Abstract

We propose a novel approach to generate and tune a hot spot in a dipole nanostructure of vanadium dioxide (VO2) laid on a gold (Au) substrate. By inducing a phase transition of the VO2, the spatial and spectral distributions of the hot spot generated in the feed gap of the dipole can be tuned. Our numerical simulation based on a finite-element method shows a strong intensity enhancement difference and tunability near the wavelength of 678 nm, where the hot spot shows 172-fold intensity enhancement when VO2 is in the semiconductor phase. The physical mechanisms of forming the hot spots at the two-different phases are discussed. Based on our analysis, the effects of geometric parameters in our dipole structure are investigated with an aim of enhancing the intensity and the tunability. We hope that the proposed nanostructure opens up a practical approach for the tunable near-field nano-photonic devices.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (1)

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev.7(2), 273–279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

Z. Yang, C. Ko, and S. Ramanathan, “Oxide electronics utilizing ultrafast metal-insulator transitions,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.41(1), 337–367 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Appavoo and R. F. Haglund., “Detecting nanoscale size dependence in VO2 phase transition using a split-ring resonator metamaterial,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1025–1031 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

D. Ruzmetov, G. Gopalakrishnan, C. Ko, V. Narayanamurti, and S. Ramanathan, “Three-terminal field effect devices utilizing thin film vanadium oxide as the channel layer,” J. Appl. Phys.107(11), 114516 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Briggs, I. M. Pryce, and H. A. Atwater, “Compact silicon photonic waveguide modulator based on the vanadium dioxide metal-insulator phase transition,” Opt. Express18(11), 11192–11201 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lee, I.-M. Lee, S. Kim, D.-H. Oh, and L. Hesselink, “Review on subwavelength confinement of light with plasmonics,” J. Mod. Opt.57(16), 1479–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Peng, Y. Peng, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, “Heat-assisted magnetic recording by a near-field transducer with efficient optical energy transfer,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 220–224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Tunable directional beaming from subwavelength metal slits with metal-dielectric composite surface gratings,” Opt. Lett.34(17), 2569–2571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Phase-transition driven memristive system,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(4), 043503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Dicken, K. Aydin, I. M. Pryce, L. A. Sweatlock, E. M. Boyd, S. Walavalkar, J. Ma, and H. A. Atwater, “Frequency tunable near-infrared metamaterials based on VO2 phase transition,” Opt. Express17(20), 18330–18339 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (2)

B.-J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, B.-G. Chae, S. J. Yun, S.-Y. Oh, H.-T. Kim, and Y.-S. Lim, “Temperature dependence of the first-order metal-insulator transition in VO2 and programmable critical temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(2), 023515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Gai, J. Wang, and Q. Tian, “Modified Debye model parameters of metals applicable for broadband calculations,” Appl. Opt.46(12), 2229–2233 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

J. Y. Suh, E. U. Donev, R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Modulated optical transmission of subwavelength hole arrays in metal-VO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 133115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Lysenko, A. J. Rua, V. Vikhnin, J. Jimenez, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “Light-induced ultrafast phase transitions in VO2 thin film,” Appl. Surf. Sci.252(15), 5512–5515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Enhanced optical near field from a bowtie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(15), 153110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, E. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. Chong, J. Kieffer, and R. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B70(16), 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Cavalleri, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, B. S. Mun, H. A. Padmore, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Picosecond soft X-ray absorption measurement of the photo-induced insulator-to-metal transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B69(15), 153106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

G. Stefanovich, A. Pergament, and D. Stefanovich, “Electrical switching and Mott transition in VO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter12(41), 8837–8845 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. F. Becker, B. Buckman, R. M. Walser, T. Lépine, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Femtosecond laser excitation of the semiconductor-metal phase transition in VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(12), 1507 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Andryieuski, A.

Anger, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appavoo, K.

K. Appavoo and R. F. Haglund., “Detecting nanoscale size dependence in VO2 phase transition using a split-ring resonator metamaterial,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1025–1031 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

Avlasevich, Y.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

Basov, D. N.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Phase-transition driven memristive system,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(4), 043503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Becker, M. F.

