Abstract

The negative refraction and evanescent-wave canalization effects supported by a layered metamaterial structure obtained by alternating dielectric and plasmonic layers is theoretically analyzed. By using a transmission-line analysis, we formulate a way to rapidly analyze the negative refraction operation for given available materials over a broad range of frequencies and design parameters, and we apply it to broaden the bandwidth of negative refraction. Our analytical model is also applied to explore the possibility of employing active layers for loss compensation. Nonlinear dielectrics can also be considered within this approach, and they are explored in order to add tunability to the optical response, realizing positive-to-zero-to-negative refraction at the same frequency, as a function of the input intensity. Our findings may lead to a better physical understanding and improvement of the performance of negative refraction and subwavelength imaging in layered metamaterials, paving the way towards the design of gain-assisted hyperlenses and tunable nonlinear imaging devices.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2013 (1)

R. S. Savelev, I. V. Shadrivov, P. A. Belov, N. N. Rosanov, S. V. Fedorov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Loss compensation in metal-dielectric layered metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B87(11), 115139 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (9)

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, “Topological transitions in metamaterials,” Science336(6078), 205–209 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Guclu, S. Campione, and F. Capolino, “Hyperbolic metamaterial as super absorber for scattered fields generated at its surface,” Phys. Rev. B86(20), 205130 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Biehs, M. Tschikin, and P. Ben-Abdallah, “Hyperbolic metamaterials as an analog of a blackbody in the near field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(10), 104301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Guo, C. L. Cortes, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Broadband super-Planckian thermal emission from hyperbolic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(13), 131106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Lu and Z. Liu, “Hyperlenses and metalenses for far-field super-resolution imaging,” Nat Commun3, 1205 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Cortes, W. Newman, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Quantum nanophotonics using hyperbolic metamaterials,” J. Opt.14(6), 063001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, G. D'Aguano, N. Engheta, and A. Alù, “Boosting optical nonlinearities in epsilon-near-zero plasmonic channels,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 045129 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. V. Naik, J. Liu, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Demonstration of Al:ZnO as a plasmonic component for near-infrared metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(23), 8834–8838 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Argyropoulos, P.-Y. Chen, F. Monticone, G. D’Aguanno, and A. Alù, “Nonlinear plasmonic cloaks to realize giant all-optical scattering switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(26), 263905 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

P.-Y. Chen, M. Farhat, and A. Alù, “Bistable and self-tunable negative-index metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 105503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Orlov, P. M. Voroshilov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Engineered optical nonlocality in nanostructured metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B84(4), 045424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Ni, S. Ishii, M. D. Thoreson, V. M. Shalaev, S. Han, S. Lee, and A. V. Kildishev, “Loss-compensated and active hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Express19(25), 25242–25254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Poddubny, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Spontaneous radiation of a finite-size dipole emitter in hyperbolic media,” Phys. Rev. A84(2), 023807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Optical nanoantenna arrays loaded with nonlinear materials,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Silveirinha and A. B. Yakovlev, “Negative refraction by a uniaxial wire medium with suppressed spatial dispersion,” Phys. Rev. B81(23), 233105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

Y. Sivan, S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Frequency-domain simulations of a negative-index material with embedded gain,” Opt. Express17(26), 24060–24074 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Powell, A. Alù, B. Edwards, A. Vakil, Y. S. Kivshar, and N. Engheta, “Nonlinear control of tunneling through an epsilon-near-zero channel,” Phys. Rev. B79(24), 245135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Silveirinha, “Broadband negative refraction with a crossed wire mesh,” Phys. Rev. B79(15), 153109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y.-J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range,” Science315(5819), 1699–1701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (6)

P. A. Belov and Y. Hao, “Subwavelength imaging at optical frequencies using a transmission device formed by a periodic layered metal-dielectric structure operating in the canalization regime,” Phys. Rev. B73(11), 113110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: Theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B74(7), 075103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system,” Phys. Rev. B74(11), 115116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Govyadinov and V. A. Podolskiy, “Metamaterial photonic funnels for subdiffraction light compression and propagation,” Phys. Rev. B73(15), 155108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, “Optical Hyperlens: Far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express14(18), 8247–8256 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scalora, N. Mattiucci, G. D’Aguanno, M. Larciprete, and M. J. Bloemer, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in one-dimensional metal-dielectric multilayer stacks: ultrawide bandwidth optical limiting,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.73(1), 016603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2000 (1)

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alekseyev, L.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alekseyev, L. V.

