Abstract

Fast, precise 3-D measurement of discontinuous step-structures fabricated on microelectronic products is essential for quality assurance of semiconductor chips, flat panel displays, and photovoltaic cells. Optical surface profilers of low-coherence interferometry have long been used for the purpose, but the vertical scanning range and speed are limited by the micro-actuators available today. Besides, the lateral field-of-view extendable for a single measurement is restricted by the low spatial coherence of broadband light sources. Here, we cope with the limitations of the conventional low-coherence interferometer by exploiting unique characteristics of femtosecond laser pulses, i.e., low temporal but high spatial coherence. By scanning the pulse repetition rate with direct reference to the Rb atomic clock, step heights of ~69.6 μm are determined with a repeatability of 10.3 nm. The spatial coherence of femtosecond pulses provides a large field-of-view with superior visibility, allowing for a high volume measurement rate of ~24,000 mm3/s.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. F. Al-Sarawi, D. Abbott, and P. A. Franzon, “A review of 3-D packaging technology,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech.21(1), 2–14 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop.50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. S. Patti, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits and the future of system-on-chip designs,” Proc. IEEE94(6), 1214–1224 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Khan, V. S. Rao, S. Lim, H. S. We, V. Lee, X. Zhang, E. B. Liao, R. Nagarajan, T. C. Chai, V. Kripesh, and J. H. Lau, “Development of 3D silicon module with TSV for system in packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech.33(1), 3–9 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. C. Wyant, “Interferometric optical metrology: basic principles and new systems,” Laser Focus18, 65–71 (1982).
  6. K. V. Creath, “Phase-measurement interferometry techniques,” Prog. Opt.26, 349–393 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. de Groot, “Measurement of transparent plates with wavelength-tuned phase-shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt.39(16), 2658–2663 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. P. J. Caber, “Interferometric profiler for rough surfaces,” Appl. Opt.32(19), 3438–3441 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. Deck and P. de Groot, “High-speed noncontact profiler based on scanning white-light interferometry,” Appl. Opt.33(31), 7334–7338 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S.-W. Kim and G.-H. Kim, “Thickness-profile measurement of transparent thin-film layers by white-light scanning interferometry,” Appl. Opt.38(28), 5968–5973 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. M. A. Choma, M. V. Sarunic, C. Yang, and J. Izatt, “Sensitivity advantage of swept source and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express11(18), 2183–2189 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. Schwider, “White-light Fizeau interferometer,” Appl. Opt.36(7), 1433–1437 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. S.-W. Kim, “Metrology: Combs rule,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 313–314 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Ye, “Absolute measurement of a long, arbitrary distance to less than an optical fringe,” Opt. Lett.29(10), 1153–1155 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. A. van den Berg, S. T. Persijn, G. J. P. Kok, M. G. Zeitouny, and N. Bhattacharya, “Many-wavelength interferometry with Thousands of lasers for absolute distance measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(18), 183901 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, Y. Bitou, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Displacement metrology with sub-pm resolution in air based on a fs-comb wavelength synthesizer,” Opt. Express14(13), 5984–5993 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. N. Schuhler, Y. Salvadé, S. Lévêque, R. Dändliker, and R. Holzwarth, “Frequency-comb-referenced two-wavelength source for absolute distance measurement,” Opt. Lett.31(21), 3101–3103 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 351–356 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 716–720 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. S. Oh and S.-W. Kim, “Femtosecond laser pulses for surface-profile metrology,” Opt. Lett.30(19), 2650–2652 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D. Wei, S. Takahashi, K. Takamasu, and H. Matsumoto, “Analysis of the temporal coherence function of a femtosecond optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express17(9), 7011–7018 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. Jin, J. W. Kim, C.-S. Kang, J.-A. Kim, and S. Lee, “Precision depth measurement of through silicon vias (TSVs) on 3D semiconductor packaging process,” Opt. Express20(5), 5011–5016 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. G. Taurand, P. Giaccari, J.-D. Deschênes, and J. Genest, “Time-domain optical reflectometry measurements using a frequency comb interferometer,” Appl. Opt.49(23), 4413–4419 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. S. Kray, F. Spöler, M. Först, and H. Kurz, “Dual femtosecond laser multiheterodyne optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett.33(18), 2092–2094 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. S. Kray, F. Spöler, T. Hellerer, and H. Kurz, “Electronically controlled coherent linear optical sampling for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express18(10), 9976–9990 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. G. Sucha, M. E. Fermann, D. J. Harter, and M. Hofer, “A new method for rapid temporal scanning of ultrafast lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 605–621 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  31. T. Hochrein, R. Wilk, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, N. Krumbholz, and M. Koch, “Optical sampling by laser cavity tuning,” Opt. Express18(2), 1613–1617 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. R. Wilk, T. Hochrein, M. Koch, M. Mei, and R. Holzwarth, “Terahertz spectrometer operation by laser repetition frequency tuning,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B28(4), 592–595 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  33. S. Potvin, S. Boudreau, J.-D. Deschênes, and J. Genest, “Fully referenced single-comb interferometry using optical sampling by laser-cavity tuning,” Appl. Opt.52(2), 248–255 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. W.-D. Joo, J. Park, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and Y.-J. Kim, “Phase-shifting interferometry for large-sized surface measurements by sweeping the repetition rate of femtosecond light pulses,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.14(2), 241–246 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  35. J. You, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “GPU-accelerated white-light scanning interferometer for large-area, high-speed surface profile measurements,” Int. J. Nanom.8(1/2), 31–39 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  36. I.-B. Kong and S.-W. Kim, “General algorithm of phase-shifting interferometry by iterative least-squares fitting,” Opt. Eng.34(1), 183–188 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  37. K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