M. F. Becker, B. Buckman, R. M. Walser, T. Lépine, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Femtosecond laser excitation of the semiconductor-metal phase transition in VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(12), 1507 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bharadwaj, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biagi, G.

Biagioni, P.

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(2), 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, E. M.

Briggs, R. M.

Brun, A.

M. F. Becker, B. Buckman, R. M. Walser, T. Lépine, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Femtosecond laser excitation of the semiconductor-metal phase transition in VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(12), 1507 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Buckman, B.

M. F. Becker, B. Buckman, R. M. Walser, T. Lépine, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Femtosecond laser excitation of the semiconductor-metal phase transition in VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(12), 1507 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

E. Cubukcu, E. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cavalleri, A.

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. Chong, J. Kieffer, and R. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B70(16), 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Cavalleri, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, B. S. Mun, H. A. Padmore, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Picosecond soft X-ray absorption measurement of the photo-induced insulator-to-metal transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B69(15), 153106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chae, B.-G.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Phase-transition driven memristive system,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(4), 043503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, B.-G. Chae, S. J. Yun, S.-Y. Oh, H.-T. Kim, and Y.-S. Lim, “Temperature dependence of the first-order metal-insulator transition in VO2 and programmable critical temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(2), 023515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Challener, W. A.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Peng, Y. Peng, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, “Heat-assisted magnetic recording by a near-field transducer with efficient optical energy transfer,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 220–224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H.

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. Chong, J. Kieffer, and R. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B70(16), 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chong, H. H. W.

A. Cavalleri, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, B. S. Mun, H. A. Padmore, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Picosecond soft X-ray absorption measurement of the photo-induced insulator-to-metal transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B69(15), 153106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crozier, K. B.

E. Cubukcu, E. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cubukcu, E.

E. Cubukcu, E. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dekorsy, T.

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. Chong, J. Kieffer, and R. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B70(16), 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Di Ventra, M.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Phase-transition driven memristive system,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(4), 043503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dicken, M. J.

Donev, E. U.

J. Y. Suh, E. U. Donev, R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Modulated optical transmission of subwavelength hole arrays in metal-VO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 133115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, T.

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Phase-transition driven memristive system,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(4), 043503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, L. C.

J. Y. Suh, E. U. Donev, R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Modulated optical transmission of subwavelength hole arrays in metal-VO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 133115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, F.

S. Lysenko, A. J. Rua, V. Vikhnin, J. Jimenez, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “Light-induced ultrafast phase transitions in VO2 thin film,” Appl. Surf. Sci.252(15), 5512–5515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H.

Fourmaux, S.

A. Cavalleri, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, B. S. Mun, H. A. Padmore, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Picosecond soft X-ray absorption measurement of the photo-induced insulator-to-metal transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B69(15), 153106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fu, L.

Gage, E. C.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Peng, Y. Peng, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, “Heat-assisted magnetic recording by a near-field transducer with efficient optical energy transfer,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 220–224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gai, H.

Georges, P.

M. F. Becker, B. Buckman, R. M. Walser, T. Lépine, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Femtosecond laser excitation of the semiconductor-metal phase transition in VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(12), 1507 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

Glover, T. E.

A. Cavalleri, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, B. S. Mun, H. A. Padmore, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Picosecond soft X-ray absorption measurement of the photo-induced insulator-to-metal transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B69(15), 153106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gokemeijer, N. J.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Peng, Y. Peng, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, “Heat-assisted magnetic recording by a near-field transducer with efficient optical energy transfer,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 220–224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gopalakrishnan, G.

D. Ruzmetov, G. Gopalakrishnan, C. Ko, V. Narayanamurti, and S. Ramanathan, “Three-terminal field effect devices utilizing thin film vanadium oxide as the channel layer,” J. Appl. Phys.107(11), 114516 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

Haglund, R. F.

K. Appavoo and R. F. Haglund., “Detecting nanoscale size dependence in VO2 phase transition using a split-ring resonator metamaterial,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1025–1031 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Suh, E. U. Donev, R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Modulated optical transmission of subwavelength hole arrays in metal-VO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 133115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hecht, B.

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(2), 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heimann, P. A.

A. Cavalleri, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, B. S. Mun, H. A. Padmore, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Picosecond soft X-ray absorption measurement of the photo-induced insulator-to-metal transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B69(15), 153106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hesselink, L.