Alù, A.

C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, G. D'Aguano, N. Engheta, and A. Alù, “Boosting optical nonlinearities in epsilon-near-zero plasmonic channels,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 045129 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Argyropoulos, P.-Y. Chen, F. Monticone, G. D’Aguanno, and A. Alù, “Nonlinear plasmonic cloaks to realize giant all-optical scattering switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(26), 263905 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-Y. Chen, M. Farhat, and A. Alù, “Bistable and self-tunable negative-index metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 105503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Optical nanoantenna arrays loaded with nonlinear materials,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Powell, A. Alù, B. Edwards, A. Vakil, Y. S. Kivshar, and N. Engheta, “Nonlinear control of tunneling through an epsilon-near-zero channel,” Phys. Rev. B79(24), 245135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Argyropoulos, C.

C. Argyropoulos, P.-Y. Chen, F. Monticone, G. D’Aguanno, and A. Alù, “Nonlinear plasmonic cloaks to realize giant all-optical scattering switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(26), 263905 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, G. D'Aguano, N. Engheta, and A. Alù, “Boosting optical nonlinearities in epsilon-near-zero plasmonic channels,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 045129 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Belov, P. A.

R. S. Savelev, I. V. Shadrivov, P. A. Belov, N. N. Rosanov, S. V. Fedorov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Loss compensation in metal-dielectric layered metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B87(11), 115139 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Orlov, P. M. Voroshilov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Engineered optical nonlocality in nanostructured metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B84(4), 045424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Poddubny, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Spontaneous radiation of a finite-size dipole emitter in hyperbolic media,” Phys. Rev. A84(2), 023807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Belov and Y. Hao, “Subwavelength imaging at optical frequencies using a transmission device formed by a periodic layered metal-dielectric structure operating in the canalization regime,” Phys. Rev. B73(11), 113110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Abdallah, P.

S. A. Biehs, M. Tschikin, and P. Ben-Abdallah, “Hyperbolic metamaterials as an analog of a blackbody in the near field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(10), 104301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biehs, S. A.

S. A. Biehs, M. Tschikin, and P. Ben-Abdallah, “Hyperbolic metamaterials as an analog of a blackbody in the near field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(10), 104301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bloemer, M. J.

M. Scalora, N. Mattiucci, G. D’Aguanno, M. Larciprete, and M. J. Bloemer, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in one-dimensional metal-dielectric multilayer stacks: ultrawide bandwidth optical limiting,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.73(1), 016603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

G. V. Naik, J. Liu, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Demonstration of Al:ZnO as a plasmonic component for near-infrared metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(23), 8834–8838 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campione, S.

C. Guclu, S. Campione, and F. Capolino, “Hyperbolic metamaterial as super absorber for scattered fields generated at its surface,” Phys. Rev. B86(20), 205130 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Capolino, F.

C. Guclu, S. Campione, and F. Capolino, “Hyperbolic metamaterial as super absorber for scattered fields generated at its surface,” Phys. Rev. B86(20), 205130 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P. Y.

C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, G. D'Aguano, N. Engheta, and A. Alù, “Boosting optical nonlinearities in epsilon-near-zero plasmonic channels,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 045129 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.-Y.

C. Argyropoulos, P.-Y. Chen, F. Monticone, G. D’Aguanno, and A. Alù, “Nonlinear plasmonic cloaks to realize giant all-optical scattering switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(26), 263905 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-Y. Chen, M. Farhat, and A. Alù, “Bistable and self-tunable negative-index metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 105503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Optical nanoantenna arrays loaded with nonlinear materials,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chettiar, U. K.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sivan, S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Frequency-domain simulations of a negative-index material with embedded gain,” Opt. Express17(26), 24060–24074 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cortes, C. L.

Y. Guo, C. L. Cortes, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Broadband super-Planckian thermal emission from hyperbolic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(13), 131106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Cortes, W. Newman, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Quantum nanophotonics using hyperbolic metamaterials,” J. Opt.14(6), 063001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D’Aguanno, G.

C. Argyropoulos, P.-Y. Chen, F. Monticone, G. D’Aguanno, and A. Alù, “Nonlinear plasmonic cloaks to realize giant all-optical scattering switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(26), 263905 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scalora, N. Mattiucci, G. D’Aguanno, M. Larciprete, and M. J. Bloemer, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in one-dimensional metal-dielectric multilayer stacks: ultrawide bandwidth optical limiting,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.73(1), 016603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D'Aguano, G.

