Abstract

We present a new approach to subwavelength optical confinement, based on hyperbolic media in planar Fabry-Perot geometry. Unlike higher-order resonance modes in indefinite metamaterial cavities, the predicted resonance corresponds to 0th-order mode and can be observed in planar systems. Our approach combines subwavelength light confinement with strong radiative coupling, enabling a practical planar design of nanolasers and subwavelength waveguides.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. I. V. Lindell, S. A. Tretyakov, K. I. Nikoskinen, and S. Ilvonen, “BW media – media with negative parameters, capable of supporting backward waves,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett31, 129 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, “Strongly anisotropic waveguide as a nonmagnetic left-handed system,” Phys. Rev. B71, 201101(R), (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental realization of three-dimensional indefinite cavities at the nanoscale with anomalous scaling laws,” Nature Photonics6, 450 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. E. Narimanov and I. I. Smolyaninov, “Beyond Stefan-Boltzmann law: thermal hyper-conductivity,” arXiv:1109.5444.
  5. Y. Guo, C. L. Cortes, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Broadband super-Planckian thermal emission from hyperbolic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 131106 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Z. Jacob, J.Y. Kim, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, “Engineering photonic density of states using metamaterials,” App. Phys. B100, 215 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. A. Noginov, H. Li, H Yu, A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, and E. E. Narimanov, “Control of spontaneous emission with metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.35, 1863 (2010).
  8. Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. E. Narimanov, “Optical Hyperlens: Far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express14, 8247 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: Theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B74, 75103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Z. Liu, H Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315, 1686(2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. E. Narimanov, M. A. Noginov, H. Li, and Y. Barnakov, “Darker than black: Radiation-absorbing metamaterial,” Proceedings of Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, San Jose, 16–21 May, EQPDA6 (2010).
  12. I. I. Smolyaninov and E. E. Narimanov, “Metric signature transitions in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 067402 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. A. Belov, “Backward waves and negative refraction in uniaxial dielectrics with negative dielectric permittivity along the anisotropy axis,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.37, 259 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. R. Smith and D. Schurig, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 77405 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, and P. Kolinko, “Negative refraction in indefinite media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B21, 1032 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nature Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. Hu and S. T. Chui, “Characteristics of electromagnetic wave propagation in uniaxially anisotropic left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. B66, 085108 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  18. J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, “Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 261102 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. A. Noginov, Y. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 151105 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. Engheta, “An idea for thin subwavelength cavity resonators using metamaterials with negative permittivity and permeability,”IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.1, 10 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  21. V. G. Veselago and E. E. Narimanov, “The left hand of brightness: past, present and future of negative index materials,” Nature Mater.5, 759 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  22. V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.30, 3356 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  23. V. M. Shalaev, “Opical negative refractive-index metamaterials,” Nature Photonics1, 41 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” App. Phys. Lett.88, 221103 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature10, 1038 (2008).
  26. A. Y. Cho and J. R. Arthur, “Molecular beam epitaxy,” Prog. Solid State Chem.10, 157 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  27. D. M. Dobkin and M. K. Zuraw, Principles of Chemical Vapor Deposition (Kluwer Academic, the Netherlands, 2003).
  28. W. Cai and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, New York, 2009).

2012 (2)

X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental realization of three-dimensional indefinite cavities at the nanoscale with anomalous scaling laws,” Nature Photonics6, 450 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guo, C. L. Cortes, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Broadband super-Planckian thermal emission from hyperbolic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 131106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

Z. Jacob, J.Y. Kim, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, “Engineering photonic density of states using metamaterials,” App. Phys. B100, 215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov and E. E. Narimanov, “Metric signature transitions in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 067402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

M. A. Noginov, Y. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 151105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature10, 1038 (2008).

