Abstract

We propose a dielectric Bragg mirror that utilizes coherent coupling with multiple quantum wells (MQWs) to significantly enhance light extraction from GaN light-emitting diode (LED). Full vectorial electromagnetic simulation showed that, under constructive interference conditions, the Bragg mirror consisting of two dielectric (SiO2/TiO2) stacks and a silver layer led to >30% enhancement in light extraction, as compared to a single silver mirror. Such significant enhancement by a pre-designed Bragg/metal mirror was ascribed to the vertically oriented radiation pattern and reduced plasmonic metal loss. In addition, the gap distance between the MQWs and a Bragg mirror at which the constructive interference takes place could be controlled by modulating the thickness of the first low-refractive-index layer. Moreover, a two-dimensional periodic pattern was incorporated into an upper GaN layer with the designed Bragg mirror and it was shown that a lattice constant of ~800 nm was optimal for light extraction. We believe that tailoring the radiation profile of light emitters by coherent coupling with designed high-reflectivity mirrors will be a promising route to overcome the efficiency limit of current semiconductor LED devices.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  4. C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(5), 983–985 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, K.-D. Song, and H.-G. Park, “Design of out-coupling structures with metal-dielectric surface relief,” Opt. Express20(15), 17230–17236 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. H. Chen, H. Guo, P. Zhang, X. Zhang, H. Liu, S. Wang, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using Al mirror and atomic layer deposition-TiO2/Al2O3 distributed Bragg reflector backside reflector with patterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express6(2), 022101 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  29. S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011109 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

H. Chen, H. Guo, P. Zhang, X. Zhang, H. Liu, S. Wang, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using Al mirror and atomic layer deposition-TiO2/Al2O3 distributed Bragg reflector backside reflector with patterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express6(2), 022101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

2011 (2)

N.-M. Lin, S.-C. Shei, and S.-J. Chang, “Nitride-based LEDs with high-reflectance and wide-angle Ag mirror+SiO2/TiO2 DBR backside reflector,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(7), 1033–1038 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

S.-K. Kim, J.-W. Lee, H.-S. Ee, Y.-T. Moon, S.-H. Kwon, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “High-efficiency vertical GaN slab light-emitting diodes using self-coherent directional emitters,” Opt. Express18(11), 11025–11032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Baik, B. K. Min, J. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, and H. Kim, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes fabricated with SiO2/TiO2 distributed Bragg reflector coated on mesa sidewall,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based Light Emitters,” IEEE Electron. Lett.57, 79–87 (2010).

2009 (3)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Mergens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs - designing light extraction,” Laser & Photon. Rev.3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, K. K. Park, J. Jang, J. S. Lee, K. W. Park, Y. Park, J.-Y. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Angle-tuned, evanescently-decoupled reflector for high-efficiency red light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express16(9), 6026–6032 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced performance of an InGaN–GaN light-emitting diode by roughening the undoped-GaN surface and applying a mirror coating to the sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 181117 (2007).

2006 (3)

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. K. Hwang, H. Y. Ryu, and Y. H. Lee, “Spontaneous emission rate of an electric dipole in a general microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B60(7), 4688–4695 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ahmed, F.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bae, D. K.

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baik, K. H.

K. H. Baik, B. K. Min, J. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, and H. Kim, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes fabricated with SiO2/TiO2 distributed Bragg reflector coated on mesa sidewall,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baur, J.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based Light Emitters,” IEEE Electron. Lett.57, 79–87 (2010).

Benisty, H.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bergenek, K.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs - designing light extraction,” Laser & Photon. Rev.3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, J. C.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.-J.

Chen, H.

H. Chen, H. Guo, P. Zhang, X. Zhang, H. Liu, S. Wang, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using Al mirror and atomic layer deposition-TiO2/Al2O3 distributed Bragg reflector backside reflector with patterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express6(2), 022101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. W.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced performance of an InGaN–GaN light-emitting diode by roughening the undoped-GaN surface and applying a mirror coating to the sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 181117 (2007).

