Abstract

Irradiation inside some transparent materials such as fused silica can induce nanograting structures at the focal area. Here, we investigate experimentally how the nanograting formation can be influenced by tuning the ionization property of the transparent material, which is achieved by irradiation inside a porous glass immersed in water doped with NaCl at variable concentrations. Our results show that the doping of NaCl not only reduces the threshold fluence of optical breakdown, but also leads to nanograting structures with shorter periods. These effects may be attributed to the enhanced photoionization in water doped with NaCl.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (2)

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, Y. L. Shen, L. L. Qiao, D. P. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50 nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett.38(2), 187–189 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (10)

S. Richter, F. Jia, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, U. Peschel, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “The role of self-trapped excitons and defects in the formation of nanogratings in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 482–484 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Liang, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “Mechanism of nanograting formation on the surface of fused silica,” Opt. Express20(4), 4389–4396 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Mauclair, M. Zamfirescu, J. P. Colombier, G. Cheng, K. Mishchik, E. Audouard, and R. Stoian, “Control of ultrafast laser-induced bulk nanogratings in fused silica via pulse time envelopes,” Opt. Express20(12), 12997–13005 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičus, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, and A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 053120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Doring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, T. Asai, K. Miura, K. Hirao, and P. G. Kazansky, “Evolution of self-assembled nanostructure in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7, 338–344 (2012).

G. Miyaji, K. Zhang, J. Fujita, and K. Miyazaki, “Nanostructuring of silicon surface with femtosecond laser-induced near-field,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(2), 198–201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Femtosecond laser processing for optofluidic fabrication,” Lab Chip12(19), 3576–3589 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Doering, A. Tuennermann, and S. Nolte, “Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(2), 503–507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

P. G. Kazansky and Y. Shimotsuma, “Self-assembled sub-wavelength structures and form birefringence created by femtosecond laser writing in glass: properties and applications,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.116(1358), 1052–1062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y. Yonezaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(10-11), 885–892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci.197, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven microexplosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1991 (1)

I. V. Hertel, C. Hüglin, C. Nitsch, and C. P. Schulz, “Photoionization of Na(NH3)n and Na(H2O)n clusters: A step towards the liquid phase?” Phys. Rev. Lett.67(13), 1767–1770 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ams, M.

Araki, R.

Y. Yonezaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(10-11), 885–892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Asai, T.

Y. Shimotsuma, T. Asai, K. Miura, K. Hirao, and P. G. Kazansky, “Evolution of self-assembled nanostructure in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7, 338–344 (2012).

Audouard, E.

Barrot, F.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bellouard, Y.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Beresna, M.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičus, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, and A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 053120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bottinelli, S.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Breguet, J.-M.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Champion, A.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chappuis, O.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D. P.

Cheng, G.

Cheng, Y.

Y. Liao, Y. L. Shen, L. L. Qiao, D. P. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50 nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett.38(2), 187–189 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Femtosecond laser processing for optofluidic fabrication,” Lab Chip12(19), 3576–3589 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

Clavel, R.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Colombier, J. P.

Corbari, C.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costache, F.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci.197, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Dekker, P.

Doering, S.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Doering, A. Tuennermann, and S. Nolte, “Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(2), 503–507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Doring, S.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Doring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Döring, S.

Fan, Z.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujita, J.

G. Miyaji, K. Zhang, J. Fujita, and K. Miyazaki, “Nanostructuring of silicon surface with femtosecond laser-induced near-field,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(2), 198–201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, K.

Y. Yonezaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(10-11), 885–892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gamaly, E. G.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gecevicius, M.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gecevicus, M.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičus, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, and A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 053120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Glezer, E. N.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven microexplosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hallo, L.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, F.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinrich, M.

S. Richter, F. Jia, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, U. Peschel, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “The role of self-trapped excitons and defects in the formation of nanogratings in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 482–484 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Doring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Doering, A. Tuennermann, and S. Nolte, “Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(2), 503–507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Henyk, M.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci.197, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hertel, I. V.

