Abstract

We fabricated a waveguide optical isolator with a GaInAsP guiding layer integrated with spot size converters (SSCs) for efficient coupling to optical fibers. The isolator is constructed with a Mach–Zehnder interferometer (MZI), which is composed of multi-mode interference (MMI) couplers, as well as nonreciprocal and reciprocal phase shifters. The nonreciprocal phase shifter is constructed with a magneto-optical cladding layer directly bonded to a semiconductor guiding layer. The performance of the GaInAsP waveguide optical isolator was demonstrated with a maximum optical isolation of 28.3 dB at a wavelength of 1558 nm for the TM mode.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. S. Yamamoto, Y. Okamura, and T. Makimoto, “Analysis and design of semileaky-type thin-film optical waveguide isolator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.12(12), 764–770 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Ando, T. Okoshi, and N. Koshizuka, “Waveguide magnet-optic isolator fabricated by laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.53(1), 4–6 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. J. Fratello, “Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.8(7), 903–905 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. Shintaku, “Integrated optical isolator based on efficient nonreciprocal radiation mode conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 1946–1948 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Dotsch, N. Bahlmann, O. Zhuromskyy, M. Hammer, L. Wilkens, R. Gerhardt, and P. Hertel, “Applications of magneto-optical waveguides in integrated optics: review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B73(1), 240–253 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dotsch, “Waveguide optical isolator based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(16), 2158–2160 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Shimizu and Y. Nakano, “Fabrication and characterization of an InGaAsP/InP active waveguide optical isolator with 14.7 dB/mm TE mode nonreciprocal attenuation,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(1), 38–43 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. Le Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wüst, and R. Noé, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated with III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(2), 417–421 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, and Y. Nakano, “Demonstration of an optical isolator with a semiconductor guiding layer that was obtained by use of a nonreciprocal phase shift,” Appl. Opt.39(33), 6158–6164 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, “Magneto-optic isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 071117 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 758–762 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. C. Tien, T. Mizumoto, P. Pintus, H. Kromer, and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon ring isolators with bonded nonreciprocal magneto-optic garnets,” Opt. Express19(12), 11740–11745 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. S. Ghosh, S. Keyvavinia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Ce:YIG/Silicon-on-insulator waveguide optical isolator realized by adhesive bonding,” Opt. Express20(2), 1839–1848 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. Y. Shoji, M. Ito, Y. Shirato, and T. Mizumoto, “MZI optical isolator with Si-wire waveguides by surface-activated direct bonding,” Opt. Express20(16), 18440–18448 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Y. Sobu, K. Sakurai, Y. Shoji, and T. Mizumoto, “GaInAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometric waveguide optical isolator integrated with spot size converter,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference2012 (Burlingame, CA2012), pp. 909–910.
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Mizumoto, R. Takei, and Y. Shoji, “Waveguide optical isolators for integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 252–260 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Y. Shoji, I.-W. Hsieh, R. M. Osgood, and T. Mizumoto, “Polarization-independent magneto-optical waveguide isolator using TM-mode nonreciprocal phase shift,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(10), 3108–3113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. Adachi, “Refractive indices of III-V compounds: Key properties of InGaAsP relevant to device design,” J. Appl. Phys.53(8), 5863–5869 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Sobu, H. Hamada, and T. Mizumoto, “GaInAsP/InP waveguide dual core spot size converter for optical fiber,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference2011 (Arington, VA2011), pp. 469–470.
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. Sakurai, K. Abe, and T. Mizumoto, “Relaxation of thermal stress in direct bonding by partitioning the bonding area for fabrication of optical isolator with semiconductor guiding layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(11), 112401 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

M. C. Tien, T. Mizumoto, P. Pintus, H. Kromer, and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon ring isolators with bonded nonreciprocal magneto-optic garnets,” Opt. Express19(12), 11740–11745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

K. Sakurai, K. Abe, and T. Mizumoto, “Relaxation of thermal stress in direct bonding by partitioning the bonding area for fabrication of optical isolator with semiconductor guiding layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(11), 112401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, “Magneto-optic isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

H. Shimizu and Y. Nakano, “Fabrication and characterization of an InGaAsP/InP active waveguide optical isolator with 14.7 dB/mm TE mode nonreciprocal attenuation,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(1), 38–43 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. Le Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wüst, and R. Noé, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated with III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Dotsch, N. Bahlmann, O. Zhuromskyy, M. Hammer, L. Wilkens, R. Gerhardt, and P. Hertel, “Applications of magneto-optical waveguides in integrated optics: review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B73(1), 240–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dotsch, “Waveguide optical isolator based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(16), 2158–2160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, and Y. Nakano, “Demonstration of an optical isolator with a semiconductor guiding layer that was obtained by use of a nonreciprocal phase shift,” Appl. Opt.39(33), 6158–6164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

T. Shintaku, “Integrated optical isolator based on efficient nonreciprocal radiation mode conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 1946–1948 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. J. Fratello, “Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.8(7), 903–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. Ando, T. Okoshi, and N. Koshizuka, “Waveguide magnet-optic isolator fabricated by laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.53(1), 4–6 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

S. Adachi, “Refractive indices of III-V compounds: Key properties of InGaAsP relevant to device design,” J. Appl. Phys.53(8), 5863–5869 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

S. Yamamoto, Y. Okamura, and T. Makimoto, “Analysis and design of semileaky-type thin-film optical waveguide isolator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.12(12), 764–770 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Abe, K.