C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, G. D'Aguano, N. Engheta, and A. Alù, “Boosting optical nonlinearities in epsilon-near-zero plasmonic channels,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 045129 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. C.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y.-J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range,” Science315(5819), 1699–1701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drachev, V. P.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, B.

D. A. Powell, A. Alù, B. Edwards, A. Vakil, Y. S. Kivshar, and N. Engheta, “Nonlinear control of tunneling through an epsilon-near-zero channel,” Phys. Rev. B79(24), 245135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, G. D'Aguano, N. Engheta, and A. Alù, “Boosting optical nonlinearities in epsilon-near-zero plasmonic channels,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 045129 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Powell, A. Alù, B. Edwards, A. Vakil, Y. S. Kivshar, and N. Engheta, “Nonlinear control of tunneling through an epsilon-near-zero channel,” Phys. Rev. B79(24), 245135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: Theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B74(7), 075103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Farhat, M.

P.-Y. Chen, M. Farhat, and A. Alù, “Bistable and self-tunable negative-index metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 105503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedorov, S. V.

R. S. Savelev, I. V. Shadrivov, P. A. Belov, N. N. Rosanov, S. V. Fedorov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Loss compensation in metal-dielectric layered metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B87(11), 115139 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Franz, K. J.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gmachl, C.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Govyadinov, A. A.

A. A. Govyadinov and V. A. Podolskiy, “Metamaterial photonic funnels for subdiffraction light compression and propagation,” Phys. Rev. B73(15), 155108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Guclu, C.

C. Guclu, S. Campione, and F. Capolino, “Hyperbolic metamaterial as super absorber for scattered fields generated at its surface,” Phys. Rev. B86(20), 205130 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

Y. Guo, C. L. Cortes, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Broadband super-Planckian thermal emission from hyperbolic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(13), 131106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.

Hao, Y.

P. A. Belov and Y. Hao, “Subwavelength imaging at optical frequencies using a transmission device formed by a periodic layered metal-dielectric structure operating in the canalization regime,” Phys. Rev. B73(11), 113110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, A. J.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howard, S. S.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hung, Y.-J.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y.-J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range,” Science315(5819), 1699–1701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishii, S.

Jacob, Z.

C. L. Cortes, W. Newman, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Quantum nanophotonics using hyperbolic metamaterials,” J. Opt.14(6), 063001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guo, C. L. Cortes, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Broadband super-Planckian thermal emission from hyperbolic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(13), 131106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, “Topological transitions in metamaterials,” Science336(6078), 205–209 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, “Optical Hyperlens: Far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express14(18), 8247–8256 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

G. V. Naik, J. Liu, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Demonstration of Al:ZnO as a plasmonic component for near-infrared metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(23), 8834–8838 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ni, S. Ishii, M. D. Thoreson, V. M. Shalaev, S. Han, S. Lee, and A. V. Kildishev, “Loss-compensated and active hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Express19(25), 25242–25254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sivan, S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Frequency-domain simulations of a negative-index material with embedded gain,” Opt. Express17(26), 24060–24074 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kivshar, Y. S.

R. S. Savelev, I. V. Shadrivov, P. A. Belov, N. N. Rosanov, S. V. Fedorov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Loss compensation in metal-dielectric layered metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B87(11), 115139 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Orlov, P. M. Voroshilov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Engineered optical nonlocality in nanostructured metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B84(4), 045424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. N. Poddubny, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Spontaneous radiation of a finite-size dipole emitter in hyperbolic media,” Phys. Rev. A84(2), 023807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Powell, A. Alù, B. Edwards, A. Vakil, Y. S. Kivshar, and N. Engheta, “Nonlinear control of tunneling through an epsilon-near-zero channel,” Phys. Rev. B79(24), 245135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kretzschmar, I.

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, “Topological transitions in metamaterials,” Science336(6078), 205–209 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnamoorthy, H. N. S.

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, “Topological transitions in metamaterials,” Science336(6078), 205–209 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larciprete, M.

M. Scalora, N. Mattiucci, G. D’Aguanno, M. Larciprete, and M. J. Bloemer, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in one-dimensional metal-dielectric multilayer stacks: ultrawide bandwidth optical limiting,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.73(1), 016603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S.

Liu, J.

G. V. Naik, J. Liu, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Demonstration of Al:ZnO as a plasmonic component for near-infrared metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(23), 8834–8838 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Z.