I. V. Hertel, C. Hüglin, C. Nitsch, and C. P. Schulz, “Photoionization of Na(NH3)n and Na(H2O)n clusters: A step towards the liquid phase?” Phys. Rev. Lett.67(13), 1767–1770 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, T. Asai, K. Miura, K. Hirao, and P. G. Kazansky, “Evolution of self-assembled nanostructure in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7, 338–344 (2012).

Y. Yonezaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(10-11), 885–892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoenninger, C.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hopper, M.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hüglin, C.

I. V. Hertel, C. Hüglin, C. Nitsch, and C. P. Schulz, “Photoionization of Na(NH3)n and Na(H2O)n clusters: A step towards the liquid phase?” Phys. Rev. Lett.67(13), 1767–1770 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jia, F.

Juodkazis, S.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kavokin, A. V.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičus, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, and A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 053120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičus, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, and A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 053120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, T. Asai, K. Miura, K. Hirao, and P. G. Kazansky, “Evolution of self-assembled nanostructure in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7, 338–344 (2012).

P. G. Kazansky and Y. Shimotsuma, “Self-assembled sub-wavelength structures and form birefringence created by femtosecond laser writing in glass: properties and applications,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.116(1358), 1052–1062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kral, M.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lenssen, B.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, E.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, F.

Liao, Y.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, Y. L. Shen, L. L. Qiao, D. P. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50 nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett.38(2), 187–189 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, C.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez, J.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luther-Davies, B.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mabillard, Y.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G. D.

Matteucci, M.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, J. C. F.

Mauclair, C.

Mazur, E.

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven microexplosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Liao, Y. L. Shen, L. L. Qiao, D. P. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50 nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett.38(2), 187–189 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Misawa, H.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishchik, K.

Miura, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, T. Asai, K. Miura, K. Hirao, and P. G. Kazansky, “Evolution of self-assembled nanostructure in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7, 338–344 (2012).

Y. Yonezaki, K. Miura, R. Araki, K. Fujita, and K. Hirao, “Space-selective precipitation of non-linear optical crystals inside silicate glasses using near-infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids351(10-11), 885–892 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miyaji, G.

G. Miyaji, K. Zhang, J. Fujita, and K. Miyazaki, “Nanostructuring of silicon surface with femtosecond laser-induced near-field,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(2), 198–201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Miyazaki, K.

G. Miyaji, K. Zhang, J. Fujita, and K. Miyazaki, “Nanostructuring of silicon surface with femtosecond laser-induced near-field,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(2), 198–201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mottay, E.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nicolai, P.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishimura, K.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nitsch, C.

I. V. Hertel, C. Hüglin, C. Nitsch, and C. P. Schulz, “Photoionization of Na(NH3)n and Na(H2O)n clusters: A step towards the liquid phase?” Phys. Rev. Lett.67(13), 1767–1770 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nolte, S.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Doring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Richter, F. Jia, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, U. Peschel, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “The role of self-trapped excitons and defects in the formation of nanogratings in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 482–484 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Doering, A. Tuennermann, and S. Nolte, “Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(2), 503–507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, J. L.

Pandelov, S. V.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci.197, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, U.

S. Richter, F. Jia, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, U. Peschel, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “The role of self-trapped excitons and defects in the formation of nanogratings in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 482–484 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Doring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Politi, A.

Qiao, L. L.

Qiu, J. R.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajeev, P. P.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rayner, D. M.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reif, J.

J. Reif, F. Costache, M. Henyk, and S. V. Pandelov, “Ripples revisited: non-classical morphology at the bottom of femtosecond laser ablation craters in transparent dielectrics,” Appl. Surf. Sci.197, 891–895 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richter, S.

S. Richter, F. Jia, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, U. Peschel, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “The role of self-trapped excitons and defects in the formation of nanogratings in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 482–484 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Doring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Doering, A. Tuennermann, and S. Nolte, “Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(2), 503–507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schaap, A.