2013 (2)

W.-D. Joo, J. Park, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and Y.-J. Kim, “Phase-shifting interferometry for large-sized surface measurements by sweeping the repetition rate of femtosecond light pulses,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.14(2), 241–246 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Potvin, S. Boudreau, J.-D. Deschênes, and J. Genest, “Fully referenced single-comb interferometry using optical sampling by laser-cavity tuning,” Appl. Opt.52(2), 248–255 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

J. Jin, J. W. Kim, C.-S. Kang, J.-A. Kim, and S. Lee, “Precision depth measurement of through silicon vias (TSVs) on 3D semiconductor packaging process,” Opt. Express20(5), 5011–5016 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. You, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “GPU-accelerated white-light scanning interferometer for large-area, high-speed surface profile measurements,” Int. J. Nanom.8(1/2), 31–39 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. A. van den Berg, S. T. Persijn, G. J. P. Kok, M. G. Zeitouny, and N. Bhattacharya, “Many-wavelength interferometry with Thousands of lasers for absolute distance measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(18), 183901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (5)

N. Khan, V. S. Rao, S. Lim, H. S. We, V. Lee, X. Zhang, E. B. Liao, R. Nagarajan, T. C. Chai, V. Kripesh, and J. H. Lau, “Development of 3D silicon module with TSV for system in packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech.33(1), 3–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 716–720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hochrein, R. Wilk, M. Mei, R. Holzwarth, N. Krumbholz, and M. Koch, “Optical sampling by laser cavity tuning,” Opt. Express18(2), 1613–1617 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kray, F. Spöler, T. Hellerer, and H. Kurz, “Electronically controlled coherent linear optical sampling for optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express18(10), 9976–9990 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Taurand, P. Giaccari, J.-D. Deschênes, and J. Genest, “Time-domain optical reflectometry measurements using a frequency comb interferometer,” Appl. Opt.49(23), 4413–4419 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

D. Wei, S. Takahashi, K. Takamasu, and H. Matsumoto, “Analysis of the temporal coherence function of a femtosecond optical frequency comb,” Opt. Express17(9), 7011–7018 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Kim, “Metrology: Combs rule,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 313–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2006 (4)