2007 (3)

V. M. Shalaev, “Opical negative refractive-index metamaterials,” Nature Photonics1, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nature Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, H Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315, 1686(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (5)

Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. E. Narimanov, “Optical Hyperlens: Far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express14, 8247 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: Theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B74, 75103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” App. Phys. Lett.88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Veselago and E. E. Narimanov, “The left hand of brightness: past, present and future of negative index materials,” Nature Mater.5, 759 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, “Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 261102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.30, 3356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, “Strongly anisotropic waveguide as a nonmagnetic left-handed system,” Phys. Rev. B71, 201101(R), (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

P. A. Belov, “Backward waves and negative refraction in uniaxial dielectrics with negative dielectric permittivity along the anisotropy axis,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.37, 259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith and D. Schurig, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 77405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

L. Hu and S. T. Chui, “Characteristics of electromagnetic wave propagation in uniaxially anisotropic left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. B66, 085108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

N. Engheta, “An idea for thin subwavelength cavity resonators using metamaterials with negative permittivity and permeability,”IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.1, 10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

I. V. Lindell, S. A. Tretyakov, K. I. Nikoskinen, and S. Ilvonen, “BW media – media with negative parameters, capable of supporting backward waves,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett31, 129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

A. Y. Cho and J. R. Arthur, “Molecular beam epitaxy,” Prog. Solid State Chem.10, 157 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1863 (1)

M. A. Noginov, H. Li, H Yu, A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, and E. E. Narimanov, “Control of spontaneous emission with metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.35, 1863 (2010).

Alekseyev, L.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nature Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alekseyev, L. V.

Arthur, J. R.

A. Y. Cho and J. R. Arthur, “Molecular beam epitaxy,” Prog. Solid State Chem.10, 157 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Barnakov, A.

M. A. Noginov, H. Li, H Yu, A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, and E. E. Narimanov, “Control of spontaneous emission with metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.35, 1863 (2010).

Barnakov, Y.

E. E. Narimanov, M. A. Noginov, H. Li, and Y. Barnakov, “Darker than black: Radiation-absorbing metamaterial,” Proceedings of Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, San Jose, 16–21 May, EQPDA6 (2010).

Barnakov, Y. A.

M. A. Noginov, Y. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 151105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature10, 1038 (2008).

Belov, P. A.

P. A. Belov, “Backward waves and negative refraction in uniaxial dielectrics with negative dielectric permittivity along the anisotropy axis,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.37, 259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A.

Z. Jacob, J.Y. Kim, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, “Engineering photonic density of states using metamaterials,” App. Phys. B100, 215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, C. E

M. A. Noginov, H. Li, H Yu, A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, and E. E. Narimanov, “Control of spontaneous emission with metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.35, 1863 (2010).

Cai, W.

Chettiar, U. K.

Cho, A. Y.

A. Y. Cho and J. R. Arthur, “Molecular beam epitaxy,” Prog. Solid State Chem.10, 157 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Chui, S. T.

L. Hu and S. T. Chui, “Characteristics of electromagnetic wave propagation in uniaxially anisotropic left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. B66, 085108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cortes, C. L.

Y. Guo, C. L. Cortes, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Broadband super-Planckian thermal emission from hyperbolic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 131106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dobkin, D. M.

D. M. Dobkin and M. K. Zuraw, Principles of Chemical Vapor Deposition (Kluwer Academic, the Netherlands, 2003).

Drachev, V. P.

Dryden, D.

M. A. Noginov, H. Li, H Yu, A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, and E. E. Narimanov, “Control of spontaneous emission with metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.35, 1863 (2010).

Elser, J.

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, “Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 261102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Engheta, N.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: Theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B74, 75103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Engheta, “An idea for thin subwavelength cavity resonators using metamaterials with negative permittivity and permeability,”IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.1, 10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Franz, K. J.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nature Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature10, 1038 (2008).

Gmachl, C.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nature Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Y.

Y. Guo, C. L. Cortes, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Broadband super-Planckian thermal emission from hyperbolic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 131106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, A. J.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nature Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Howard, S. S.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nature Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

L. Hu and S. T. Chui, “Characteristics of electromagnetic wave propagation in uniaxially anisotropic left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. B66, 085108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ilvonen, S.

