Abstract

We developed a thermo-optic (TO) mode extinction modulator based on graphene plasmonic waveguide. For compact device design and fabrication, the graphene plasmonic waveguide and heating element are configured all-in-one. Thermally induced inhomogeneous refractive-index distribution of the polymer near the microribbon cut off the long-range surface plasmon polariton (LRSPP) stripe mode propagating along a graphene microribbon. Numerical modeling are conducted on the time-dependent temperature (and hence the refractive-index) distribution by resistive heating element inside the graphene TO modulator. Experimental results demonstrate 30 dB attenuation with 12 mW electrical power injection at a telecom wavelength and exhibit a good agreement with the thermal modeling.

©2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. A. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, “New electromagnetic mode in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 016803 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(3), 484–588 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. T. Kim and S.-Y. Choi, “Graphene-based plasmonic waveguides for photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24557–24562 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. J. T. Kim and C.-G. Choi, “Graphene-based polymer waveguide polarizer,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3556–3562 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. Q. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene photonics, plasmonics, and broadband optoelectronic devices,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. T. Kim, J. Kim, H. Choi, C.-G. Choi, and S.-Y. Choi, “Graphene-based photonic devices for soft hybrid optoelectronic systems,” Nanotechnology 23(34), 344005 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  15. I. Breukelaar, R. Charbonneau, and P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton mode cutoff and radiation in embedded strip waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 043104 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  17. G. Gagnon, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Thermally activated variable attenuation of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waves,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(11), 4391–4402 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  18. J. Kang, H. Kim, K. S. Kim, S.-K. Lee, S. Bae, J.-H. Ahn, Y.-J. Kim, J.-B. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “High-performance graphene-based transparent flexible heaters,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5154–5158 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

Q. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene photonics, plasmonics, and broadband optoelectronic devices,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Kim, J. Kim, H. Choi, C.-G. Choi, and S.-Y. Choi, “Graphene-based photonic devices for soft hybrid optoelectronic systems,” Nanotechnology 23(34), 344005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. T. Kim and C.-G. Choi, “Graphene-based polymer waveguide polarizer,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3556–3562 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

J. T. Kim and S.-Y. Choi, “Graphene-based plasmonic waveguides for photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24557–24562 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kang, H. Kim, K. S. Kim, S.-K. Lee, S. Bae, J.-H. Ahn, Y.-J. Kim, J.-B. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “High-performance graphene-based transparent flexible heaters,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5154–5158 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon polaritons,” Adv. Opt. Photon. 1(3), 484–588 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. A. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, “New electromagnetic mode in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 016803 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

I. Breukelaar, R. Charbonneau, and P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton mode cutoff and radiation in embedded strip waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 043104 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. Gagnon, N. Lahoud, G. Mattiussi, and P. Berini, “Thermally activated variable attenuation of long-range surface plasmon-polariton waves,” J. Lightwave Technol. 24(11), 4391–4402 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.-H.

J. Kang, H. Kim, K. S. Kim, S.-K. Lee, S. Bae, J.-H. Ahn, Y.-J. Kim, J.-B. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “High-performance graphene-based transparent flexible heaters,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5154–5158 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Avouris, P.

T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bae, S.

J. Kang, H. Kim, K. S. Kim, S.-K. Lee, S. Bae, J.-H. Ahn, Y.-J. Kim, J.-B. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “High-performance graphene-based transparent flexible heaters,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5154–5158 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene photonics, plasmonics, and broadband optoelectronic devices,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Berini, P.

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[Crossref]

Breukelaar, I.

I. Breukelaar, R. Charbonneau, and P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton mode cutoff and radiation in embedded strip waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 043104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Buljan, H.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Charbonneau, R.

I. Breukelaar, R. Charbonneau, and P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton mode cutoff and radiation in embedded strip waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 043104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choi, C.-G.

J. T. Kim, J. Kim, H. Choi, C.-G. Choi, and S.-Y. Choi, “Graphene-based photonic devices for soft hybrid optoelectronic systems,” Nanotechnology 23(34), 344005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Kim and C.-G. Choi, “Graphene-based polymer waveguide polarizer,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3556–3562 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, H.

J. T. Kim, J. Kim, H. Choi, C.-G. Choi, and S.-Y. Choi, “Graphene-based photonic devices for soft hybrid optoelectronic systems,” Nanotechnology 23(34), 344005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J.-B.

J. Kang, H. Kim, K. S. Kim, S.-K. Lee, S. Bae, J.-H. Ahn, Y.-J. Kim, J.-B. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “High-performance graphene-based transparent flexible heaters,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5154–5158 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, S.-Y.