B. Lee, I.-M. Lee, S. Kim, D.-H. Oh, and L. Hesselink, “Review on subwavelength confinement of light with plasmonics,” J. Mod. Opt.57(16), 1479–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hiroi, Z.

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Holmgaard, T.

Hsia, Y.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Peng, Y. Peng, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, “Heat-assisted magnetic recording by a near-field transducer with efficient optical energy transfer,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 220–224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.-S.

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(2), 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itagi, A. V.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Peng, Y. Peng, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, “Heat-assisted magnetic recording by a near-field transducer with efficient optical energy transfer,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 220–224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jimenez, J.

S. Lysenko, A. J. Rua, V. Vikhnin, J. Jimenez, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “Light-induced ultrafast phase transitions in VO2 thin film,” Appl. Surf. Sci.252(15), 5512–5515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jin, E. X.

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Enhanced optical near field from a bowtie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(15), 153110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ju, G.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Peng, Y. Peng, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, “Heat-assisted magnetic recording by a near-field transducer with efficient optical energy transfer,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 220–224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karns, D.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Peng, Y. Peng, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, “Heat-assisted magnetic recording by a near-field transducer with efficient optical energy transfer,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 220–224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J.

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. Chong, J. Kieffer, and R. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B70(16), 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J. C.

A. Cavalleri, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, B. S. Mun, H. A. Padmore, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Picosecond soft X-ray absorption measurement of the photo-induced insulator-to-metal transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B69(15), 153106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.-J.

G. Seo, B.-J. Kim, H.-T. Kim, and Y. W. Lee, “Photo-assisted electrical oscillation in two-terminal device based on vanadium dioxide thin film,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(16), 2718–2724 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, B.-G. Chae, S. J. Yun, S.-Y. Oh, H.-T. Kim, and Y.-S. Lim, “Temperature dependence of the first-order metal-insulator transition in VO2 and programmable critical temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(2), 023515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

Kim, H.-T.

G. Seo, B.-J. Kim, H.-T. Kim, and Y. W. Lee, “Photo-assisted electrical oscillation in two-terminal device based on vanadium dioxide thin film,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(16), 2718–2724 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Phase-transition driven memristive system,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(4), 043503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, B.-G. Chae, S. J. Yun, S.-Y. Oh, H.-T. Kim, and Y.-S. Lim, “Temperature dependence of the first-order metal-insulator transition in VO2 and programmable critical temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(2), 023515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev.7(2), 273–279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

B. Lee, I.-M. Lee, S. Kim, D.-H. Oh, and L. Hesselink, “Review on subwavelength confinement of light with plasmonics,” J. Mod. Opt.57(16), 1479–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kinkhabwala, A.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ko, C.

Z. Yang, C. Ko, and S. Ramanathan, “Oxide electronics utilizing ultrafast metal-insulator transitions,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.41(1), 337–367 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Ruzmetov, G. Gopalakrishnan, C. Ko, V. Narayanamurti, and S. Ramanathan, “Three-terminal field effect devices utilizing thin film vanadium oxide as the channel layer,” J. Appl. Phys.107(11), 114516 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kort, E.

E. Cubukcu, E. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lavrinenko, A.

Lee, B.

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev.7(2), 273–279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, I.-M. Lee, S. Kim, D.-H. Oh, and L. Hesselink, “Review on subwavelength confinement of light with plasmonics,” J. Mod. Opt.57(16), 1479–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. Park, and B. Lee, “Tunable directional beaming from subwavelength metal slits with metal-dielectric composite surface gratings,” Opt. Lett.34(17), 2569–2571 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, I.-M.

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev.7(2), 273–279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Lee, I.-M. Lee, S. Kim, D.-H. Oh, and L. Hesselink, “Review on subwavelength confinement of light with plasmonics,” J. Mod. Opt.57(16), 1479–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev.7(2), 273–279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev.7(2), 273–279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev.7(2), 273–279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. W.