Cho, H. K.

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, K. K. Park, J. Jang, J. S. Lee, K. W. Park, Y. Park, J.-Y. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Angle-tuned, evanescently-decoupled reflector for high-efficiency red light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express16(9), 6026–6032 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choe, Y. H.

Choi, H. M.

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J.

Choi, J. H.

Choi, W.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. T.

C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

H. Chen, H. Guo, P. Zhang, X. Zhang, H. Liu, S. Wang, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using Al mirror and atomic layer deposition-TiO2/Al2O3 distributed Bragg reflector backside reflector with patterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express6(2), 022101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Mergens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ee, H.-S.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, K.-D. Song, and H.-G. Park, “Design of out-coupling structures with metal-dielectric surface relief,” Opt. Express20(15), 17230–17236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, J.-W. Lee, H.-S. Ee, Y.-T. Moon, S.-H. Kwon, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “High-efficiency vertical GaN slab light-emitting diodes using self-coherent directional emitters,” Opt. Express18(11), 11025–11032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Epler, J. E.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujito, K.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grundmann, M. J.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

H. Chen, H. Guo, P. Zhang, X. Zhang, H. Liu, S. Wang, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using Al mirror and atomic layer deposition-TiO2/Al2O3 distributed Bragg reflector backside reflector with patterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express6(2), 022101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Haberer, E. D.

R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, B.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based Light Emitters,” IEEE Electron. Lett.57, 79–87 (2010).

Han, M.

Han, N.

Harbers, G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Holcomb, M. O.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hon, S. J.

Hong, C.-H.

Hu, E. L.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H. W.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced performance of an InGaN–GaN light-emitting diode by roughening the undoped-GaN surface and applying a mirror coating to the sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 181117 (2007).

Hwang, J. K.

J. K. Hwang, H. Y. Ryu, and Y. H. Lee, “Spontaneous emission rate of an electric dipole in a general microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B60(7), 4688–4695 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

Kaeding, J. F.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. H.

Kang, J.-H.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. C.

C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Katharria, Y. S.

Kim, A. Y.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

K. H. Baik, B. K. Min, J. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, and H. Kim, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes fabricated with SiO2/TiO2 distributed Bragg reflector coated on mesa sidewall,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

J. H. Ryu, H. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, Y. S. Katharria, N. Han, J. H. Kang, Y. J. Park, M. Han, B. D. Ryu, K. B. Ko, E.-K. Suh, and C.-H. Hong, “High performance of InGaN light-emitting diodes by air-gap/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Opt. Express20(9), 9999–10003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. H. Baik, B. K. Min, J. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, and H. Kim, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes fabricated with SiO2/TiO2 distributed Bragg reflector coated on mesa sidewall,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

Kim, J.

Kim, J. Y.

K. H. Baik, B. K. Min, J. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, and H. Kim, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes fabricated with SiO2/TiO2 distributed Bragg reflector coated on mesa sidewall,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.-Y.

Kim, S. H.

Kim, S. K.

Kim, S.-K.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, K.-D. Song, and H.-G. Park, “Design of out-coupling structures with metal-dielectric surface relief,” Opt. Express20(15), 17230–17236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, J.-W. Lee, H.-S. Ee, Y.-T. Moon, S.-H. Kwon, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “High-efficiency vertical GaN slab light-emitting diodes using self-coherent directional emitters,” Opt. Express18(11), 11025–11032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, K. K. Park, J. Jang, J. S. Lee, K. W. Park, Y. Park, J.-Y. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Angle-tuned, evanescently-decoupled reflector for high-efficiency red light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express16(9), 6026–6032 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-H.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ko, K. B.

Ko, T. K.

Krames, M. R.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced performance of an InGaN–GaN light-emitting diode by roughening the undoped-GaN surface and applying a mirror coating to the sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 181117 (2007).