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, Y. Bitou, F. L. Hong, H. Inaba, A. Onae, and H. Matsumoto, “Displacement metrology with sub-pm resolution in air based on a fs-comb wavelength synthesizer,” Opt. Express14(13), 5984–5993 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Schuhler, Y. Salvadé, S. Lévêque, R. Dändliker, and R. Holzwarth, “Frequency-comb-referenced two-wavelength source for absolute distance measurement,” Opt. Lett.31(21), 3101–3103 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop.50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Patti, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits and the future of system-on-chip designs,” Proc. IEEE94(6), 1214–1224 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. de Groot, “Measurement of transparent plates with wavelength-tuned phase-shifting interferometry,” Appl. Opt.39(16), 2658–2663 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

S. F. Al-Sarawi, D. Abbott, and P. A. Franzon, “A review of 3-D packaging technology,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech.21(1), 2–14 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

G. Sucha, M. E. Fermann, D. J. Harter, and M. Hofer, “A new method for rapid temporal scanning of ultrafast lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 605–621 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

I.-B. Kong and S.-W. Kim, “General algorithm of phase-shifting interferometry by iterative least-squares fitting,” Opt. Eng.34(1), 183–188 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

K. V. Creath, “Phase-measurement interferometry techniques,” Prog. Opt.26, 349–393 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. C. Wyant, “Interferometric optical metrology: basic principles and new systems,” Laser Focus18, 65–71 (1982).

Abbott, D.

S. F. Al-Sarawi, D. Abbott, and P. A. Franzon, “A review of 3-D packaging technology,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech.21(1), 2–14 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Al-Sarawi, S. F.

S. F. Al-Sarawi, D. Abbott, and P. A. Franzon, “A review of 3-D packaging technology,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech.21(1), 2–14 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baade, D.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Baruffolo, A.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Begeman, K. G.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Bender, R.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Bernstein, K.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop.50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, N.

S. A. van den Berg, S. T. Persijn, G. J. P. Kok, M. G. Zeitouny, and N. Bhattacharya, “Many-wavelength interferometry with Thousands of lasers for absolute distance measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(18), 183901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bitou, Y.

Bortolussi, A.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Boudreau, S.

Boxhoorn, D.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Caber, P. J.

Cappellaro, E.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Cascone, E.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Chai, T. C.

N. Khan, V. S. Rao, S. Lim, H. S. We, V. Lee, X. Zhang, E. B. Liao, R. Nagarajan, T. C. Chai, V. Kripesh, and J. H. Lau, “Development of 3D silicon module with TSV for system in packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech.33(1), 3–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choma, M. A.

Christen, F.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Creath, K. V.

K. V. Creath, “Phase-measurement interferometry techniques,” Prog. Opt.26, 349–393 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dändliker, R.

de Groot, P.

de Pizzol, L.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Deck, L.

Deschênes, J.-D.

Deul, E. R.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fermann, M. E.

G. Sucha, M. E. Fermann, D. J. Harter, and M. Hofer, “A new method for rapid temporal scanning of ultrafast lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 605–621 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Flotte, T.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Först, M.

Frank, D. J.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop.50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Franzon, P. A.

S. F. Al-Sarawi, D. Abbott, and P. A. Franzon, “A review of 3-D packaging technology,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech.21(1), 2–14 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fujimoto, J.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geimer, C.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Genest, J.

Giaccari, P.

Greggio, L.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Gregory, K.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guarini, K. W.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop.50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Häfner, R.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harke, R.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Harter, D. J.

G. Sucha, M. E. Fermann, D. J. Harter, and M. Hofer, “A new method for rapid temporal scanning of ultrafast lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 605–621 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hee, M. R.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hellerer, T.

Hess, G.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Hess, H.-J.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Hochrein, T.

Hofer, M.

G. Sucha, M. E. Fermann, D. J. Harter, and M. Hofer, “A new method for rapid temporal scanning of ultrafast lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 605–621 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

Hong, F. L.

Hopp, U.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Huang, D.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ieong, M.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop.50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ilijevski, I.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Inaba, H.

Iwert, O.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Izatt, J.

Jin, J.

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joo, W.-D.

W.-D. Joo, J. Park, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and Y.-J. Kim, “Phase-shifting interferometry for large-sized surface measurements by sweeping the repetition rate of femtosecond light pulses,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.14(2), 241–246 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kang, C.-S.

Khan, N.