D. Lu and Z. Liu, “Hyperlenses and metalenses for far-field super-resolution imaging,” Nat Commun3, 1205 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, D.

D. Lu and Z. Liu, “Hyperlenses and metalenses for far-field super-resolution imaging,” Nat Commun3, 1205 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattiucci, N.

M. Scalora, N. Mattiucci, G. D’Aguanno, M. Larciprete, and M. J. Bloemer, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in one-dimensional metal-dielectric multilayer stacks: ultrawide bandwidth optical limiting,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.73(1), 016603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menon, V. M.

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, “Topological transitions in metamaterials,” Science336(6078), 205–209 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molesky, S.

Y. Guo, C. L. Cortes, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Broadband super-Planckian thermal emission from hyperbolic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(13), 131106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Cortes, W. Newman, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Quantum nanophotonics using hyperbolic metamaterials,” J. Opt.14(6), 063001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Monticone, F.

C. Argyropoulos, P.-Y. Chen, F. Monticone, G. D’Aguanno, and A. Alù, “Nonlinear plasmonic cloaks to realize giant all-optical scattering switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(26), 263905 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naik, G. V.

G. V. Naik, J. Liu, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Demonstration of Al:ZnO as a plasmonic component for near-infrared metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(23), 8834–8838 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narimanov, E.

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, “Topological transitions in metamaterials,” Science336(6078), 205–209 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. Narimanov, “Optical Hyperlens: Far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express14(18), 8247–8256 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narimanov, E. E.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, “Near-sighted superlens,” Opt. Lett.30(1), 75–77 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newman, W.

C. L. Cortes, W. Newman, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Quantum nanophotonics using hyperbolic metamaterials,” J. Opt.14(6), 063001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ni, X.

X. Ni, S. Ishii, M. D. Thoreson, V. M. Shalaev, S. Han, S. Lee, and A. V. Kildishev, “Loss-compensated and active hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Express19(25), 25242–25254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orlov, A. A.

A. A. Orlov, P. M. Voroshilov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Engineered optical nonlocality in nanostructured metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B84(4), 045424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system,” Phys. Rev. B74(11), 115116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poddubny, A. N.

A. N. Poddubny, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Spontaneous radiation of a finite-size dipole emitter in hyperbolic media,” Phys. Rev. A84(2), 023807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Podolskiy, V. A.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Govyadinov and V. A. Podolskiy, “Metamaterial photonic funnels for subdiffraction light compression and propagation,” Phys. Rev. B73(15), 155108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, “Near-sighted superlens,” Opt. Lett.30(1), 75–77 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Powell, D. A.

D. A. Powell, A. Alù, B. Edwards, A. Vakil, Y. S. Kivshar, and N. Engheta, “Nonlinear control of tunneling through an epsilon-near-zero channel,” Phys. Rev. B79(24), 245135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rosanov, N. N.

R. S. Savelev, I. V. Shadrivov, P. A. Belov, N. N. Rosanov, S. V. Fedorov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Loss compensation in metal-dielectric layered metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B87(11), 115139 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Salandrino, A.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: Theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B74(7), 075103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Savelev, R. S.

R. S. Savelev, I. V. Shadrivov, P. A. Belov, N. N. Rosanov, S. V. Fedorov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Loss compensation in metal-dielectric layered metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B87(11), 115139 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, M.

M. Scalora, N. Mattiucci, G. D’Aguanno, M. Larciprete, and M. J. Bloemer, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in one-dimensional metal-dielectric multilayer stacks: ultrawide bandwidth optical limiting,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.73(1), 016603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shadrivov, I. V.

R. S. Savelev, I. V. Shadrivov, P. A. Belov, N. N. Rosanov, S. V. Fedorov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Loss compensation in metal-dielectric layered metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B87(11), 115139 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

G. V. Naik, J. Liu, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Demonstration of Al:ZnO as a plasmonic component for near-infrared metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(23), 8834–8838 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ni, S. Ishii, M. D. Thoreson, V. M. Shalaev, S. Han, S. Lee, and A. V. Kildishev, “Loss-compensated and active hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Express19(25), 25242–25254 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sivan, S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Frequency-domain simulations of a negative-index material with embedded gain,” Opt. Express17(26), 24060–24074 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silveirinha, M. G.

M. G. Silveirinha and A. B. Yakovlev, “Negative refraction by a uniaxial wire medium with suppressed spatial dispersion,” Phys. Rev. B81(23), 233105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Silveirinha, “Broadband negative refraction with a crossed wire mesh,” Phys. Rev. B79(15), 153109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sivan, Y.