C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, H.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, J.-W. Lee, H.-S. Ee, Y.-T. Moon, S.-H. Kwon, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “High-efficiency vertical GaN slab light-emitting diodes using self-coherent directional emitters,” Opt. Express18(11), 11025–11032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, S.-H.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, J.-W. Lee, H.-S. Ee, Y.-T. Moon, S.-H. Kwon, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “High-efficiency vertical GaN slab light-emitting diodes using self-coherent directional emitters,” Opt. Express18(11), 11025–11032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, C. F.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced performance of an InGaN–GaN light-emitting diode by roughening the undoped-GaN surface and applying a mirror coating to the sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 181117 (2007).

Lai, W.-C.

Laubsch, A.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based Light Emitters,” IEEE Electron. Lett.57, 79–87 (2010).

Lee, B.

Lee, C. E.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced performance of an InGaN–GaN light-emitting diode by roughening the undoped-GaN surface and applying a mirror coating to the sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 181117 (2007).

Lee, J. S.

Lee, J.-W.

Lee, K.

Lee, K. D.

Lee, M.-L.

Lee, Y. H.

Lee, Y.-H.

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, K. K. Park, J. Jang, J. S. Lee, K. W. Park, Y. Park, J.-Y. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Angle-tuned, evanescently-decoupled reflector for high-efficiency red light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express16(9), 6026–6032 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leung, K. M.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced performance of an InGaN–GaN light-emitting diode by roughening the undoped-GaN surface and applying a mirror coating to the sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 181117 (2007).

Lin, C. H.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced performance of an InGaN–GaN light-emitting diode by roughening the undoped-GaN surface and applying a mirror coating to the sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 181117 (2007).

Lin, N.-M.

Linder, N.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs - designing light extraction,” Laser & Photon. Rev.3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

H. Chen, H. Guo, P. Zhang, X. Zhang, H. Liu, S. Wang, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using Al mirror and atomic layer deposition-TiO2/Al2O3 distributed Bragg reflector backside reflector with patterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express6(2), 022101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced performance of an InGaN–GaN light-emitting diode by roughening the undoped-GaN surface and applying a mirror coating to the sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 181117 (2007).

Ludowise, M. J.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Margalith, T.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. S.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, K.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Meier, C.

R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mergens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Mergens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mihopoulos, T. G.

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Min, B. K.

K. H. Baik, B. K. Min, J. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, and H. Kim, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes fabricated with SiO2/TiO2 distributed Bragg reflector coated on mesa sidewall,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Misra, M. S.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Moon, Y.-T.

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mukai, T.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakamura, S.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niki, I.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, H.-G.

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, K.-D. Song, and H.-G. Park, “Design of out-coupling structures with metal-dielectric surface relief,” Opt. Express20(15), 17230–17236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, J.-W. Lee, H.-S. Ee, Y.-T. Moon, S.-H. Kwon, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “High-efficiency vertical GaN slab light-emitting diodes using self-coherent directional emitters,” Opt. Express18(11), 11025–11032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, K. K.

Park, K. W.

Park, Y.

K. H. Baik, B. K. Min, J. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, and H. Kim, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes fabricated with SiO2/TiO2 distributed Bragg reflector coated on mesa sidewall,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, K. K. Park, J. Jang, J. S. Lee, K. W. Park, Y. Park, J.-Y. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Angle-tuned, evanescently-decoupled reflector for high-efficiency red light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express16(9), 6026–6032 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y. J.

Peter, M.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based Light Emitters,” IEEE Electron. Lett.57, 79–87 (2010).

Ryu, B. D.

Ryu, H. Y.

J. K. Hwang, H. Y. Ryu, and Y. H. Lee, “Spontaneous emission rate of an electric dipole in a general microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B60(7), 4688–4695 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, J. H.

Sabathil, M.

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based Light Emitters,” IEEE Electron. Lett.57, 79–87 (2010).

Scherer, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwarz, U. T.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs - designing light extraction,” Laser & Photon. Rev.3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shei, S.-C.

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J.-K.

Shvartser, A.

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sone, C.