N. Khan, V. S. Rao, S. Lim, H. S. We, V. Lee, X. Zhang, E. B. Liao, R. Nagarajan, T. C. Chai, V. Kripesh, and J. H. Lau, “Development of 3D silicon module with TSV for system in packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech.33(1), 3–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.-H.

Kim, J. W.

Kim, J.-A.

Kim, S.

W.-D. Joo, J. Park, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and Y.-J. Kim, “Phase-shifting interferometry for large-sized surface measurements by sweeping the repetition rate of femtosecond light pulses,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.14(2), 241–246 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W.-D. Joo, J. Park, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and Y.-J. Kim, “Phase-shifting interferometry for large-sized surface measurements by sweeping the repetition rate of femtosecond light pulses,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.14(2), 241–246 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-W.

W.-D. Joo, J. Park, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and Y.-J. Kim, “Phase-shifting interferometry for large-sized surface measurements by sweeping the repetition rate of femtosecond light pulses,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.14(2), 241–246 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. You, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “GPU-accelerated white-light scanning interferometer for large-area, high-speed surface profile measurements,” Int. J. Nanom.8(1/2), 31–39 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 716–720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Kim, “Metrology: Combs rule,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 313–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Oh and S.-W. Kim, “Femtosecond laser pulses for surface-profile metrology,” Opt. Lett.30(19), 2650–2652 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-W. Kim and G.-H. Kim, “Thickness-profile measurement of transparent thin-film layers by white-light scanning interferometry,” Appl. Opt.38(28), 5968–5973 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-B. Kong and S.-W. Kim, “General algorithm of phase-shifting interferometry by iterative least-squares fitting,” Opt. Eng.34(1), 183–188 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

W.-D. Joo, J. Park, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and Y.-J. Kim, “Phase-shifting interferometry for large-sized surface measurements by sweeping the repetition rate of femtosecond light pulses,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.14(2), 241–246 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-J.

W.-D. Joo, J. Park, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and Y.-J. Kim, “Phase-shifting interferometry for large-sized surface measurements by sweeping the repetition rate of femtosecond light pulses,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.14(2), 241–246 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. You, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “GPU-accelerated white-light scanning interferometer for large-area, high-speed surface profile measurements,” Int. J. Nanom.8(1/2), 31–39 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 716–720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Klink, G.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Knight, J. C.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, M.

Kok, G. J. P.

S. A. van den Berg, S. T. Persijn, G. J. P. Kok, M. G. Zeitouny, and N. Bhattacharya, “Many-wavelength interferometry with Thousands of lasers for absolute distance measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(18), 183901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kong, I.-B.

I.-B. Kong and S.-W. Kim, “General algorithm of phase-shifting interferometry by iterative least-squares fitting,” Opt. Eng.34(1), 183–188 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kravcar, H.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Kray, S.

Kripesh, V.

N. Khan, V. S. Rao, S. Lim, H. S. We, V. Lee, X. Zhang, E. B. Liao, R. Nagarajan, T. C. Chai, V. Kripesh, and J. H. Lau, “Development of 3D silicon module with TSV for system in packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech.33(1), 3–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krumbholz, N.

Kuijken, K.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Kumar, A.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop.50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

La Tulipe, D. C.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop.50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lau, J. H.

N. Khan, V. S. Rao, S. Lim, H. S. We, V. Lee, X. Zhang, E. B. Liao, R. Nagarajan, T. C. Chai, V. Kripesh, and J. H. Lau, “Development of 3D silicon module with TSV for system in packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech.33(1), 3–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 716–720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 716–720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

J. Jin, J. W. Kim, C.-S. Kang, J.-A. Kim, and S. Lee, “Precision depth measurement of through silicon vias (TSVs) on 3D semiconductor packaging process,” Opt. Express20(5), 5011–5016 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 716–720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, V.

N. Khan, V. S. Rao, S. Lim, H. S. We, V. Lee, X. Zhang, E. B. Liao, R. Nagarajan, T. C. Chai, V. Kripesh, and J. H. Lau, “Development of 3D silicon module with TSV for system in packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech.33(1), 3–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lévêque, S.

