Abstract

We make the case for minimizing cavity length of extrinsic Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavities for use in fiber-tip sensors. Doing so mitigates multiple challenges that arise from using multimode fibers: mode averaging, phase uncertainty, amplitude reduction, and spectral modal noise. We explore these effects in detail using modal simulations, and construct pressure sensors based on this principle. We discuss the multimodal effects that we observe in our fiber sensors, and use simple filtering of the spectral signal to more easily measure pressure sensitivity. The concept of short-cavity FP interferometry is important for ensuring high quality and performance of multimode fiber sensors.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2011 (3)

É. Pinet, “Pressure measurement with fiber-optic sensors: commercial technologies and applications,” Proc. SPIE7753, 775304, 775304-4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y. Rao, and Y. Wu, “All-fiber curvature sensor based on multimode interference,” IEEE Phot. Tech. L.23(11), 679–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ran, Z. Liu, Y. Rao, F. Xu, D. Sun, X. Yu, B. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Miniature fiber-optic tip high pressure sensors micromachined by 157 nm laser,” IEEE Sens. J.11(5), 1103–1106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2007 (1)

É. Pinet, E. Cibula, and D. Donlagic, “Ultra-miniature all-glass Fabry-Perot pressure sensor manufactured at the tip of a multimode optical fiber,” Proc. SPIE6770, 67700U, 67700U-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2004 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

1990 (1)

S. Shaklan, “Measurement of intermodal coupling in weakly multimode fibre optics,” Electron. Lett.26(24), 2022–2024 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

1978 (1)

Beard, P. C.

Chen, C.-H.

Cibula, E.

É. Pinet, E. Cibula, and D. Donlagic, “Ultra-miniature all-glass Fabry-Perot pressure sensor manufactured at the tip of a multimode optical fiber,” Proc. SPIE6770, 67700U, 67700U-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, K.

Cox, J. A.

Donlagic, D.

É. Pinet, E. Cibula, and D. Donlagic, “Ultra-miniature all-glass Fabry-Perot pressure sensor manufactured at the tip of a multimode optical fiber,” Proc. SPIE6770, 67700U, 67700U-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Y.

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y. Rao, and Y. Wu, “All-fiber curvature sensor based on multimode interference,” IEEE Phot. Tech. L.23(11), 679–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Han, M.

Hill, K. O.

Kawasaki, B. S.

Kost, A.

Kutz, J. N.

Liu, Z.

Z. Ran, Z. Liu, Y. Rao, F. Xu, D. Sun, X. Yu, B. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Miniature fiber-optic tip high pressure sensors micromachined by 157 nm laser,” IEEE Sens. J.11(5), 1103–1106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mafi, A.

Marcuse, D.

Mills, T. N.

Pérennès, F.

Pickrell, G.

Pinet, É.

É. Pinet, “Pressure measurement with fiber-optic sensors: commercial technologies and applications,” Proc. SPIE7753, 775304, 775304-4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

É. Pinet, E. Cibula, and D. Donlagic, “Ultra-miniature all-glass Fabry-Perot pressure sensor manufactured at the tip of a multimode optical fiber,” Proc. SPIE6770, 67700U, 67700U-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ran, Z.

Z. Ran, Z. Liu, Y. Rao, F. Xu, D. Sun, X. Yu, B. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Miniature fiber-optic tip high pressure sensors micromachined by 157 nm laser,” IEEE Sens. J.11(5), 1103–1106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rao, Y.

Z. Ran, Z. Liu, Y. Rao, F. Xu, D. Sun, X. Yu, B. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Miniature fiber-optic tip high pressure sensors micromachined by 157 nm laser,” IEEE Sens. J.11(5), 1103–1106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y. Rao, and Y. Wu, “All-fiber curvature sensor based on multimode interference,” IEEE Phot. Tech. L.23(11), 679–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, R. O.

Shaklan, S.

S. Shaklan, “Measurement of intermodal coupling in weakly multimode fibre optics,” Electron. Lett.26(24), 2022–2024 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D.

Sun, D.

Z. Ran, Z. Liu, Y. Rao, F. Xu, D. Sun, X. Yu, B. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Miniature fiber-optic tip high pressure sensors micromachined by 157 nm laser,” IEEE Sens. J.11(5), 1103–1106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tremblay, Y.

Wang, A.

Wu, Y.

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y. Rao, and Y. Wu, “All-fiber curvature sensor based on multimode interference,” IEEE Phot. Tech. L.23(11), 679–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, B.

Z. Ran, Z. Liu, Y. Rao, F. Xu, D. Sun, X. Yu, B. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Miniature fiber-optic tip high pressure sensors micromachined by 157 nm laser,” IEEE Sens. J.11(5), 1103–1106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, F.

Z. Ran, Z. Liu, Y. Rao, F. Xu, D. Sun, X. Yu, B. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Miniature fiber-optic tip high pressure sensors micromachined by 157 nm laser,” IEEE Sens. J.11(5), 1103–1106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, X.

Z. Ran, Z. Liu, Y. Rao, F. Xu, D. Sun, X. Yu, B. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Miniature fiber-optic tip high pressure sensors micromachined by 157 nm laser,” IEEE Sens. J.11(5), 1103–1106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

Z. Ran, Z. Liu, Y. Rao, F. Xu, D. Sun, X. Yu, B. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Miniature fiber-optic tip high pressure sensors micromachined by 157 nm laser,” IEEE Sens. J.11(5), 1103–1106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, T.

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y. Rao, and Y. Wu, “All-fiber curvature sensor based on multimode interference,” IEEE Phot. Tech. L.23(11), 679–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Shaklan, “Measurement of intermodal coupling in weakly multimode fibre optics,” Electron. Lett.26(24), 2022–2024 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Phot. Tech. L. (1)

Y. Gong, T. Zhao, Y. Rao, and Y. Wu, “All-fiber curvature sensor based on multimode interference,” IEEE Phot. Tech. L.23(11), 679–681 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sens. J. (1)

Z. Ran, Z. Liu, Y. Rao, F. Xu, D. Sun, X. Yu, B. Xu, and J. Zhang, “Miniature fiber-optic tip high pressure sensors micromachined by 157 nm laser,” IEEE Sens. J.11(5), 1103–1106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

É. Pinet, “Pressure measurement with fiber-optic sensors: commercial technologies and applications,” Proc. SPIE7753, 775304, 775304-4 (2011).
[CrossRef]

É. Pinet, E. Cibula, and D. Donlagic, “Ultra-miniature all-glass Fabry-Perot pressure sensor manufactured at the tip of a multimode optical fiber,” Proc. SPIE6770, 67700U, 67700U-8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

X. Wu and O. Solgaard, “Overcoming multimodal effects in optical fiber tip CMOS-compatible Fabry-Pérot sensors,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper JW2A.68. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=QELS-2012-JW2A.68

R. E. Epworth, “The phenomenon of modal noise in fiber systems,” in Optical Fiber Communication (Optical Society of America, 1979), paper ThD1.

C. Kao and P. Russell, Fundamentals of Photonics, B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, eds. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2007), Chap. 9.

Agilent Technologies white paper, “Optical spectrum analysis” (Agilent Technologies). http://cp.literature.agilent.com/litweb/pdf/5963-7145E.pdf

Opsens inc. white paper, “Opsens white-light polarization interferometry technology” (Opsens inc.) http://www.opsens.com/pdf/WLPIREV2.3.pdf

W. C. Young and R. G. Budynas, Roarkʼs Formulas for Stress and Strain, Warren C. Young and Richard G. Budynas, eds. (McGraw-Hill, Boston, Mass., 2002).

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