G. Seo, B.-J. Kim, H.-T. Kim, and Y. W. Lee, “Photo-assisted electrical oscillation in two-terminal device based on vanadium dioxide thin film,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(16), 2718–2724 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, B.-G. Chae, S. J. Yun, S.-Y. Oh, H.-T. Kim, and Y.-S. Lim, “Temperature dependence of the first-order metal-insulator transition in VO2 and programmable critical temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(2), 023515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lépine, T.

M. F. Becker, B. Buckman, R. M. Walser, T. Lépine, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Femtosecond laser excitation of the semiconductor-metal phase transition in VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(12), 1507 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y.-S.

B.-J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, B.-G. Chae, S. J. Yun, S.-Y. Oh, H.-T. Kim, and Y.-S. Lim, “Temperature dependence of the first-order metal-insulator transition in VO2 and programmable critical temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(2), 023515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

S. Lysenko, A. J. Rua, V. Vikhnin, J. Jimenez, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “Light-induced ultrafast phase transitions in VO2 thin film,” Appl. Surf. Sci.252(15), 5512–5515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, N.

Lopez, R.

J. Y. Suh, E. U. Donev, R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Modulated optical transmission of subwavelength hole arrays in metal-VO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 133115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lysenko, S.

S. Lysenko, A. J. Rua, V. Vikhnin, J. Jimenez, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “Light-induced ultrafast phase transitions in VO2 thin film,” Appl. Surf. Sci.252(15), 5512–5515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

Malureanu, R.

Martin, O. J. F.

Meyrath, T. P.

Moerner, W. E.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Müllen, K.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mun, B. S.

A. Cavalleri, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, B. S. Mun, H. A. Padmore, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Picosecond soft X-ray absorption measurement of the photo-induced insulator-to-metal transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B69(15), 153106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, M.

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Narayanamurti, V.

D. Ruzmetov, G. Gopalakrishnan, C. Ko, V. Narayanamurti, and S. Ramanathan, “Three-terminal field effect devices utilizing thin film vanadium oxide as the channel layer,” J. Appl. Phys.107(11), 114516 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, D.-H.

B. Lee, I.-M. Lee, S. Kim, D.-H. Oh, and L. Hesselink, “Review on subwavelength confinement of light with plasmonics,” J. Mod. Opt.57(16), 1479–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oh, S.-Y.

B.-J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, B.-G. Chae, S. J. Yun, S.-Y. Oh, H.-T. Kim, and Y.-S. Lim, “Temperature dependence of the first-order metal-insulator transition in VO2 and programmable critical temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(2), 023515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Padmore, H. A.

A. Cavalleri, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, B. S. Mun, H. A. Padmore, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Picosecond soft X-ray absorption measurement of the photo-induced insulator-to-metal transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B69(15), 153106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

Peng, C.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Peng, Y. Peng, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, “Heat-assisted magnetic recording by a near-field transducer with efficient optical energy transfer,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 220–224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peng, W.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Peng, Y. Peng, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, “Heat-assisted magnetic recording by a near-field transducer with efficient optical energy transfer,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 220–224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peng, Y.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Peng, Y. Peng, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, “Heat-assisted magnetic recording by a near-field transducer with efficient optical energy transfer,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 220–224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pergament, A.

G. Stefanovich, A. Pergament, and D. Stefanovich, “Electrical switching and Mott transition in VO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter12(41), 8837–8845 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pryce, I. M.

Ramanathan, S.

Z. Yang, C. Ko, and S. Ramanathan, “Oxide electronics utilizing ultrafast metal-insulator transitions,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.41(1), 337–367 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Ruzmetov, G. Gopalakrishnan, C. Ko, V. Narayanamurti, and S. Ramanathan, “Three-terminal field effect devices utilizing thin film vanadium oxide as the channel layer,” J. Appl. Phys.107(11), 114516 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rottmayer, R. E.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Peng, Y. Peng, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, “Heat-assisted magnetic recording by a near-field transducer with efficient optical energy transfer,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 220–224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rua, A. J.

S. Lysenko, A. J. Rua, V. Vikhnin, J. Jimenez, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “Light-induced ultrafast phase transitions in VO2 thin film,” Appl. Surf. Sci.252(15), 5512–5515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ruzmetov, D.

D. Ruzmetov, G. Gopalakrishnan, C. Ko, V. Narayanamurti, and S. Ramanathan, “Three-terminal field effect devices utilizing thin film vanadium oxide as the channel layer,” J. Appl. Phys.107(11), 114516 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schoenlein, R.