K. H. Baik, B. K. Min, J. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, and H. Kim, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes fabricated with SiO2/TiO2 distributed Bragg reflector coated on mesa sidewall,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Song, H. D.

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Song, K.-D.

Steigerwald, D. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, S. A.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Suh, E.-K.

Trottier, T. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

H. Chen, H. Guo, P. Zhang, X. Zhang, H. Liu, S. Wang, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using Al mirror and atomic layer deposition-TiO2/Al2O3 distributed Bragg reflector backside reflector with patterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express6(2), 022101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced performance of an InGaN–GaN light-emitting diode by roughening the undoped-GaN surface and applying a mirror coating to the sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 181117 (2007).

C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Mergens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wiesmann, C.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs - designing light extraction,” Laser & Photon. Rev.3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. C.

Yen, C. H.

Yu, C. C.

C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, P.

H. Chen, H. Guo, P. Zhang, X. Zhang, H. Liu, S. Wang, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using Al mirror and atomic layer deposition-TiO2/Al2O3 distributed Bragg reflector backside reflector with patterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express6(2), 022101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

H. Chen, H. Guo, P. Zhang, X. Zhang, H. Liu, S. Wang, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using Al mirror and atomic layer deposition-TiO2/Al2O3 distributed Bragg reflector backside reflector with patterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express6(2), 022101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

H. Chen, H. Guo, P. Zhang, X. Zhang, H. Liu, S. Wang, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using Al mirror and atomic layer deposition-TiO2/Al2O3 distributed Bragg reflector backside reflector with patterned sapphire substrate,” Appl. Phys. Express6(2), 022101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

R. Sharma, E. D. Haberer, C. Meier, E. L. Hu, and S. Nakamura, “Vertically oriented GaN-based air-gap distributed Bragg reflector structure fabricated using band-gap-selective photoelectrochemical etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 051107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, W. Choi, S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, Y.-H. Kim, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “Surface-plasmon-induced light absorption on a rough silver surface,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(1), 011109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided mode distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, D. K. Bae, J. S. Lee, H.-G. Park, and Y.-H. Lee, “Efficient GaN slab vertical light-emitting diode covered with a patterned high-index layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241118 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S.-K. Kim, H. D. Song, H.-S. Ee, H. M. Choi, H. K. Cho, Y.-H. Lee, and H.-G. Park, “Metal mirror assisting light extraction from patterned AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101102 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(14), 2221–2223 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. David, M. J. Grundmann, J. F. Kaeding, N. F. Gardner, T. G. Mihopoulos, and M. R. Krames, “Carrier distribution in (0001)InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(5), 053502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Laubsch, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, M. Peter, and B. Hahn, “High-power and high-efficiency InGaN-based Light Emitters,” IEEE Electron. Lett.57, 79–87 (2010).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Huang, H. C. Kuo, C. F. Lai, C. E. Lee, C. W. Chiu, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. H. Lin, and K. M. Leung, “Enhanced performance of an InGaN–GaN light-emitting diode by roughening the undoped-GaN surface and applying a mirror coating to the sapphire substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19, 181117 (2007).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. H. Baik, B. K. Min, J. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, and H. Kim, “Light output enhancement of GaN-based flip-chip light-emitting diodes fabricated with SiO2/TiO2 distributed Bragg reflector coated on mesa sidewall,” J. Appl. Phys.108(6), 063105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Tech. (2)

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Optimization of light-diffracting photonic-crystals for high extraction efficiency LEDs,” J. Display Tech.3(2), 133–148 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Laser & Photon. Rev. (1)

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, and U. T. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal LEDs - designing light extraction,” Laser & Photon. Rev.3(3), 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

K. Okamoto, I. Niki, A. Shvartser, Y. Narukawa, T. Mukai, and A. Scherer, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced light emitters based on InGaN quantum wells,” Nat. Mater.3(9), 601–605 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Mergens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