I. V. Lindell, S. A. Tretyakov, K. I. Nikoskinen, and S. Ilvonen, “BW media – media with negative parameters, capable of supporting backward waves,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett31, 129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jacob, Z.

Y. Guo, C. L. Cortes, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Broadband super-Planckian thermal emission from hyperbolic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 131106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jacob, J.Y. Kim, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, “Engineering photonic density of states using metamaterials,” App. Phys. B100, 215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. E. Narimanov, “Optical Hyperlens: Far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express14, 8247 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, H. Li, H Yu, A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, and E. E. Narimanov, “Control of spontaneous emission with metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.35, 1863 (2010).

Kildishev, A. V.

Kim, J.Y.

Z. Jacob, J.Y. Kim, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, “Engineering photonic density of states using metamaterials,” App. Phys. B100, 215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kolinko, P.

Koschny, T.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” App. Phys. Lett.88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H

Z. Liu, H Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315, 1686(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, H.

M. A. Noginov, Y. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 151105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, H. Li, H Yu, A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, and E. E. Narimanov, “Control of spontaneous emission with metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.35, 1863 (2010).

E. E. Narimanov, M. A. Noginov, H. Li, and Y. Barnakov, “Darker than black: Radiation-absorbing metamaterial,” Proceedings of Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, San Jose, 16–21 May, EQPDA6 (2010).

Lindell, I. V.

I. V. Lindell, S. A. Tretyakov, K. I. Nikoskinen, and S. Ilvonen, “BW media – media with negative parameters, capable of supporting backward waves,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett31, 129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, H Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315, 1686(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mayy, M.

M. A. Noginov, H. Li, H Yu, A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, and E. E. Narimanov, “Control of spontaneous emission with metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.35, 1863 (2010).

Molesky, S.

Y. Guo, C. L. Cortes, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Broadband super-Planckian thermal emission from hyperbolic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 131106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Naik, G. V.

Z. Jacob, J.Y. Kim, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, “Engineering photonic density of states using metamaterials,” App. Phys. B100, 215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Narimanov, E. E.

Z. Jacob, J.Y. Kim, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, “Engineering photonic density of states using metamaterials,” App. Phys. B100, 215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov and E. E. Narimanov, “Metric signature transitions in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 067402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, Y. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 151105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nature Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jacob, L. V. Alekseyev, and E. E. Narimanov, “Optical Hyperlens: Far-field imaging beyond the diffraction limit,” Opt. Express14, 8247 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, “Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 261102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Veselago and E. E. Narimanov, “The left hand of brightness: past, present and future of negative index materials,” Nature Mater.5, 759 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, “Strongly anisotropic waveguide as a nonmagnetic left-handed system,” Phys. Rev. B71, 201101(R), (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, H. Li, H Yu, A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, and E. E. Narimanov, “Control of spontaneous emission with metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.35, 1863 (2010).

E. E. Narimanov and I. I. Smolyaninov, “Beyond Stefan-Boltzmann law: thermal hyper-conductivity,” arXiv:1109.5444.

E. E. Narimanov, M. A. Noginov, H. Li, and Y. Barnakov, “Darker than black: Radiation-absorbing metamaterial,” Proceedings of Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, San Jose, 16–21 May, EQPDA6 (2010).

Nataraj, G.

M. A. Noginov, H. Li, H Yu, A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, and E. E. Narimanov, “Control of spontaneous emission with metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.35, 1863 (2010).

Nikoskinen, K. I.

I. V. Lindell, S. A. Tretyakov, K. I. Nikoskinen, and S. Ilvonen, “BW media – media with negative parameters, capable of supporting backward waves,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett31, 129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, Y. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 151105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, H. Li, H Yu, A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, and E. E. Narimanov, “Control of spontaneous emission with metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.35, 1863 (2010).

E. E. Narimanov, M. A. Noginov, H. Li, and Y. Barnakov, “Darker than black: Radiation-absorbing metamaterial,” Proceedings of Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, San Jose, 16–21 May, EQPDA6 (2010).