J. T. Kim, J. Kim, H. Choi, C.-G. Choi, and S.-Y. Choi, “Graphene-based photonic devices for soft hybrid optoelectronic systems,” Nanotechnology 23(34), 344005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. T. Kim and S.-Y. Choi, “Graphene-based plasmonic waveguides for photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24557–24562 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gagnon, G.

Geim, A. K.

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geng, B.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hanson, G. W.

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hong, B. H.

J. Kang, H. Kim, K. S. Kim, S.-K. Lee, S. Bae, J.-H. Ahn, Y.-J. Kim, J.-B. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “High-performance graphene-based transparent flexible heaters,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5154–5158 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jablan, M.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ju, L.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J.

J. Kang, H. Kim, K. S. Kim, S.-K. Lee, S. Bae, J.-H. Ahn, Y.-J. Kim, J.-B. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “High-performance graphene-based transparent flexible heaters,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5154–5158 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

J. Kang, H. Kim, K. S. Kim, S.-K. Lee, S. Bae, J.-H. Ahn, Y.-J. Kim, J.-B. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “High-performance graphene-based transparent flexible heaters,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5154–5158 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J.

J. T. Kim, J. Kim, H. Choi, C.-G. Choi, and S.-Y. Choi, “Graphene-based photonic devices for soft hybrid optoelectronic systems,” Nanotechnology 23(34), 344005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. T.

Kim, K. S.

J. Kang, H. Kim, K. S. Kim, S.-K. Lee, S. Bae, J.-H. Ahn, Y.-J. Kim, J.-B. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “High-performance graphene-based transparent flexible heaters,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5154–5158 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-J.

J. Kang, H. Kim, K. S. Kim, S.-K. Lee, S. Bae, J.-H. Ahn, Y.-J. Kim, J.-B. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “High-performance graphene-based transparent flexible heaters,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5154–5158 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lahoud, N.

Lee, S.-K.

J. Kang, H. Kim, K. S. Kim, S.-K. Lee, S. Bae, J.-H. Ahn, Y.-J. Kim, J.-B. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “High-performance graphene-based transparent flexible heaters,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5154–5158 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leosson, K.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lim, C. H. Y. X.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Loh, K. P.

Q. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene photonics, plasmonics, and broadband optoelectronic devices,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mattiussi, G.

Mikhailov, S. A.

S. A. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, “New electromagnetic mode in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 016803 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mueller, T.

T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nikolajsen, T.

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[Crossref]

Novoselov, K. S.

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polini, M.

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Soljacic, M.

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tang, D. Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ulin-Avila, E.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, B.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xia, F.

T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yin, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ziegler, K.

S. A. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, “New electromagnetic mode in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 016803 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

Q. Bao and K. P. Loh, “Graphene photonics, plasmonics, and broadband optoelectronic devices,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3677–3694 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Nikolajsen, K. Leosson, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Surface plasmon polariton based modulators and switches operating at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(24), 5833–5835 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

I. Breukelaar, R. Charbonneau, and P. Berini, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton mode cutoff and radiation in embedded strip waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 043104 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic Green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

J. Kang, H. Kim, K. S. Kim, S.-K. Lee, S. Bae, J.-H. Ahn, Y.-J. Kim, J.-B. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “High-performance graphene-based transparent flexible heaters,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5154–5158 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

J. T. Kim, J. Kim, H. Choi, C.-G. Choi, and S.-Y. Choi, “Graphene-based photonic devices for soft hybrid optoelectronic systems,” Nanotechnology 23(34), 344005 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (4)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Mueller, F. Xia, and P. Avouris, “Graphene photodetectors for high-speed optical communications,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 297–301 (2010).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5(7), 411–415 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. N. Grigorenko, M. Polini, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 6(11), 749–758 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljacic, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B 80(24), 245435 (2009).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. A. Mikhailov and K. Ziegler, “New electromagnetic mode in graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(1), 016803 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic view of the proposed graphene-microribbon-based thermo-optic mode extinction modulator. The LRSPP stripe mode that propagates along the graphene stripe is extinguished (or perturbed) by thermally inducing inhomogeneous refractive-index distribution.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Isometric views of the graphene TO modulator and simulated temperature increase after 12 mW electrical input power is injected. The dimensions of the device are exhibited.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Temperature and (b) refractive-index distribution after 12 mW electrical input power was injected. (c) Temporal behavior of the graphene heater.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Raman spectrum of the transferred graphene on a SiO2/Si substrate. The inset depicts the fabricated graphene microribbon-based modulator. (b) Guided modes of the fabricated graphene-microribbon-based mode extinction modulator. Circular guided mode is cut off when 12 mW electrical input power is injected.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Measured optical power attenuation as a function of applied electrical power and (b) temporal response of the modulator.

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Table 1 Material properties

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