K. Sakurai, K. Abe, and T. Mizumoto, “Relaxation of thermal stress in direct bonding by partitioning the bonding area for fabrication of optical isolator with semiconductor guiding layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(11), 112401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, S.

S. Adachi, “Refractive indices of III-V compounds: Key properties of InGaAsP relevant to device design,” J. Appl. Phys.53(8), 5863–5869 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Ando, K.

K. Ando, T. Okoshi, and N. Koshizuka, “Waveguide magnet-optic isolator fabricated by laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.53(1), 4–6 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvavinia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Ce:YIG/Silicon-on-insulator waveguide optical isolator realized by adhesive bonding,” Opt. Express20(2), 1839–1848 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. Le Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bahlmann, N.

H. Dotsch, N. Bahlmann, O. Zhuromskyy, M. Hammer, L. Wilkens, R. Gerhardt, and P. Hertel, “Applications of magneto-optical waveguides in integrated optics: review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B73(1), 240–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bhandare, S.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wüst, and R. Noé, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated with III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bi, L.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

Cadieu, F. J.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. J. Fratello, “Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.8(7), 903–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dagens, B.

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. Le Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Decobert, J.

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. Le Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, G. F.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dotsch, H.

H. Dotsch, N. Bahlmann, O. Zhuromskyy, M. Hammer, L. Wilkens, R. Gerhardt, and P. Hertel, “Applications of magneto-optical waveguides in integrated optics: review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B73(1), 240–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dotsch, “Waveguide optical isolator based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(16), 2158–2160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fratello, V. J.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. J. Fratello, “Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.8(7), 903–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, J.

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dotsch, “Waveguide optical isolator based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(16), 2158–2160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Futakuchi, N.

Gerhardt, R.

H. Dotsch, N. Bahlmann, O. Zhuromskyy, M. Hammer, L. Wilkens, R. Gerhardt, and P. Hertel, “Applications of magneto-optical waveguides in integrated optics: review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B73(1), 240–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, S.

Hamada, H.

Y. Sobu, H. Hamada, and T. Mizumoto, “GaInAsP/InP waveguide dual core spot size converter for optical fiber,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference2011 (Arington, VA2011), pp. 469–470.
[CrossRef]

Hammer, M.

H. Dotsch, N. Bahlmann, O. Zhuromskyy, M. Hammer, L. Wilkens, R. Gerhardt, and P. Hertel, “Applications of magneto-optical waveguides in integrated optics: review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B73(1), 240–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hegde, H.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. J. Fratello, “Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.8(7), 903–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, P.

H. Dotsch, N. Bahlmann, O. Zhuromskyy, M. Hammer, L. Wilkens, R. Gerhardt, and P. Hertel, “Applications of magneto-optical waveguides in integrated optics: review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B73(1), 240–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, I. W.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, “Magneto-optic isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, I.-W.

Hu, J.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ibrahim, S. K.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wüst, and R. Noé, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated with III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ito, M.

Jiang, P.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Keyvavinia, S.

Kim, D. H.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koshizuka, N.

K. Ando, T. Okoshi, and N. Koshizuka, “Waveguide magnet-optic isolator fabricated by laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.53(1), 4–6 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kromer, H.

Lagae, L.

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. Le Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Le Gouezigou, O.

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. Le Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Levy, M.

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dotsch, “Waveguide optical isolator based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(16), 2158–2160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. J. Fratello, “Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.8(7), 903–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Make, D.

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. Le Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Makimoto, T.

S. Yamamoto, Y. Okamura, and T. Makimoto, “Analysis and design of semileaky-type thin-film optical waveguide isolator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.12(12), 764–770 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Mizumoto, T.

