excellent agreement and indicate that the PN-type quantum barriers hold great promise for high-performance InGaN/GaN LEDs.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “lighting revolution”,” IEEE Photon. J.4(2), 613–619 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 241–248 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. M.-C. Tsai, S.-H. Yen, Y.-C. Lu, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Numerical study of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with varied barrier thicknesses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(2), 76–78 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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  12. H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
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  15. S.-H. Park and S.-L. Chuang, “Comparison of zinc-blende and wurtzite GaN semiconductors with spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric field effects,” J. Appl. Phys.87(1), 353–364 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II `W' InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.104(4), 043104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(11), 113110 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Deguchi, A. Shikanai, K. Torii, T. Sota, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, “Luminescence spectra from InGaN multiquantum wells heavily doped with Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(25), 3329–3331 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, W. Lee, J. P. Liu, Z. Lochner, D. W. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of silicon doping in the quantum-well barriers on the electrical and optical properties of visible green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(21), 1769–1771 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-doped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” J. Display Technol.9(4), 226–233 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123503 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(1), 50–53 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  28. L. Lahourcade, J. Pernot, A. Wirthmuller, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, A. Laufer, M. Eickhoff, and E. Monroy, “Mg doping and its effect on the semipolar GaN(11-22) growth kinetics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 171908 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN-AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(1), 66–78 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solid. A-Appl. Mater. Sci.207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).
  31. V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  32. K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.106(11), 114508 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  34. I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  35. Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

2012 (3)

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Choi, M.-H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “lighting revolution”,” IEEE Photon. J.4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M.-C. Tsai, S.-H. Yen, Y.-C. Lu, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Numerical study of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with varied barrier thicknesses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(2), 76–78 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solid. A-Appl. Mater. Sci.207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).

M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, and Y. K. Kuo, “Carrier transportation and internal quantum efficiency of blue inGaN light-emitting diodes with p-doped barriers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(6), 374–376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Park, S. H. Han, C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, T. Y. Park, T. H. Kim, S. H. Park, S. Won Kang, J. Won Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Effect of Mg doping in the barrier of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well on optical power of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, B. H. Koo, and J. E. Oh, “Optical gain improvement in type-II InGaN/GaNSb/GaN quantum well structures composed of InGaN/and GaNSb layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.106(11), 114508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, K. Hyunsoo, S. Choi, H.-J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Lahourcade, J. Pernot, A. Wirthmuller, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, A. Laufer, M. Eickhoff, and E. Monroy, “Mg doping and its effect on the semipolar GaN(11-22) growth kinetics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 171908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN-AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, W. Lee, J. P. Liu, Z. Lochner, D. W. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of silicon doping in the quantum-well barriers on the electrical and optical properties of visible green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(21), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Type-II InGaN-GaNAs quantum wells for lasers applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II `W' InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.104(4), 043104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S.-H. Park and S.-L. Chuang, “Comparison of zinc-blende and wurtzite GaN semiconductors with spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric field effects,” J. Appl. Phys.87(1), 353–364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

T. Deguchi, A. Shikanai, K. Torii, T. Sota, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, “Luminescence spectra from InGaN multiquantum wells heavily doped with Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(25), 3329–3331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, and N. Iwasa, “Thermal annealing effects on p-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 2, No. 2B2B), 139–142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

H. Amano, M. Kito, K. Hiramatsu, and I. Akasaki, “P-type conduction in Mg-doped GaN treated with low-energy electron-beam irradiation (LEEBI),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.28(12), L2112–L2114 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, B. H. Koo, and J. E. Oh, “Optical gain improvement in type-II InGaN/GaNSb/GaN quantum well structures composed of InGaN/and GaNSb layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

H. Amano, M. Kito, K. Hiramatsu, and I. Akasaki, “P-type conduction in Mg-doped GaN treated with low-energy electron-beam irradiation (LEEBI),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.28(12), L2112–L2114 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

H. Amano, M. Kito, K. Hiramatsu, and I. Akasaki, “P-type conduction in Mg-doped GaN treated with low-energy electron-beam irradiation (LEEBI),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.28(12), L2112–L2114 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ambacher, O.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Display Technol.9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN-AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II `W' InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.104(4), 043104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Type-II InGaN-GaNAs quantum wells for lasers applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. Y.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. P.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chauvat, M. P.

L. Lahourcade, J. Pernot, A. Wirthmuller, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, A. Laufer, M. Eickhoff, and E. Monroy, “Mg doping and its effect on the semipolar GaN(11-22) growth kinetics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 171908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chichibu, S.