J. H. Ryu, H. Y. Kim, H. K. Kim, Y. S. Katharria, N. Han, J. H. Kang, Y. J. Park, M. Han, B. D. Ryu, K. B. Ko, E.-K. Suh, and C.-H. Hong, “High performance of InGaN light-emitting diodes by air-gap/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors,” Opt. Express20(9), 9999–10003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, H.-S. Ee, K.-D. Song, and H.-G. Park, “Design of out-coupling structures with metal-dielectric surface relief,” Opt. Express20(15), 17230–17236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Yang, J.-K. Sheu, M.-L. Lee, C. H. Yen, W.-C. Lai, S. J. Hon, and T. K. Ko, “Vertical InGaN light-emitting diode with a retained patterned sapphire layer,” Opt. Express20(S6), A1019–A1025 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Cho, J. Jang, J. H. Choi, J. Choi, J. Kim, J. S. Lee, B. Lee, Y. H. Choe, K. D. Lee, S. H. Kim, K. Lee, S. K. Kim, and Y. H. Lee, “Light extraction enhancement from nano-imprinted photonic crystal GaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express14(19), 8654–8660 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, H. K. Cho, K. K. Park, J. Jang, J. S. Lee, K. W. Park, Y. Park, J.-Y. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Angle-tuned, evanescently-decoupled reflector for high-efficiency red light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express16(9), 6026–6032 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, J.-W. Lee, H.-S. Ee, Y.-T. Moon, S.-H. Kwon, H. Kwon, and H.-G. Park, “High-efficiency vertical GaN slab light-emitting diodes using self-coherent directional emitters,” Opt. Express18(11), 11025–11032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. K. Hwang, H. Y. Ryu, and Y. H. Lee, “Spontaneous emission rate of an electric dipole in a general microcavity,” Phys. Rev. B60(7), 4688–4695 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison-Wesley Longman, 2002).

D. R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics: A Ready-Reference Book of Chemical and Physical Data, 88th ed. (CRC Press, 2008).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(A) Schematic of electric dipoles and their image dipoles with polarization normal (left) or parallel (right) to a mirror plane. (B) Extraction efficiency of a GaN structure with a bottom substrate composed of air (solid red) or sapphire (solid black), as a function of distance, d, between random electric dipole sources and the substrate. Right: schematic of the calculated GaN structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) Schematic of a GaN structure with a bottom DBR. (B) Reflectance of 2- (solid red) and 4-pairs (solid brown) of SiO2/TiO2 DBRs and a silver mirror (solid gray), as a function of incident angle. (C) Extraction efficiency of a GaN structure with 2- (solid red) and 4-pairs (solid brown) of SiO2/TiO2 DBRs and a silver mirror (solid gray), as a function of distance, d, between random electric dipole sources and the mirrors. The dashed red curve denotes the values from the GaN structure with 2-pairs of modified SiO2/TiO2 DBR. (D, E) Electric field intensity profiles of the GaN structure with 2-pairs of DBR (D) and a silver mirror (E) when d is 10 (upper, D), 100 (bottom, D), 70 (upper, E) and 120 nm (bottom, E), respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(A) Reflectance of 1- (solid black), 2- (solid red), 3- (solid blue) and 4-pairs (solid green) of SiO2/TiO2 DBRs combined with a silver mirror, which were calculated as a function of incident angle. Inset: schematic of the calculated DBR/silver mirror. (B) Extraction efficiency of a GaN structure with 2-pairs of SiO2/TiO2 DBRs with a silver mirror, calculated as a function of the number of dielectric stacks in the DBR. Inset: schematic of the calculated GaN structure with a bottom DBR/silver mirror.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(A) Schematic of a GaN patterned structure with a bottom DBR/silver mirror. (B) Extraction efficiency of the GaN structure with the DBR/silver (solid red) and single silver mirror (solid gray), as a function of propagation distance, r. Inset: extraction efficiency of the GaN structure with the DBR/silver (solid red) and a single silver mirror (solid gray), as a function of lattice constant, a. For the DBR, 2-pairs of SiO2/TiO2 stacks were used.

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