Y. Bellouard, A. Champion, B. Lenssen, M. Matteucci, A. Schaap, M. Beresna, C. Corbari, M. Gecevičius, P. Kazansky, O. Chappuis, M. Kral, R. Clavel, F. Barrot, J.-M. Breguet, Y. Mabillard, S. Bottinelli, M. Hopper, C. Hoenninger, E. Mottay, and J. Lopez, “The femtoprint project,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7(1), 1–10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, C. P.

I. V. Hertel, C. Hüglin, C. Nitsch, and C. P. Schulz, “Photoionization of Na(NH3)n and Na(H2O)n clusters: A step towards the liquid phase?” Phys. Rev. Lett.67(13), 1767–1770 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. L.

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, T. Asai, K. Miura, K. Hirao, and P. G. Kazansky, “Evolution of self-assembled nanostructure in glass,” J. Laser Micro/Nanoeng.7, 338–344 (2012).

P. G. Kazansky and Y. Shimotsuma, “Self-assembled sub-wavelength structures and form birefringence created by femtosecond laser writing in glass: properties and applications,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn.116(1358), 1052–1062 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. R. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simova, E.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, J.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoian, R.

Sugimoto, N.

Sugioka, K.

Y. Liao, Y. L. Shen, L. L. Qiao, D. P. Chen, Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Femtosecond laser nanostructuring in porous glass with sub-50 nm feature sizes,” Opt. Lett.38(2), 187–189 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sugioka and Y. Cheng, “Femtosecond laser processing for optofluidic fabrication,” Lab Chip12(19), 3576–3589 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, S.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, R.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, T.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičus, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, and A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 053120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

S. Juodkazis, K. Nishimura, S. Tanaka, H. Misawa, E. G. Gamaly, B. Luther-Davies, L. Hallo, P. Nicolai, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Laser-induced microexplosion confined in the bulk of a sapphire crystal: evidence of multimegabar pressures,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(16), 166101 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tuennermann, A.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Doering, A. Tuennermann, and S. Nolte, “Formation of femtosecond laser-induced nanogratings at high repetition rates,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.104(2), 503–507 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

S. Richter, F. Jia, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, U. Peschel, A. Tünnermann, and S. Nolte, “The role of self-trapped excitons and defects in the formation of nanogratings in fused silica,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 482–484 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Doring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, R.

Wei, X.

Y. Liao, Y. Cheng, C. Liu, J. Song, F. He, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Z. Xu, Z. Fan, X. Wei, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Direct laser writing of sub-50 nm nanofluidic channels buried in glass for three-dimensional micro-nanofluidic integration,” Lab Chip13(8), 1626–1631 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Withford, M. J.

Xu, Z.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Chen and J. R. Vazquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining”, Laser Photonics Rev. (2013) / DOI 10.1002/lpor.201300025

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of formation of nanograting structures inside a porous glass immersed in liquid by femtosecond laser irradiation. The sample is translated in the y direction, the writing polarization is aligned to the X axis, and the laser incident direction is along the Z axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Nanogratings formed in porous glass by irradiation with femtosecond laser beams at threshold fluences in different immersion liquids. (a) water, (b) 0.01 M of NaCl solution, (c) 0.06 M of NaCl solution, and (d) 0.1M of the same solution. The pulse energies in (a-d) can be derived to be 300 nJ, 252 nJ, 240 nJ, and 208 nJ from the average powers, respectively. (e) Dependence of the threshold fluence of single-crack formation on the concentration of NaCl. (f) Dependence of the threshold fluence of optical breakdown in plain NaCl solution on the concentration of NaCl.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Nanogratings formed in porous glass by irradiation with femtosecond laser beams at a fixed power of 75 mW (i. e., corresponding to a pulse energy of 300 nJ) in different immersion liquids. (a) Water, (b) 0.01 M of NaCl solution, and (c) 0.6 M of NaCl solution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The dependence of nanograting period on laser power at different doping concentrations of NaCl.

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