T. Deguchi, A. Shikanai, K. Torii, T. Sota, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, “Luminescence spectra from InGaN multiquantum wells heavily doped with Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(25), 3329–3331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C. Y.

S. J. Park, S. H. Han, C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, T. Y. Park, T. H. Kim, S. H. Park, S. Won Kang, J. Won Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Effect of Mg doping in the barrier of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well on optical power of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

S. Choi, M.-H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, K. Hyunsoo, S. Choi, H.-J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S.-L.

S.-H. Park and S.-L. Chuang, “Comparison of zinc-blende and wurtzite GaN semiconductors with spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric field effects,” J. Appl. Phys.87(1), 353–364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deguchi, T.

T. Deguchi, A. Shikanai, K. Torii, T. Sota, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, “Luminescence spectra from InGaN multiquantum wells heavily doped with Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(25), 3329–3331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Delaney, K. T.

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Demir, H. V.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-doped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” J. Display Technol.9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “lighting revolution”,” IEEE Photon. J.4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “lighting revolution”,” IEEE Photon. J.4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
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S. J. Park, S. H. Han, C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, T. Y. Park, T. H. Kim, S. H. Park, S. Won Kang, J. Won Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Effect of Mg doping in the barrier of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well on optical power of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051113 (2010).
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J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, W. Lee, J. P. Liu, Z. Lochner, D. W. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of silicon doping in the quantum-well barriers on the electrical and optical properties of visible green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(21), 1769–1771 (2008).
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N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 241–248 (2010).
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J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, W. Lee, J. P. Liu, Z. Lochner, D. W. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of silicon doping in the quantum-well barriers on the electrical and optical properties of visible green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(21), 1769–1771 (2008).
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J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, W. Lee, J. P. Liu, Z. Lochner, D. W. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of silicon doping in the quantum-well barriers on the electrical and optical properties of visible green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(21), 1769–1771 (2008).
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J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, K. Hyunsoo, S. Choi, H.-J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
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C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
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M.-C. Tsai, S.-H. Yen, Y.-C. Lu, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Numerical study of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with varied barrier thicknesses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(2), 76–78 (2011).
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H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(1), 50–53 (2003).
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M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.106(11), 114508 (2009).
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M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.106(11), 114508 (2009).
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L. Lahourcade, J. Pernot, A. Wirthmuller, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, A. Laufer, M. Eickhoff, and E. Monroy, “Mg doping and its effect on the semipolar GaN(11-22) growth kinetics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 171908 (2009).
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S. H. Park, D. Ahn, B. H. Koo, and J. E. Oh, “Optical gain improvement in type-II InGaN/GaNSb/GaN quantum well structures composed of InGaN/and GaNSb layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051106 (2010).
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S. J. Park, S. H. Han, C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, T. Y. Park, T. H. Kim, S. H. Park, S. Won Kang, J. Won Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Effect of Mg doping in the barrier of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well on optical power of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051113 (2010).
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S. J. Park, S. H. Han, C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, T. Y. Park, T. H. Kim, S. H. Park, S. Won Kang, J. Won Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Effect of Mg doping in the barrier of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well on optical power of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051113 (2010).
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Park, Y.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
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L. Lahourcade, J. Pernot, A. Wirthmuller, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, A. Laufer, M. Eickhoff, and E. Monroy, “Mg doping and its effect on the semipolar GaN(11-22) growth kinetics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 171908 (2009).
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S. Choi, M.-H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).
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J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, W. Lee, J. P. Liu, Z. Lochner, D. W. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of silicon doping in the quantum-well barriers on the electrical and optical properties of visible green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(21), 1769–1771 (2008).
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S. Choi, M.-H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).
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S. Choi, M.-H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).
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M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, and N. Iwasa, “Thermal annealing effects on p-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 2, No. 2B2B), 139–142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shikanai, A.

T. Deguchi, A. Shikanai, K. Torii, T. Sota, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, “Luminescence spectra from InGaN multiquantum wells heavily doped with Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(25), 3329–3331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sota, T.

T. Deguchi, A. Shikanai, K. Torii, T. Sota, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, “Luminescence spectra from InGaN multiquantum wells heavily doped with Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(25), 3329–3331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X. W.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-doped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” J. Display Technol.9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “lighting revolution”,” IEEE Photon. J.4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tan, C. K.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, C. K. Tan, and N. Tansu, “Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J.5(2), 220101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tan, S. T.