S. Ghosh, S. Keyvavinia, W. Van Roy, T. Mizumoto, G. Roelkens, and R. Baets, “Ce:YIG/Silicon-on-insulator waveguide optical isolator realized by adhesive bonding,” Opt. Express20(2), 1839–1848 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shoji, M. Ito, Y. Shirato, and T. Mizumoto, “MZI optical isolator with Si-wire waveguides by surface-activated direct bonding,” Opt. Express20(16), 18440–18448 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mizumoto, R. Takei, and Y. Shoji, “Waveguide optical isolators for integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 252–260 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Tien, T. Mizumoto, P. Pintus, H. Kromer, and J. E. Bowers, “Silicon ring isolators with bonded nonreciprocal magneto-optic garnets,” Opt. Express19(12), 11740–11745 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sakurai, K. Abe, and T. Mizumoto, “Relaxation of thermal stress in direct bonding by partitioning the bonding area for fabrication of optical isolator with semiconductor guiding layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(11), 112401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, “Magneto-optic isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shoji, I.-W. Hsieh, R. M. Osgood, and T. Mizumoto, “Polarization-independent magneto-optical waveguide isolator using TM-mode nonreciprocal phase shift,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(10), 3108–3113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, and Y. Nakano, “Demonstration of an optical isolator with a semiconductor guiding layer that was obtained by use of a nonreciprocal phase shift,” Appl. Opt.39(33), 6158–6164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sobu, H. Hamada, and T. Mizumoto, “GaInAsP/InP waveguide dual core spot size converter for optical fiber,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference2011 (Arington, VA2011), pp. 469–470.
[CrossRef]

Y. Sobu, K. Sakurai, Y. Shoji, and T. Mizumoto, “GaInAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometric waveguide optical isolator integrated with spot size converter,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference2012 (Burlingame, CA2012), pp. 909–910.
[CrossRef]

Moeyersoon, B.

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. Le Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, Y.

Noé, R.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wüst, and R. Noé, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated with III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okamura, Y.

S. Yamamoto, Y. Okamura, and T. Makimoto, “Analysis and design of semileaky-type thin-film optical waveguide isolator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.12(12), 764–770 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Okoshi, T.

K. Ando, T. Okoshi, and N. Koshizuka, “Waveguide magnet-optic isolator fabricated by laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.53(1), 4–6 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Osgood, R. M.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, “Magneto-optic isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shoji, I.-W. Hsieh, R. M. Osgood, and T. Mizumoto, “Polarization-independent magneto-optical waveguide isolator using TM-mode nonreciprocal phase shift,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(10), 3108–3113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dotsch, “Waveguide optical isolator based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(16), 2158–2160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. J. Fratello, “Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.8(7), 903–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pintus, P.

Roelkens, G.

Ross, C. A.

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sakurai, K.

K. Sakurai, K. Abe, and T. Mizumoto, “Relaxation of thermal stress in direct bonding by partitioning the bonding area for fabrication of optical isolator with semiconductor guiding layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(11), 112401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sobu, K. Sakurai, Y. Shoji, and T. Mizumoto, “GaInAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometric waveguide optical isolator integrated with spot size converter,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference2012 (Burlingame, CA2012), pp. 909–910.
[CrossRef]

Sandel, D.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wüst, and R. Noé, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated with III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, H.

Shinjo, N.

Shintaku, T.

T. Shintaku, “Integrated optical isolator based on efficient nonreciprocal radiation mode conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 1946–1948 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shirato, Y.

Shoji, Y.

Y. Shoji, M. Ito, Y. Shirato, and T. Mizumoto, “MZI optical isolator with Si-wire waveguides by surface-activated direct bonding,” Opt. Express20(16), 18440–18448 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mizumoto, R. Takei, and Y. Shoji, “Waveguide optical isolators for integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 252–260 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, “Magneto-optic isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shoji, I.-W. Hsieh, R. M. Osgood, and T. Mizumoto, “Polarization-independent magneto-optical waveguide isolator using TM-mode nonreciprocal phase shift,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(10), 3108–3113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sobu, K. Sakurai, Y. Shoji, and T. Mizumoto, “GaInAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometric waveguide optical isolator integrated with spot size converter,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference2012 (Burlingame, CA2012), pp. 909–910.
[CrossRef]

Sobu, Y.

Y. Sobu, K. Sakurai, Y. Shoji, and T. Mizumoto, “GaInAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometric waveguide optical isolator integrated with spot size converter,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference2012 (Burlingame, CA2012), pp. 909–910.
[CrossRef]

Y. Sobu, H. Hamada, and T. Mizumoto, “GaInAsP/InP waveguide dual core spot size converter for optical fiber,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference2011 (Arington, VA2011), pp. 469–470.
[CrossRef]

Takei, R.

T. Mizumoto, R. Takei, and Y. Shoji, “Waveguide optical isolators for integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 252–260 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tien, M. C.

Van Parys, W.

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. Le Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Van Roy, W.

Van Thourhout, D.

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. Le Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vanheertum, R.

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. Le Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vanwolleghem, M.

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. Le Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wilkens, L.

H. Dotsch, N. Bahlmann, O. Zhuromskyy, M. Hammer, L. Wilkens, R. Gerhardt, and P. Hertel, “Applications of magneto-optical waveguides in integrated optics: review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B73(1), 240–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dotsch, “Waveguide optical isolator based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(16), 2158–2160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wolfe, R.