Sivco, D. L.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y.-J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range,” Science315(5819), 1699–1701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sukhorukov, A. A.

R. S. Savelev, I. V. Shadrivov, P. A. Belov, N. N. Rosanov, S. V. Fedorov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Loss compensation in metal-dielectric layered metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B87(11), 115139 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thoreson, M. D.

Tsai, D. P.

B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system,” Phys. Rev. B74(11), 115116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tschikin, M.

S. A. Biehs, M. Tschikin, and P. Ben-Abdallah, “Hyperbolic metamaterials as an analog of a blackbody in the near field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(10), 104301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vakil, A.

D. A. Powell, A. Alù, B. Edwards, A. Vakil, Y. S. Kivshar, and N. Engheta, “Nonlinear control of tunneling through an epsilon-near-zero channel,” Phys. Rev. B79(24), 245135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Voroshilov, P. M.

A. A. Orlov, P. M. Voroshilov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Engineered optical nonlocality in nanostructured metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B84(4), 045424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wasserman, D.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wood, B.

B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system,” Phys. Rev. B74(11), 115116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, S.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sivan, S. Xiao, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Frequency-domain simulations of a negative-index material with embedded gain,” Opt. Express17(26), 24060–24074 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, Y.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, A. B.

M. G. Silveirinha and A. B. Yakovlev, “Negative refraction by a uniaxial wire medium with suppressed spatial dispersion,” Phys. Rev. B81(23), 233105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, H.-K.

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Guo, C. L. Cortes, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Broadband super-Planckian thermal emission from hyperbolic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(13), 131106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

C. L. Cortes, W. Newman, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Quantum nanophotonics using hyperbolic metamaterials,” J. Opt.14(6), 063001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat Commun (1)

D. Lu and Z. Liu, “Hyperlenses and metalenses for far-field super-resolution imaging,” Nat Commun3, 1205 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.6(12), 946–950 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

S. Xiao, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, X. Ni, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, and V. M. Shalaev, “Loss-free and active optical negative-index metamaterials,” Nature466(7307), 735–738 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

A. N. Poddubny, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Spontaneous radiation of a finite-size dipole emitter in hyperbolic media,” Phys. Rev. A84(2), 023807 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (12)

D. A. Powell, A. Alù, B. Edwards, A. Vakil, Y. S. Kivshar, and N. Engheta, “Nonlinear control of tunneling through an epsilon-near-zero channel,” Phys. Rev. B79(24), 245135 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Argyropoulos, P. Y. Chen, G. D'Aguano, N. Engheta, and A. Alù, “Boosting optical nonlinearities in epsilon-near-zero plasmonic channels,” Phys. Rev. B85(4), 045129 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: Theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B74(7), 075103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Wood, J. B. Pendry, and D. P. Tsai, “Directed subwavelength imaging using a layered metal-dielectric system,” Phys. Rev. B74(11), 115116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Govyadinov and V. A. Podolskiy, “Metamaterial photonic funnels for subdiffraction light compression and propagation,” Phys. Rev. B73(15), 155108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Belov and Y. Hao, “Subwavelength imaging at optical frequencies using a transmission device formed by a periodic layered metal-dielectric structure operating in the canalization regime,” Phys. Rev. B73(11), 113110 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Silveirinha, “Broadband negative refraction with a crossed wire mesh,” Phys. Rev. B79(15), 153109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Silveirinha and A. B. Yakovlev, “Negative refraction by a uniaxial wire medium with suppressed spatial dispersion,” Phys. Rev. B81(23), 233105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Guclu, S. Campione, and F. Capolino, “Hyperbolic metamaterial as super absorber for scattered fields generated at its surface,” Phys. Rev. B86(20), 205130 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Savelev, I. V. Shadrivov, P. A. Belov, N. N. Rosanov, S. V. Fedorov, A. A. Sukhorukov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Loss compensation in metal-dielectric layered metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B87(11), 115139 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Orlov, P. M. Voroshilov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Engineered optical nonlocality in nanostructured metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B84(4), 045424 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alù, “Optical nanoantenna arrays loaded with nonlinear materials,” Phys. Rev. B82(23), 235405 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

M. Scalora, N. Mattiucci, G. D’Aguanno, M. Larciprete, and M. J. Bloemer, “Nonlinear pulse propagation in one-dimensional metal-dielectric multilayer stacks: ultrawide bandwidth optical limiting,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.73(1), 016603 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