Liao, E. B.

N. Khan, V. S. Rao, S. Lim, H. S. We, V. Lee, X. Zhang, E. B. Liao, R. Nagarajan, T. C. Chai, V. Kripesh, and J. H. Lau, “Development of 3D silicon module with TSV for system in packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech.33(1), 3–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S.

N. Khan, V. S. Rao, S. Lim, H. S. We, V. Lee, X. Zhang, E. B. Liao, R. Nagarajan, T. C. Chai, V. Kripesh, and J. H. Lau, “Development of 3D silicon module with TSV for system in packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech.33(1), 3–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. P.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lizon, J. L.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Magagna, C. E.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Matsumoto, H.

Mei, M.

Minoshima, K.

Mitsch, W.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Müller, Ph.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Muschielok, B.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Nagarajan, R.

N. Khan, V. S. Rao, S. Lim, H. S. We, V. Lee, X. Zhang, E. B. Liao, R. Nagarajan, T. C. Chai, V. Kripesh, and J. H. Lau, “Development of 3D silicon module with TSV for system in packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech.33(1), 3–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nenadovic, L.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nicklas, H.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Niemeczek, R.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Oh, J. S.

Onae, A.

Park, J.

W.-D. Joo, J. Park, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and Y.-J. Kim, “Phase-shifting interferometry for large-sized surface measurements by sweeping the repetition rate of femtosecond light pulses,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.14(2), 241–246 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Patti, R. S.

R. S. Patti, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits and the future of system-on-chip designs,” Proc. IEEE94(6), 1214–1224 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Persijn, S. T.

S. A. van den Berg, S. T. Persijn, G. J. P. Kok, M. G. Zeitouny, and N. Bhattacharya, “Many-wavelength interferometry with Thousands of lasers for absolute distance measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(18), 183901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poschmann, H.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Potvin, S.

Puliafito, C. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rao, V. S.

N. Khan, V. S. Rao, S. Lim, H. S. We, V. Lee, X. Zhang, E. B. Liao, R. Nagarajan, T. C. Chai, V. Kripesh, and J. H. Lau, “Development of 3D silicon module with TSV for system in packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech.33(1), 3–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reif, K.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Rengelink, R.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Reyes, J.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Russell, P. S. J.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salvadé, Y.

Sarunic, M. V.

Schibli, T. R.

Schuhler, N.

Schuman, J. S.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwider, J.

Shi, L.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop.50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Silber, A.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Singco, G. U.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop.50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spöler, F.

Steen, S. E.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop.50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stinson, W. G.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sucha, G.

G. Sucha, M. E. Fermann, D. J. Harter, and M. Hofer, “A new method for rapid temporal scanning of ultrafast lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 605–621 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W. C.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, E. A.

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, S.

Takamasu, K.

Taurand, G.

Topol, A. W.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop.50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, Th.

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentijn, E. A.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

van den Berg, S. A.

S. A. van den Berg, S. T. Persijn, G. J. P. Kok, M. G. Zeitouny, and N. Bhattacharya, “Many-wavelength interferometry with Thousands of lasers for absolute distance measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(18), 183901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

We, H. S.

N. Khan, V. S. Rao, S. Lim, H. S. We, V. Lee, X. Zhang, E. B. Liao, R. Nagarajan, T. C. Chai, V. Kripesh, and J. H. Lau, “Development of 3D silicon module with TSV for system in packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech.33(1), 3–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wei, D.

Wellem, W.

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Wilk, R.

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wyant, J. C.

J. C. Wyant, “Interferometric optical metrology: basic principles and new systems,” Laser Focus18, 65–71 (1982).

Yang, C.

Ye, J.

You, J.

J. You, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “GPU-accelerated white-light scanning interferometer for large-area, high-speed surface profile measurements,” Int. J. Nanom.8(1/2), 31–39 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Young, A. M.

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop.50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zeitouny, M. G.