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. Chong, J. Kieffer, and R. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B70(16), 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schoenlein, R. W.

A. Cavalleri, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, B. S. Mun, H. A. Padmore, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Picosecond soft X-ray absorption measurement of the photo-induced insulator-to-metal transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B69(15), 153106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, H.

Seigler, M. A.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Peng, Y. Peng, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, “Heat-assisted magnetic recording by a near-field transducer with efficient optical energy transfer,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 220–224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Seo, G.

Stefanovich, D.

G. Stefanovich, A. Pergament, and D. Stefanovich, “Electrical switching and Mott transition in VO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter12(41), 8837–8845 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Stefanovich, G.

G. Stefanovich, A. Pergament, and D. Stefanovich, “Electrical switching and Mott transition in VO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter12(41), 8837–8845 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Suemoto, T.

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Suh, J. Y.

J. Y. Suh, E. U. Donev, R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Modulated optical transmission of subwavelength hole arrays in metal-VO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 133115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sweatlock, L. A.

Takubo, N.

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Q.

Ueda, Y.

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vikhnin, V.

S. Lysenko, A. J. Rua, V. Vikhnin, J. Jimenez, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “Light-induced ultrafast phase transitions in VO2 thin film,” Appl. Surf. Sci.252(15), 5512–5515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Walavalkar, S.

Walser, R. M.

M. F. Becker, B. Buckman, R. M. Walser, T. Lépine, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Femtosecond laser excitation of the semiconductor-metal phase transition in VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(12), 1507 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Won, J.-Y.

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev.7(2), 273–279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X.

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Enhanced optical near field from a bowtie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(15), 153110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Peng, Y. Peng, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, “Heat-assisted magnetic recording by a near-field transducer with efficient optical energy transfer,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 220–224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

Z. Yang, C. Ko, and S. Ramanathan, “Oxide electronics utilizing ultrafast metal-insulator transitions,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.41(1), 337–367 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. J.

B.-J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, B.-G. Chae, S. J. Yun, S.-Y. Oh, H.-T. Kim, and Y.-S. Lim, “Temperature dependence of the first-order metal-insulator transition in VO2 and programmable critical temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(2), 023515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zentgraf, T.

Zhu, X.

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Peng, Y. Peng, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, “Heat-assisted magnetic recording by a near-field transducer with efficient optical energy transfer,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 220–224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Res. (1)

Z. Yang, C. Ko, and S. Ramanathan, “Oxide electronics utilizing ultrafast metal-insulator transitions,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Res.41(1), 337–367 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

J. Y. Suh, E. U. Donev, R. Lopez, L. C. Feldman, and R. F. Haglund, “Modulated optical transmission of subwavelength hole arrays in metal-VO2 films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(13), 133115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakajima, N. Takubo, Z. Hiroi, Y. Ueda, and T. Suemoto, “Photoinduced metallic state in VO2 proved by the terahertz pump-probe spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011907 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Becker, B. Buckman, R. M. Walser, T. Lépine, P. Georges, and A. Brun, “Femtosecond laser excitation of the semiconductor-metal phase transition in VO2,” Appl. Phys. Lett.65(12), 1507 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, E. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. X. Jin and X. Xu, “Enhanced optical near field from a bowtie aperture,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(15), 153110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Driscoll, H.-T. Kim, B.-G. Chae, M. Di Ventra, and D. N. Basov, “Phase-transition driven memristive system,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(4), 043503 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B.-J. Kim, Y. W. Lee, B.-G. Chae, S. J. Yun, S.-Y. Oh, H.-T. Kim, and Y.-S. Lim, “Temperature dependence of the first-order metal-insulator transition in VO2 and programmable critical temperature sensor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(2), 023515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

S. Lysenko, A. J. Rua, V. Vikhnin, J. Jimenez, F. Fernandez, and H. Liu, “Light-induced ultrafast phase transitions in VO2 thin film,” Appl. Surf. Sci.252(15), 5512–5515 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Ruzmetov, G. Gopalakrishnan, C. Ko, V. Narayanamurti, and S. Ramanathan, “Three-terminal field effect devices utilizing thin film vanadium oxide as the channel layer,” J. Appl. Phys.107(11), 114516 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