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, W. Liu, Z. G. Ju, K. Zheng, Z. Kyaw, Y. Ji, N. Hasanov, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “Improved InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes with a p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN/n-GaN/p-GaN current-spreading layer,” Opt. Express21(4), 4958–4969 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z.-H. Zhang, S. T. Tan, Z. G. Ju, W. Liu, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the effect of step-doped quantum barriers in InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes,” J. Display Technol.9(4), 226–233 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “lighting revolution”,” IEEE Photon. J.4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

G. Liu, J. Zhang, C. K. Tan, and N. Tansu, “Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J.5(2), 220101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Display Technol.9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN-AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II `W' InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.104(4), 043104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Type-II InGaN-GaNAs quantum wells for lasers applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tong, H.

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Torii, K.

T. Deguchi, A. Shikanai, K. Torii, T. Sota, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, “Luminescence spectra from InGaN multiquantum wells heavily doped with Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(25), 3329–3331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Trivellin, N.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.106(11), 114508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M. C.

M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, and Y. K. Kuo, “Carrier transportation and internal quantum efficiency of blue inGaN light-emitting diodes with p-doped barriers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(6), 374–376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M.-C.

M.-C. Tsai, S.-H. Yen, Y.-C. Lu, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Numerical study of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with varied barrier thicknesses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(2), 76–78 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Van De Walle, C. G.

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vurgaftman, I.

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. H.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wirthmuller, A.

L. Lahourcade, J. Pernot, A. Wirthmuller, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, A. Laufer, M. Eickhoff, and E. Monroy, “Mg doping and its effect on the semipolar GaN(11-22) growth kinetics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 171908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Won Kang, S.

S. J. Park, S. H. Han, C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, T. Y. Park, T. H. Kim, S. H. Park, S. Won Kang, J. Won Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Effect of Mg doping in the barrier of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well on optical power of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Won Kim, J.

S. J. Park, S. H. Han, C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, T. Y. Park, T. H. Kim, S. H. Park, S. Won Kang, J. Won Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Effect of Mg doping in the barrier of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well on optical power of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xing, H.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. C.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yen, S. H.

M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, and Y. K. Kuo, “Carrier transportation and internal quantum efficiency of blue inGaN light-emitting diodes with p-doped barriers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(6), 374–376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yen, S.-H.

M.-C. Tsai, S.-H. Yen, Y.-C. Lu, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Numerical study of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with varied barrier thicknesses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(2), 76–78 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoder, P. D.

S. Choi, M.-H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, K. Hyunsoo, S. Choi, H.-J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, D. W.

J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, W. Lee, J. P. Liu, Z. Lochner, D. W. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of silicon doping in the quantum-well barriers on the electrical and optical properties of visible green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(21), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zanoni, E.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.106(11), 114508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zehnder, U.

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.106(11), 114508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Display Technol.9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, J. Zhang, C. K. Tan, and N. Tansu, “Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J.5(2), 220101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.-H.

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Analysis of internal quantum efficiency and current injection efficiency in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” J. Display Technol.9(4), 212–225 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, and N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express19(S4Suppl 4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN-AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II `W' InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.104(4), 043104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Type-II InGaN-GaNAs quantum wells for lasers applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H. P.

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, K.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, and C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Park, S. H. Han, C. Y. Cho, S. J. Lee, T. Y. Park, T. H. Kim, S. H. Park, S. Won Kang, J. Won Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Effect of Mg doping in the barrier of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well on optical power of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Choi, M.-H. Ji, J. Kim, H. J. Kim, M. M. Satter, P. D. Yoder, J.-H. Ryou, R. D. Dupuis, A. M. Fischer, and F. A. Ponce, “Efficiency droop due to electron spill-over and limited hole injection in III-nitride visible light-emitting diodes employing lattice-matched InAlN electron blocking layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(16), 161110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, B. H. Koo, and J. E. Oh, “Optical gain improvement in type-II InGaN/GaNSb/GaN quantum well structures composed of InGaN/and GaNSb layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, H. Zhao, and N. Tansu, “Type-II InGaN-GaNAs quantum wells for lasers applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Arif, Y.-K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Polarization engineering via staggered InGaN quantum wells for radiative efficiency enhancement of light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 091110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Deguchi, A. Shikanai, K. Torii, T. Sota, S. Chichibu, and S. Nakamura, “Luminescence spectra from InGaN multiquantum wells heavily doped with Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(25), 3329–3331 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. G. Ju, S. T. Tan, Z.-H. Zhang, Y. Ji, Z. Kyaw, Y. Dikme, X. W. Sun, and H. V. Demir, “On the origin of the redshift in the emission wavelength of InGaN/GaN blue light emitting diodes grown with a higher temperature interlayer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 123503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Lahourcade, J. Pernot, A. Wirthmuller, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, A. Laufer, M. Eickhoff, and E. Monroy, “Mg doping and its effect on the semipolar GaN(11-22) growth kinetics,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(17), 171908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Fiorentini, F. Bernardini, and O. Ambacher, “Evidence for nonlinear macroscopic polarization in III-V nitride alloy heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(7), 1204–1206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. T. Delaney, P. Rinke, and C. G. Van De Walle, “Auger recombination rates in nitrides from first principles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(19), 191109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, Y. K. Ee, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent analysis of strain-compensated InGaN-AlGaN quantum wells for lasers and light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.45(1), 66–78 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

