Abstract

An improved calibration method for lidar depolarization measurement is described. With this method the system constants including the electronic gain ratio of the parallel and perpendicular channels, the optical reflectance and transmission parameters of the polarizing beam splitter, and the linear polarization ratio of the emitting laser beam can be determined conveniently by using lidar measurements with a half-wave plate oriented at selected angles.

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References

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  1. R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, and R. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios by hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol.10(5), 1011–1017 (1971), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0450(1971)010%3C1011%3AOBLOLD%3E2.0.CO%3B2 .
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Behrendt and T. Nakamura, “Calculation of the calibration constant of polarization lidar and its dependency on atmospheric temperature,” Opt. Express10(16), 805–817 (2002), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?id=69680 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Adachi, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, and M. Fujiwara, “Calibration method for the lidar-observed stratospheric depolarization ratio in the presence of liquid aerosol particles,” Appl. Opt.40(36), 6587–6595 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-40-36-6587 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Sassen, “The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: A review and current assessment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc 72, 1848–1866 (1991). http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0477(1991)072%3C1848%3ATPLTFC%3E2.0.CO%3B2 .
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Sassen and S. Benson, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing. Part II: Microphysical properties derived from lidar depolarization,” J. Atmos. Sci.58(15), 2103–2112 (2001), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058%3C2103%3AAMCCCF%3E2.0.CO%3B2 .
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar observation of a mixed-phase altostratus cloud,” J. Appl. Meteorol.16(4), 339–345 (1977), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0450%281977%29016%3C0339%3ALOOAMP%3E2.0.CO%3B2 .
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. W. Eloranta and P. Piironen, “Depolarization measurements with the high spectral resolution lidar,” in 17th International Laser Radar Conference, (Laser Radar Society of Japan, ICLAS, NASDA, and NIES, Sendai, Japan, 1994). pp. 127–128.
  8. J. Larry Pezzaniti and R. A. Chipman, “Angular dependence of polarizing beam-splitter cubes,” Appl. Opt.33(10), 1916–1929 (1994), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-33-10-1916 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J. Mouchart, J. Begel, and E. Duda, “Modified MacNeille cube polarizer for a wide angular field,” Appl. Opt.28(14), 2847–2853 (1989), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-28-14-2847 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. P. Netterfield, “Practical thin-film polarizing beam-splitters,” Opt. Acta (Lond.)24(1), 69–79 (1977), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/713819379 .
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. D. Spinhirne, M. Z. Hansen, and L. O. Caudill, “Cloud top remote sensing by airborne lidar,” Appl. Opt.21(9), 1564–1571 (1982), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-21-9-1564 .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. J. M. Alvarez, M. A. Vaughan, C. A. Hostetler, W. H. Hunt, and D. M. Winkler, “Calibration technique for polarization-sensitive lidars,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.23(5), 683–699 (2006), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JTECH1872.1 .
    [CrossRef]
  13. V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus61B, 165–179 (2009), http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/view/16821 .
  14. Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, X. H. Hu, and B. A. Baum, “Sensitivity of depolarized lidar signals to cloud and aerosol particle properties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.100(1-3), 470–482 (2006), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022407305004097 .
    [CrossRef]

2009

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus61B, 165–179 (2009), http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/view/16821 .

2006

Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, X. H. Hu, and B. A. Baum, “Sensitivity of depolarized lidar signals to cloud and aerosol particle properties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.100(1-3), 470–482 (2006), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022407305004097 .
[CrossRef]

J. M. Alvarez, M. A. Vaughan, C. A. Hostetler, W. H. Hunt, and D. M. Winkler, “Calibration technique for polarization-sensitive lidars,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.23(5), 683–699 (2006), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JTECH1872.1 .
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

H. Adachi, T. Shibata, Y. Iwasaka, and M. Fujiwara, “Calibration method for the lidar-observed stratospheric depolarization ratio in the presence of liquid aerosol particles,” Appl. Opt.40(36), 6587–6595 (2001), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-40-36-6587 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sassen and S. Benson, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing. Part II: Microphysical properties derived from lidar depolarization,” J. Atmos. Sci.58(15), 2103–2112 (2001), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058%3C2103%3AAMCCCF%3E2.0.CO%3B2 .
[CrossRef]

1994

1989

1982

1977

R. P. Netterfield, “Practical thin-film polarizing beam-splitters,” Opt. Acta (Lond.)24(1), 69–79 (1977), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/713819379 .
[CrossRef]

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar observation of a mixed-phase altostratus cloud,” J. Appl. Meteorol.16(4), 339–345 (1977), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0450%281977%29016%3C0339%3ALOOAMP%3E2.0.CO%3B2 .
[CrossRef]

1971

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, and R. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios by hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol.10(5), 1011–1017 (1971), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0450(1971)010%3C1011%3AOBLOLD%3E2.0.CO%3B2 .
[CrossRef]

Adachi, H.

Althausen, D.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus61B, 165–179 (2009), http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/view/16821 .

Alvarez, J. M.