S. A. van den Berg, S. T. Persijn, G. J. P. Kok, M. G. Zeitouny, and N. Bhattacharya, “Many-wavelength interferometry with Thousands of lasers for absolute distance measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(18), 183901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

N. Khan, V. S. Rao, S. Lim, H. S. We, V. Lee, X. Zhang, E. B. Liao, R. Nagarajan, T. C. Chai, V. Kripesh, and J. H. Lau, “Development of 3D silicon module with TSV for system in packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech.33(1), 3–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

IBM J. Res. Develop. (1)

A. W. Topol, D. C. La Tulipe, L. Shi, D. J. Frank, K. Bernstein, S. E. Steen, A. Kumar, G. U. Singco, A. M. Young, K. W. Guarini, and M. Ieong, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits,” IBM J. Res. Develop.50(4.5), 491–506 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Sucha, M. E. Fermann, D. J. Harter, and M. Hofer, “A new method for rapid temporal scanning of ultrafast lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 605–621 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech. (2)

S. F. Al-Sarawi, D. Abbott, and P. A. Franzon, “A review of 3-D packaging technology,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech.21(1), 2–14 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Khan, V. S. Rao, S. Lim, H. S. We, V. Lee, X. Zhang, E. B. Liao, R. Nagarajan, T. C. Chai, V. Kripesh, and J. H. Lau, “Development of 3D silicon module with TSV for system in packaging,” IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Tech.33(1), 3–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Nanom. (1)

J. You, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “GPU-accelerated white-light scanning interferometer for large-area, high-speed surface profile measurements,” Int. J. Nanom.8(1/2), 31–39 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf. (1)

W.-D. Joo, J. Park, S. Kim, S. Kim, Y. Kim, S.-W. Kim, and Y.-J. Kim, “Phase-shifting interferometry for large-sized surface measurements by sweeping the repetition rate of femtosecond light pulses,” Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.14(2), 241–246 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Focus (1)

J. C. Wyant, “Interferometric optical metrology: basic principles and new systems,” Laser Focus18, 65–71 (1982).

Nat. Photonics (3)

S.-W. Kim, “Metrology: Combs rule,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 313–314 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, L. Nenadovic, and N. R. Newbury, “Rapid and precise absolute distance measurements at long range,” Nat. Photonics3(6), 351–356 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, K. Lee, S. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Time-of-flight measurement with femtosecond light pulses,” Nat. Photonics4(10), 716–720 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

Th. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

I.-B. Kong and S.-W. Kim, “General algorithm of phase-shifting interferometry by iterative least-squares fitting,” Opt. Eng.34(1), 183–188 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

S. A. van den Berg, S. T. Persijn, G. J. P. Kok, M. G. Zeitouny, and N. Bhattacharya, “Many-wavelength interferometry with Thousands of lasers for absolute distance measurement,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(18), 183901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

R. S. Patti, “Three-dimensional integrated circuits and the future of system-on-chip designs,” Proc. IEEE94(6), 1214–1224 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Opt. (1)

K. V. Creath, “Phase-measurement interferometry techniques,” Prog. Opt.26, 349–393 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

D. Huang, E. A. Swanson, C. P. Lin, J. S. Schuman, W. G. Stinson, W. Chang, M. R. Hee, T. Flotte, K. Gregory, C. A. Puliafito, and J. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography,” Science254(5035), 1178–1181 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

The Messenger (1)