J.-H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, K. Hyunsoo, S. Choi, H.-J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined Stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(4), 1028–1040 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (3)

N. Tansu, H. Zhao, G. Liu, X. H. Li, J. Zhang, H. Tong, and Y. K. Ee, “III-nitride photonics,” IEEE Photon. J.2(2), 241–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Liu, J. Zhang, C. K. Tan, and N. Tansu, “Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. J.5(2), 220101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Tan, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, and S. P. DenBaars, “Advances in the LED materials and architectures for energy-saving solid-state lighting toward “lighting revolution”,” IEEE Photon. J.4(2), 613–619 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

J. H. Ryou, J. Limb, W. Lee, J. P. Liu, Z. Lochner, D. W. Yoo, and R. D. Dupuis, “Effect of silicon doping in the quantum-well barriers on the electrical and optical properties of visible green light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(21), 1769–1771 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M.-C. Tsai, S.-H. Yen, Y.-C. Lu, and Y.-K. Kuo, “Numerical study of blue InGaN light-emitting diodes with varied barrier thicknesses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(2), 76–78 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Tsai, S. H. Yen, and Y. K. Kuo, “Carrier transportation and internal quantum efficiency of blue inGaN light-emitting diodes with p-doped barriers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(6), 374–376 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

S.-H. Park and S.-L. Chuang, “Comparison of zinc-blende and wurtzite GaN semiconductors with spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric field effects,” J. Appl. Phys.87(1), 353–364 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Self-consistent gain analysis of type-II `W' InGaN–GaNAs quantum well lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.104(4), 043104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Meneghini, N. Trivellin, G. Meneghesso, E. Zanoni, U. Zehnder, and B. Hahn, “A combined electro-optical method for the determination of the recombination parameters in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.106(11), 114508 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Vurgaftman and J. R. Meyer, “Band parameters for nitrogen-containing semiconductors,” J. Appl. Phys.94(6), 3675–3696 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Technol. (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (3)

H. Xing, D. S. Green, H. Yu, T. Mates, P. Kozodoy, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Memory effect and redistribution of Mg into sequentially regrown GaN layer by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(1), 50–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, and N. Iwasa, “Thermal annealing effects on p-type Mg-doped GaN films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.31(Part 2, No. 2B2B), 139–142 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Amano, M. Kito, K. Hiramatsu, and I. Akasaki, “P-type conduction in Mg-doped GaN treated with low-energy electron-beam irradiation (LEEBI),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.28(12), L2112–L2114 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Status Solid. A-Appl. Mater. Sci. (1)

J. Piprek, “Efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solid. A-Appl. Mater. Sci.207(10), 2217–2225 (2010).

Solid-State Electron. (1)

H. P. Zhao, G. Y. Liu, R. A. Arif, and N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron.54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic energy band diagrams of the InGaN/GaN active region for (a) Device I with the undoped quantum barriers, (b) Device II with the Si step-doped quantum barriers and (c) Device III with the PN-type quantum barriers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimentally measured EL spectra for (a) Device I, (b) Device II and (c) Device III at 16, 32, 48, 64 and 80 A/cm2, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental and (b) simulated optical output power and EQE as a function of the driving current for Devices I, II and III, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated energy band diagrams for (a) Device I, (b) Device II and (c) Device III at 40 A/cm2, along with the effective conduction band barrier height ( Δ Φ e ) and the effective valance band barrier height ( Δ Φ h ).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated (a) hole concentration and (b) the radiative recombination rates for Devices I, II and III, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated leakage current for Devices I, II and III, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Experimentally measured and (b) simulated current as a function of the applied voltage for Devices I, II and III, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Electric field profile under equilibrium and (b) distribution of the electron and hole wave functions in the quantum well closest to the p-GaN layer for Devices I, II, and III, respectively. The positive direction of the electric field in (a) is along the growth orientation, i.e., C+-orientation.

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