J. M. Alvarez, M. A. Vaughan, C. A. Hostetler, W. H. Hunt, and D. M. Winkler, “Calibration technique for polarization-sensitive lidars,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.23(5), 683–699 (2006), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JTECH1872.1 .
[CrossRef]

Ansmann, A.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus61B, 165–179 (2009), http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/view/16821 .

Baum, B. A.

Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, X. H. Hu, and B. A. Baum, “Sensitivity of depolarized lidar signals to cloud and aerosol particle properties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.100(1-3), 470–482 (2006), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022407305004097 .
[CrossRef]

Begel, J.

Behrendt, A.

Benson, S.

K. Sassen and S. Benson, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing. Part II: Microphysical properties derived from lidar depolarization,” J. Atmos. Sci.58(15), 2103–2112 (2001), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058%3C2103%3AAMCCCF%3E2.0.CO%3B2 .
[CrossRef]

Caudill, L. O.

Chipman, R. A.

Duda, E.

Ehret, G.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus61B, 165–179 (2009), http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/view/16821 .

Esselborn, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus61B, 165–179 (2009), http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/view/16821 .

Fix, A.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus61B, 165–179 (2009), http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/view/16821 .

Freudenthaler, V.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus61B, 165–179 (2009), http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/view/16821 .

Fujiwara, M.

Garhammer, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus61B, 165–179 (2009), http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/view/16821 .

Gasteiger, J.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus61B, 165–179 (2009), http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/view/16821 .

Hansen, M. Z.

Heese, B.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus61B, 165–179 (2009), http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/view/16821 .

Hostetler, C. A.

J. M. Alvarez, M. A. Vaughan, C. A. Hostetler, W. H. Hunt, and D. M. Winkler, “Calibration technique for polarization-sensitive lidars,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.23(5), 683–699 (2006), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JTECH1872.1 .
[CrossRef]

Hu, X. H.

Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, X. H. Hu, and B. A. Baum, “Sensitivity of depolarized lidar signals to cloud and aerosol particle properties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.100(1-3), 470–482 (2006), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022407305004097 .
[CrossRef]

Hunt, W. H.

J. M. Alvarez, M. A. Vaughan, C. A. Hostetler, W. H. Hunt, and D. M. Winkler, “Calibration technique for polarization-sensitive lidars,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.23(5), 683–699 (2006), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JTECH1872.1 .
[CrossRef]

Iwasaka, Y.

Kattawar, G. W.

Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, X. H. Hu, and B. A. Baum, “Sensitivity of depolarized lidar signals to cloud and aerosol particle properties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.100(1-3), 470–482 (2006), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022407305004097 .
[CrossRef]

Knippertz, P.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus61B, 165–179 (2009), http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/view/16821 .

Larry Pezzaniti, J.

Mouchart, J.

Müller, D.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus61B, 165–179 (2009), http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/view/16821 .

Nakamura, T.

Netterfield, R. P.

R. P. Netterfield, “Practical thin-film polarizing beam-splitters,” Opt. Acta (Lond.)24(1), 69–79 (1977), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/713819379 .
[CrossRef]

Platt, C. M. R.

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar observation of a mixed-phase altostratus cloud,” J. Appl. Meteorol.16(4), 339–345 (1977), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0450%281977%29016%3C0339%3ALOOAMP%3E2.0.CO%3B2 .
[CrossRef]

Sassen, K.

K. Sassen and S. Benson, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing. Part II: Microphysical properties derived from lidar depolarization,” J. Atmos. Sci.58(15), 2103–2112 (2001), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058%3C2103%3AAMCCCF%3E2.0.CO%3B2 .
[CrossRef]

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, and R. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios by hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol.10(5), 1011–1017 (1971), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0450(1971)010%3C1011%3AOBLOLD%3E2.0.CO%3B2 .
[CrossRef]

Schotland, R. M.

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, and R. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios by hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol.10(5), 1011–1017 (1971), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0450(1971)010%3C1011%3AOBLOLD%3E2.0.CO%3B2 .
[CrossRef]

Seefeldner, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus61B, 165–179 (2009), http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/view/16821 .

Shibata, T.

Spinhirne, J. D.

Stone, R.

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, and R. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios by hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol.10(5), 1011–1017 (1971), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0450(1971)010%3C1011%3AOBLOLD%3E2.0.CO%3B2 .
[CrossRef]

Tesche, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus61B, 165–179 (2009), http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/view/16821 .

Toledano, C.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus61B, 165–179 (2009), http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/view/16821 .

Vaughan, M. A.

J. M. Alvarez, M. A. Vaughan, C. A. Hostetler, W. H. Hunt, and D. M. Winkler, “Calibration technique for polarization-sensitive lidars,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.23(5), 683–699 (2006), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JTECH1872.1 .
[CrossRef]

Wiegner, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus61B, 165–179 (2009), http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/view/16821 .

Winkler, D. M.

J. M. Alvarez, M. A. Vaughan, C. A. Hostetler, W. H. Hunt, and D. M. Winkler, “Calibration technique for polarization-sensitive lidars,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.23(5), 683–699 (2006), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JTECH1872.1 .
[CrossRef]

Wirth, M.