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. J. Fratello, “Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.8(7), 903–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wüst, F.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wüst, and R. Noé, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated with III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

S. Yamamoto, Y. Okamura, and T. Makimoto, “Analysis and design of semileaky-type thin-film optical waveguide isolator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.12(12), 764–770 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Yokoi, H.

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, “Magneto-optic isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yokoi, T. Mizumoto, N. Shinjo, N. Futakuchi, and Y. Nakano, “Demonstration of an optical isolator with a semiconductor guiding layer that was obtained by use of a nonreciprocal phase shift,” Appl. Opt.39(33), 6158–6164 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wüst, and R. Noé, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated with III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhuromskyy, O.

H. Dotsch, N. Bahlmann, O. Zhuromskyy, M. Hammer, L. Wilkens, R. Gerhardt, and P. Hertel, “Applications of magneto-optical waveguides in integrated optics: review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B73(1), 240–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

Y. Shoji, T. Mizumoto, H. Yokoi, I. W. Hsieh, and R. M. Osgood, “Magneto-optic isolator with silicon waveguides fabricated by direct bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 071117 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Ando, T. Okoshi, and N. Koshizuka, “Waveguide magnet-optic isolator fabricated by laser annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.53(1), 4–6 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Shintaku, “Integrated optical isolator based on efficient nonreciprocal radiation mode conversion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(14), 1946–1948 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Fujita, M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, L. Wilkens, and H. Dotsch, “Waveguide optical isolator based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(16), 2158–2160 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. Van Parys, B. Moeyersoon, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, M. Vanwolleghem, B. Dagens, J. Decobert, O. Le Gouezigou, D. Make, R. Vanheertum, and L. Lagae, “Transverse magnetic mode nonreciprocal propagation in an amplifying AlGaInAs/InP optical waveguide isolator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(7), 071115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. Mizumoto, R. Takei, and Y. Shoji, “Waveguide optical isolators for integrated optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 252–260 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Yamamoto, Y. Okamura, and T. Makimoto, “Analysis and design of semileaky-type thin-film optical waveguide isolator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.12(12), 764–770 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Bhandare, S. K. Ibrahim, D. Sandel, H. Zhang, F. Wüst, and R. Noé, “Novel nonmagnetic 30-dB traveling-wave single-sideband optical isolator integrated with III/V material,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(2), 417–421 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Levy, R. M. Osgood, H. Hegde, F. J. Cadieu, R. Wolfe, and V. J. Fratello, “Integrated optical isolators with sputter-deposited thin-film magnets,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.8(7), 903–905 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Adachi, “Refractive indices of III-V compounds: Key properties of InGaAsP relevant to device design,” J. Appl. Phys.53(8), 5863–5869 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

H. Dotsch, N. Bahlmann, O. Zhuromskyy, M. Hammer, L. Wilkens, R. Gerhardt, and P. Hertel, “Applications of magneto-optical waveguides in integrated optics: review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B73(1), 240–253 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Sakurai, K. Abe, and T. Mizumoto, “Relaxation of thermal stress in direct bonding by partitioning the bonding area for fabrication of optical isolator with semiconductor guiding layer,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(11), 112401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

L. Bi, J. Hu, P. Jiang, D. H. Kim, G. F. Dionne, L. C. Kimerling, and C. A. Ross, “On-chip optical isolation in monolithically integrated non-reciprocal optical resonators,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 758–762 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Other (2)

Y. Sobu, K. Sakurai, Y. Shoji, and T. Mizumoto, “GaInAsP Mach-Zehnder interferometric waveguide optical isolator integrated with spot size converter,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference2012 (Burlingame, CA2012), pp. 909–910.
[CrossRef]

Y. Sobu, H. Hamada, and T. Mizumoto, “GaInAsP/InP waveguide dual core spot size converter for optical fiber,” in Proceedings of IEEE Photonics Conference2011 (Arington, VA2011), pp. 469–470.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of a GaInAsP MZI optical isolator integrated with SSC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated NPS as a function of GaInAsP thickness at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The Faraday rotation coefficient of the Ce:YIG upper cladding layer is −4500°/cm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a)The schematic illustration of 2 × 3 MMI coupler. The illustration of (b)constructive (in-phase) and (c)destructive (anti-phase) interferences.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a)The isolators after the direct bonding. (b), (c)The SEM images of cracks observed on the GaInAsP waveguide.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The microscope image of the sample after the direct bonding under the improved conditions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temperature dependence of bonding strength measured by a die shear test.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Schematic illustration of the fabricated isolator equipped with SSCs at both input and output facets. (b) Measured transmittance of the optical isolator integrated with SSCs. The FSR is 13.6 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transmittance of the waveguide optical isolator with an FSR of 95 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Breakdown of the insertion loss of the isolator

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