B. Lee, I.-M. Lee, S. Kim, D.-H. Oh, and L. Hesselink, “Review on subwavelength confinement of light with plasmonics,” J. Mod. Opt.57(16), 1479–1497 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

G. Stefanovich, A. Pergament, and D. Stefanovich, “Electrical switching and Mott transition in VO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter12(41), 8837–8845 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

S.-Y. Lee, W. Lee, Y. Lee, J.-Y. Won, J. Kim, I.-M. Lee, and B. Lee, “Phase-controlled directional switching of surface plasmon polaritons via beam interference,” Laser Photon. Rev.7(2), 273–279 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

K. Appavoo and R. F. Haglund., “Detecting nanoscale size dependence in VO2 phase transition using a split-ring resonator metamaterial,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1025–1031 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3(11), 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. A. Challener, C. Peng, A. V. Itagi, D. Karns, W. Peng, Y. Peng, X. Yang, X. Zhu, N. J. Gokemeijer, Y. Hsia, G. Ju, R. E. Rottmayer, M. A. Seigler, and E. C. Gage, “Heat-assisted magnetic recording by a near-field transducer with efficient optical energy transfer,” Nat. Photonics3(4), 220–224 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

A. Cavalleri, H. H. W. Chong, S. Fourmaux, T. E. Glover, P. A. Heimann, J. C. Kieffer, B. S. Mun, H. A. Padmore, and R. W. Schoenlein, “Picosecond soft X-ray absorption measurement of the photo-induced insulator-to-metal transition in VO2,” Phys. Rev. B69(15), 153106 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Cavalleri, T. Dekorsy, H. Chong, J. Kieffer, and R. Schoenlein, “Evidence for a structurally-driven insulator-to-metal transition in VO2: A view from the ultrafast timescale,” Phys. Rev. B70(16), 161102 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

P. Biagioni, J.-S. Huang, and B. Hecht, “Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(2), 024402 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

H. Rather, Surface Plasmons (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

M. J. Dicken, “Active oxide nanophotonics,” Ph.D. Thesis, California Institute of Technology (2009).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of our proposed VO2 dipole nanostructure with a reflection configuration: (a) perspective, (b) cross-sectional, and (c) top view

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) VO2 phase-dependent spectral distributions of the intensity enhancement of the hot spots arisen inside of the dipole gap. Their enhancement differences between two phases are also shown as the tunability of the hot spots. The geometrical parameters are as follows: fixed tSiO2 (10 nm), gVO2 (30 nm), wVO2 (100 nm), lVO2 (400 nm), and tVO2 (100 nm). According to the phase of the VO2, two features of the near-fields responses are induced as depicts in the region A and B. (b) The real and imaginary parts of the dielectric functions of VO2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spatial distribution of the normalized intensity in (a, c) semiconductor phase and (b, d) metallic phase at the labeled wavelength (region A). The color scale obtained from the semiconductor phase is equally applied to both phases. Thin white lines denote the geometrical boundaries of the structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The color map shows the Ex field distribution, and the arrows denote the power flow (time averaged) at the semiconductor phase of VO2 ((c) at the metallic phase). (b) The color map represents the Ez field distribution with vector plot of the electric field at the semiconductor phase ((d) at the metallic phase).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral distribution of the intensity enhancement of the hot spot arisen inside of the dipole gap as a function of the (a) dipole length, (b) thickness, and (c) width at semiconductor phase (solid lines) and metallic phase (dotted lines) of the VO2. The other geometrical parameters except the varied one follow the configurations used in Fig. 2. Based on the underlying mechanism of the tunable hot spots, the peak wavelength positions (solid lines) of the intensity enhancement at the semiconductor phase are plotted after solving for the effective index (dotted lines) of the plasmonic mode propagating on the Au substrate at the given geometry (d). The labeled small circles in (d) correspond to the peak wavelength positions of the intensity enhancement obtained from (a)-(c).

Equations (2)

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ε(ω)= ε + ε s ε 1+iωτ + σ iω ε 0 =ε'+iε'',
λ peak,semi Re( n eff ) l VO2 1.25 ,

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