K. Kuijken, R. Bender, E. Cappellaro, B. Muschielok, A. Baruffolo, E. Cascone, O. Iwert, W. Mitsch, H. Nicklas, E. A. Valentijn, D. Baade, K. G. Begeman, A. Bortolussi, D. Boxhoorn, F. Christen, E. R. Deul, C. Geimer, L. Greggio, R. Harke, R. Häfner, G. Hess, H.-J. Hess, U. Hopp, I. Ilijevski, G. Klink, H. Kravcar, J. L. Lizon, C. E. Magagna, Ph. Müller, R. Niemeczek, L. de Pizzol, H. Poschmann, K. Reif, R. Rengelink, J. Reyes, A. Silber, and W. Wellem, “OmegaCAM: the 16k×16k CCD camera for the VLT survey telescope,” The Messenger110, 15–18 (2002).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Low-coherence scanning interferometer using femtosecond pulses for 3-D profilometry of microelectronic step-structures. (a) Optical configuration of unequal-path interferometry. (b) Relative time shift between the reference and measurement pulses during the repetition rate (fr) scanning. (c) The OPD scanning range vs. the unequal-path length for three different fr-tuning ranges: PZT (piezoelectric ceramic), EOM (electro-optical modulator), and motorized stage. Abbreviations are; SMF: single-mode fiber, DCF: dispersion compensating fiber, DM: dichroic mirror, PPLN: periodically poled lithium niobate, Lc: cavity length of the laser oscillator.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Management of the femtosecond light pulses. (a) Pulse duration measured by interferometric autocorrelation is 90 fs at full-width-half-maximum (FWHM). (b) Optical spectrum centered at 1560 nm. (c) Frequency stability of the repetition rate is 2.9 × 10−12 at 1-s averaging in terms of Allan deviation. Inset: time trace of the repetition rate at 1-s sampling rate. (d) Pulse duration of frequency-doubled reference pulses is 83 fs at FWHM. (e) Optical spectrum of frequency-doubled reference pulses. (f) Optical spectrum of frequency-doubled measurement pulses. (g) Low-coherence interferogram measured as a function of the repetition rate. (h) Magnified view of the low-coherence interferogram near the envelope peak. The sinusoidal carrier is clearly resolved inside the pulse envelope.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

3-D profile reconstruction algorithm. The weighted centroid algorithm is combined with the arbitrary bucket algorithm; the former locates the envelope peak of the low-coherence interferogram to eliminate the 2π ambiguity and the latter determines the position of the phase peak of the optical carrier signal with high precision. Abbreviations: Ixy: intensity at pixel (x,y), zk : k-th scanning depth, ∆Ik : intensity difference between two consecutive scanning depths of zk and zk-1, wk : weighting factor, Zc(x,y): surface height at pixel (x,y) determined by the centroid algorithm, Num: numerator part of Zc, Den: denominator part of Zc, Zk,c: nearest zk to Zc, Zf (x,y): final surface height at pixel (x,y).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measurement of high step-structures. (a) Interferograms obtained during fr-scan using a PZT. The repetition rate was varied from 99.37902000 to 99.37942000 MHz with a 0.04 Hz increment (60 nm scan step). Upper five interferograms were taken from the top surface of the specimen and the lower five interferograms from the bottom surface. (b) Reconstructed 3-D profile showing step heights of ~69.6 μm. (c) Sectional profiles along lines A-A’, B-B’, and C-C’. (d) Measurement repeatability over 15 consecutive measurements at five sample bumps with the weighted centroid algorithm is 45.1 nm (1-σ). It scales down to 21.4 nm using the combined algorithm of Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Rapid measurement. (a) Interferograms obtained during fr-scanning with an intra-cavity EOM. The repetition rate was tuned with an increment of 0.02 Hz (30 nm scan step). (b) Reconstructed 3-D height map showing ~1.13 μm step heights. (c) Sectional profiles along lines A-A’, B-B’, and C-C’. (d) Measurement repeatability over 15 consecutive measurements is 10.3 nm (1-σ).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Step-height measurement over a large FOV. (a) Reconstructed 3-D profile of step structures over a wide FOV of 14.5 mm in diameter. (b) A unbalanced non-symmetric low-coherence interferometer design with an extended FOV: the high spatial coherence of femtosecond laser pulses enables non-symmetric interferometer design and the repetitive temporal coherence along with a long unbalanced optical delay provides a long range of OPD scanning. As a result, a superior volume measurement rate could be achieved with the advent of the high-speed multiple CCDs array [37]. Abbreviations are; L: lens, DCF: dispersion compensating fiber, DM: dichroic mirror.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ΔD=mc( τ f τ i )=mc( f r,f 1 f r,i 1 )mc( Δ f r f r 2 ),
I( Δz )= I o [ 1+γ(hΔz)cos( 2k( hΔz ) ) ],
h( x,y )= [ w(z) | ΔI'(z) | 2 ] zdz [ w(z) | ΔI'(z) | 2 ] dz .

Metrics