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus61B, 165–179 (2009), http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/view/16821 .

Yang, P.

Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, X. H. Hu, and B. A. Baum, “Sensitivity of depolarized lidar signals to cloud and aerosol particle properties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.100(1-3), 470–482 (2006), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022407305004097 .
[CrossRef]

You, Y.

Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, X. H. Hu, and B. A. Baum, “Sensitivity of depolarized lidar signals to cloud and aerosol particle properties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.100(1-3), 470–482 (2006), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022407305004097 .
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

J. Appl. Meteorol.

C. M. R. Platt, “Lidar observation of a mixed-phase altostratus cloud,” J. Appl. Meteorol.16(4), 339–345 (1977), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0450%281977%29016%3C0339%3ALOOAMP%3E2.0.CO%3B2 .
[CrossRef]

R. M. Schotland, K. Sassen, and R. Stone, “Observations by lidar of linear depolarization ratios by hydrometeors,” J. Appl. Meteorol.10(5), 1011–1017 (1971), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0450(1971)010%3C1011%3AOBLOLD%3E2.0.CO%3B2 .
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

J. M. Alvarez, M. A. Vaughan, C. A. Hostetler, W. H. Hunt, and D. M. Winkler, “Calibration technique for polarization-sensitive lidars,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.23(5), 683–699 (2006), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JTECH1872.1 .
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

K. Sassen and S. Benson, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing. Part II: Microphysical properties derived from lidar depolarization,” J. Atmos. Sci.58(15), 2103–2112 (2001), http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0469(2001)058%3C2103%3AAMCCCF%3E2.0.CO%3B2 .
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.

Y. You, G. W. Kattawar, P. Yang, X. H. Hu, and B. A. Baum, “Sensitivity of depolarized lidar signals to cloud and aerosol particle properties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.100(1-3), 470–482 (2006), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022407305004097 .
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (Lond.)

R. P. Netterfield, “Practical thin-film polarizing beam-splitters,” Opt. Acta (Lond.)24(1), 69–79 (1977), http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/713819379 .
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Tellus

V. Freudenthaler, M. Esselborn, M. Wiegner, B. Heese, M. Tesche, A. Ansmann, D. Müller, D. Althausen, M. Wirth, A. Fix, G. Ehret, P. Knippertz, C. Toledano, J. Gasteiger, M. Garhammer, and M. Seefeldner, “Depolarization ratio profiling at several wavelengths in pure Saharan dust during SAMUM 2006,” Tellus61B, 165–179 (2009), http://www.tellusb.net/index.php/tellusb/article/view/16821 .

Other

K. Sassen, “The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: A review and current assessment,” Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc 72, 1848–1866 (1991). http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0477(1991)072%3C1848%3ATPLTFC%3E2.0.CO%3B2 .
[CrossRef]

E. W. Eloranta and P. Piironen, “Depolarization measurements with the high spectral resolution lidar,” in 17th International Laser Radar Conference, (Laser Radar Society of Japan, ICLAS, NASDA, and NIES, Sendai, Japan, 1994). pp. 127–128.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the signal power components for the lidar transmitter and receiver. See text for different symbols and variables.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Iterative determinations of RP, TP, RS, and TS with simulated lidar signals.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative errors of V* and Tp as a function of orientation angle φ uncertainties.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relative errors of Tp and Rs as a function of uncertainties in assumed δv

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Layout of UW airborne Raman lidar. HWP is a half-wavelength-plate. RF1-RF5 are reflecting mirrors. BS1, BS2 are dichroic beam splitters. PMT1-PMT4 are photomultipliers.

Equations (16)

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P= η P L β(r) τ 2 (r) r 2 .
P P = η P L β τ 2 r 2 . P S = η P L β τ 2 r 2 .
δ V = β β = P S P P .
P R =( P P R P + P S R S ) V R . P T =( P P T P + P S T S ) V T .
V * = T P + T S R P + R S δ * (+45°)× δ * (45°) .
δ * (0)= P R P T = ( P P R P + P S R S ) V R ( P P T P + P S T S ) V T = V * R P + δ V R S T P + δ V T S .
P R '=( P S R P + P P R S ) V R . P T '=( P S T P + P P T S ) V T .
δ * (90)= P R ' P T ' = V * δ V R P + R S δ V T P + T S .
R S =(BA δ V )/(1 δ V ). R P =A(1+ δ V ) δ V R . S T S =1 R S . T P =1 R P .
A= δ * (0) δ * (0)+ V * . B= δ * (90) δ * (90)+ V * .
δ V = δ * (0) V * T P R P R S δ * (0) V * T S .
P P = η( P β + P β ) τ 2 r 2 . P S = η( P β + P β ) τ 2 r 2 .
δ L = P P .
δ V = P S P P = δ L + δ A 1+ δ L δ A , δ A = β β .
δ L = δ V δ A 1 δ A δ V .
δ V = δ L + P R P T V * T P R P R S P R P T V * T S 1+ δ L P R P T V * T P R P R S P R P T V * T S .

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