Podolskiy, V. A.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nature Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, “Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 261102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, “Strongly anisotropic waveguide as a nonmagnetic left-handed system,” Phys. Rev. B71, 201101(R), (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rho, J.

X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental realization of three-dimensional indefinite cavities at the nanoscale with anomalous scaling laws,” Nature Photonics6, 450 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Salandrino, A.

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: Theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B74, 75103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sarychev, A. K.

Schurig, D.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, and P. Kolinko, “Negative refraction in indefinite media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B21, 1032 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith and D. Schurig, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 77405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V.

W. Cai and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, New York, 2009).

Shalaev, V. M.

Z. Jacob, J.Y. Kim, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, “Engineering photonic density of states using metamaterials,” App. Phys. B100, 215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, “Opical negative refractive-index metamaterials,” Nature Photonics1, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.30, 3356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nature Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

D. R. Smith, D. Schurig, and P. Kolinko, “Negative refraction in indefinite media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B21, 1032 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Smith and D. Schurig, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 77405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

I. I. Smolyaninov and E. E. Narimanov, “Metric signature transitions in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 067402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. E. Narimanov and I. I. Smolyaninov, “Beyond Stefan-Boltzmann law: thermal hyper-conductivity,” arXiv:1109.5444.

Soukoulis, C.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” App. Phys. Lett.88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C.

Z. Liu, H Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315, 1686(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tretyakov, S. A.

I. V. Lindell, S. A. Tretyakov, K. I. Nikoskinen, and S. Ilvonen, “BW media – media with negative parameters, capable of supporting backward waves,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett31, 129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tumkur, T.

M. A. Noginov, Y. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 151105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tuttle, G.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” App. Phys. Lett.88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ulin-Avila, E.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature10, 1038 (2008).

Valentine, J.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature10, 1038 (2008).

Veselago, V. G.

V. G. Veselago and E. E. Narimanov, “The left hand of brightness: past, present and future of negative index materials,” Nature Mater.5, 759 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wangberg, R.

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, “Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 261102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wasserman, D.

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nature Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y.

Z. Liu, H Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315, 1686(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental realization of three-dimensional indefinite cavities at the nanoscale with anomalous scaling laws,” Nature Photonics6, 450 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental realization of three-dimensional indefinite cavities at the nanoscale with anomalous scaling laws,” Nature Photonics6, 450 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X.

X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental realization of three-dimensional indefinite cavities at the nanoscale with anomalous scaling laws,” Nature Photonics6, 450 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H

M. A. Noginov, H. Li, H Yu, A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, and E. E. Narimanov, “Control of spontaneous emission with metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.35, 1863 (2010).

Yuan, H.-K.

Zentgraf, T.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature10, 1038 (2008).

Zhang, L.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” App. Phys. Lett.88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature10, 1038 (2008).

Zhang, X.

X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental realization of three-dimensional indefinite cavities at the nanoscale with anomalous scaling laws,” Nature Photonics6, 450 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature10, 1038 (2008).

Z. Liu, H Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315, 1686(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” App. Phys. Lett.88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

M. A. Noginov, Y. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 151105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, H. Li, H Yu, A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, and E. E. Narimanov, “Control of spontaneous emission with metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.35, 1863 (2010).

Zuraw, M. K.

D. M. Dobkin and M. K. Zuraw, Principles of Chemical Vapor Deposition (Kluwer Academic, the Netherlands, 2003).

App. Phys. B (1)

Z. Jacob, J.Y. Kim, G. V. Naik, A. Boltasseva, E. E. Narimanov, and V. M. Shalaev, “Engineering photonic density of states using metamaterials,” App. Phys. B100, 215 (2010).
[CrossRef]

App. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Zhou, T. Koschny, L. Zhang, G. Tuttle, and C. Soukoulis, “Experimental demonstration of negative index of refraction,” App. Phys. Lett.88, 221103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. Elser, R. Wangberg, V. A. Podolskiy, and E. E. Narimanov, “Nanowire metamaterials with extreme optical anisotropy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 261102 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Noginov, Y. A. Barnakov, G. Zhu, T. Tumkur, H. Li, and E. E. Narimanov, “Bulk photonic metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94, 151105 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guo, C. L. Cortes, S. Molesky, and Z. Jacob, “Broadband super-Planckian thermal emission from hyperbolic metamaterials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 131106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

N. Engheta, “An idea for thin subwavelength cavity resonators using metamaterials with negative permittivity and permeability,”IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.1, 10 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett (1)

I. V. Lindell, S. A. Tretyakov, K. I. Nikoskinen, and S. Ilvonen, “BW media – media with negative parameters, capable of supporting backward waves,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett31, 129 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. A. Belov, “Backward waves and negative refraction in uniaxial dielectrics with negative dielectric permittivity along the anisotropy axis,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett.37, 259 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. Valentine, S. Zhang, T. Zentgraf, E. Ulin-Avila, D. A. Genov, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Three-dimensional optical metamaterial with a negative refractive index,” Nature10, 1038 (2008).

Nature Mater (1)

A. J. Hoffman, L. Alekseyev, S. S. Howard, K. J. Franz, D. Wasserman, V. A. Podolskiy, E. E. Narimanov, D. L. Sivco, and C. Gmachl, “Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials,” Nature Mater. 6, 946 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mater. (1)

V. G. Veselago and E. E. Narimanov, “The left hand of brightness: past, present and future of negative index materials,” Nature Mater.5, 759 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nature Photonics (2)

V. M. Shalaev, “Opical negative refractive-index metamaterials,” Nature Photonics1, 41 (2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Yang, J. Yao, J. Rho, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Experimental realization of three-dimensional indefinite cavities at the nanoscale with anomalous scaling laws,” Nature Photonics6, 450 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

M. A. Noginov, H. Li, H Yu, A. Barnakov, D. Dryden, G. Nataraj, G. Zhu, C. E Bonner, M. Mayy, Z. Jacob, and E. E. Narimanov, “Control of spontaneous emission with metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.35, 1863 (2010).

V. M. Shalaev, W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, H.-K. Yuan, A. K. Sarychev, V. P. Drachev, and A. V. Kildishev, “Negative index of refraction in optical metamaterials,” Opt. Lett.30, 3356 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

L. Hu and S. T. Chui, “Characteristics of electromagnetic wave propagation in uniaxially anisotropic left-handed materials,” Phys. Rev. B66, 085108 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Salandrino and N. Engheta, “Far-field subdiffraction optical microscopy using metamaterial crystals: Theory and simulations,” Phys. Rev. B74, 75103 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Podolskiy and E. E. Narimanov, “Strongly anisotropic waveguide as a nonmagnetic left-handed system,” Phys. Rev. B71, 201101(R), (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

D. R. Smith and D. Schurig, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in media with indefinite permittivity and permeability tensors,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90, 77405 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. I. Smolyaninov and E. E. Narimanov, “Metric signature transitions in optical metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 067402 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Solid State Chem. (1)

A. Y. Cho and J. R. Arthur, “Molecular beam epitaxy,” Prog. Solid State Chem.10, 157 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

Z. Liu, H Lee, Y. Xiong, C. Sun, and X. Zhang, “Far-field optical hyperlens magnifying sub-diffraction-limited objects,” Science315, 1686(2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

E. E. Narimanov, M. A. Noginov, H. Li, and Y. Barnakov, “Darker than black: Radiation-absorbing metamaterial,” Proceedings of Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, San Jose, 16–21 May, EQPDA6 (2010).

E. E. Narimanov and I. I. Smolyaninov, “Beyond Stefan-Boltzmann law: thermal hyper-conductivity,” arXiv:1109.5444.

D. M. Dobkin and M. K. Zuraw, Principles of Chemical Vapor Deposition (Kluwer Academic, the Netherlands, 2003).

W. Cai and V. Shalaev, Optical Metamaterials: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, New York, 2009).

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