P.-Y. Chen, M. Farhat, and A. Alù, “Bistable and self-tunable negative-index metamaterial at optical frequencies,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(10), 105503 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Argyropoulos, P.-Y. Chen, F. Monticone, G. D’Aguanno, and A. Alù, “Nonlinear plasmonic cloaks to realize giant all-optical scattering switching,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(26), 263905 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, “Negative refraction makes a perfect lens,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(18), 3966–3969 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Biehs, M. Tschikin, and P. Ben-Abdallah, “Hyperbolic metamaterials as an analog of a blackbody in the near field,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(10), 104301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

G. V. Naik, J. Liu, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Demonstration of Al:ZnO as a plasmonic component for near-infrared metamaterials,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(23), 8834–8838 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (3)

H. N. S. Krishnamoorthy, Z. Jacob, E. Narimanov, I. Kretzschmar, and V. M. Menon, “Topological transitions in metamaterials,” Science336(6078), 205–209 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, H. Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315(5819), 1686 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. I. Smolyaninov, Y.-J. Hung, and C. C. Davis, “Magnifying superlens in the visible frequency range,” Science315(5819), 1699–1701 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

V. M. Agranovich and V. L. Ginzburg, Crystal Optics with Spatial Dispersion, and Excitons, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, 1984).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).

C. S. T. Design Studio, 2011, www.cst.com .

R. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, 2003).

D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2004).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics: Electromagnetic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge University, 1999).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Hyperbolic layered metamaterial composed of 20 layers of dielectric and plasmonic materials with thicknesses d 1 and d 2 , respectively. (b) Magnitude of the time-snapshot electric field distribution of a Gaussian beam impinging on the hyperbolic metamaterial structure of (a) with angle of incidence θ i =45° . Clear negative refraction is obtained at the wavelength λ=323nm where the silver layers have ε Ag =0.5 . (c) Transmittance and (d) the angle of transmission in degrees computed for the structure shown in (a), with parameters ε d =2 , d 1 =50nm , d 2 =25nm as a function of the incident angle ( k x / k 0 ) and the wavelength of operation (λ) . The solid gray lines in (c) surround the regions where the angle of transmission becomes equal to or lower than 0° , representing the boundary of the region in which negative refraction occurs. (e) Transmittance and (f) the angle of transmission in degrees computed for a homogenized slab characterized by the effective medium permittivity tensor given by Eq. (1), with same design parameters as in (c-d).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmittance for propagating and evanescent waves computed for the structure shown in Fig. 1(a), with parameters ε d =2 , d 1 =50nm , d 2 =25nm as a function of the incident angle ( k x / k 0 ) and the wavelength of operation (λ) . Amplification of evanescent waves ( k x > k 0 ) is observed for a broad range of wavelengths.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a),(c) Transmittance and (b),(d) angle of transmission [in degrees] for the structure shown in Fig. 1(a) with parameters: (a),(b) ε d =2.5 , d 1 =50nm , d 2 =25nm and (c),(d) ε d =2 , d 1 =50nm , d 2 =35nm as a function of the incident angle ( k x / k 0 ) and the wavelength of operation (λ) . In panels (a) and (c), the solid gray lines enclose the region where the angle of transmission is negative.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a),(c) Transmittance and (b),(d) angle of transmission [in degrees] as a function of the incident angle ( k x / k 0 ) and the wavelength of operation (λ) , for the structure shown in Fig. 1(a) with realistic losses. Panels (a),(b) consider conventional dielectrics, while (c),(d) refer to a gain material. The real and imaginary part of the permittivity of the gain material is plotted in the inset of caption (c) as a function of the wavelength.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a),(c) Transmittance and (b),(d) angle of transmission [in degrees] as a function of the input intensity, for the structure shown in Fig. 1(a) with third-order Kerr nonlinear material introduced in the dielectric layers. The results are computed for two different wavelengths: (a),(b) λ=315nm and (c),(d) λ=311nm .

Equations (3)

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ε t = ε d d 1 + ε Ag d 2 d 1 + d 2 , ε z = ( ε d 1 d 1 + ε Ag 1 d 2 d 1 + d 2 ) 1 .
S x S z = Re( k x / ε z ) Re( k z / ε t ) .
H y o (x)= H ˜ y ( k x )T( k x ) e j k x x d k x .

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