Abstract

High performance of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) prepared using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) was employed in GaN blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as transparent conductive layers (TCL). By the post-annealing process, the annealed 800°C GZO films exhibited a high transparency above 97% at wavelength of 450 nm. The contact resistance of GZO decreased with the annealing temperature increasing. It was attributed to the improvement of the GZO crystal quality, leading to an increase in electron concentration. It was also found that some Zn atom caused from the decomposition process diffused into the p-GaN surface of LED, which generated a stronger tunneling effect at the GZO/p-GaN interface and promoted the formation of ohmic contact. Moreover, contrast to the ITO-LED, a high light extraction efficiency of 77% was achieved in the GZO-LED at injection current of 20 mA. At 350 mA injection current, the output power of 256.51 mW of GZO-LEDs, corresponding to a 21.5% enhancement as compared to ITO-LEDs was obtained; results are promising for the development of GZO using the MOCVD technique for GaN LED applications.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  4. C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic Carbon-implanted InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diodes using selective area photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Kim, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhanced light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using textured n-type GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 161110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, and J. T. Hsu, “Enhanced output power of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with high-transparency nickel-oxide–indium-tin-oxide ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(5), 646–648 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. T. Yan, C. H. Chen, S. F. Yen, and C. T. Lee, “Ultraviolet ZnO nanorod/p-GaN-heterostructured light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(3), 146–148 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051124 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Y. Oh, M. C. Jeong, W. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, “Properties of transparent conductive ZnO:Al films prepared by co-sputtering,” J. Cryst. Growth274(3–4), 453–457 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Agne, Z. Guan, X. M. Li, H. Wolf, T. Wichert, H. Natter, and R. Hempelmann, “Doping of the nanocrystalline semiconductor zinc oxide with the donor indium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(6), 1204–1206 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, P. S. Lin, T. P. Chen, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Performance of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs using Ga-doped ZnO TCLs prepared by ALD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(23), 2105–2108 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chi, “Low operation voltage of Nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.11(9), H269 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Yamada, A. Miyake, H. Makino, N. Yamamoto, and T. Yamamoto, “Effect of thermal annealing on electrical properties of transparent conductive Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by ion-plating using direct-current arc discharge,” Thin Solid Films517(10), 3134–3137 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. G. Gonçalves, E. Elangovan, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, R. Martins, and E. Fortunato, “Influence of post-annealing temperature on the properties exhibited by ITO, IZO and GZO thin films,” Thin Solid Films515(24), 8562–8566 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. L. Ou, D. S. Wuu, S. P. Liu, Y. C. Fu, S. C. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “Pulsed laser deposition of ITO/AZO transparent contact layers for GaN LED applications,” Opt. Express19(17), 16244–16251 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J. Sun, K. A. Rickert, J. M. Redwing, A. B. Ellis, F. J. Himpsel, and T. F. Kuech, “P-GaN surface treatments for metal contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(4), 415–417 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. C. Hu, C. K. Hsieh, and G. C. Chi, “Effects of thermal annealing on Al-doped ZnO films deposited on p-type Gallium Nitride,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(4), G296–G298 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2013

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, P. S. Lin, T. P. Chen, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Performance of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs using Ga-doped ZnO TCLs prepared by ALD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(23), 2105–2108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Ou, D. S. Wuu, S. P. Liu, Y. C. Fu, S. C. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “Pulsed laser deposition of ITO/AZO transparent contact layers for GaN LED applications,” Opt. Express19(17), 16244–16251 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diodes using selective area photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Yan, C. H. Chen, S. F. Yen, and C. T. Lee, “Ultraviolet ZnO nanorod/p-GaN-heterostructured light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(3), 146–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

T. Yamada, A. Miyake, H. Makino, N. Yamamoto, and T. Yamamoto, “Effect of thermal annealing on electrical properties of transparent conductive Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by ion-plating using direct-current arc discharge,” Thin Solid Films517(10), 3134–3137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chi, “Low operation voltage of Nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.11(9), H269 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

G. Gonçalves, E. Elangovan, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, R. Martins, and E. Fortunato, “Influence of post-annealing temperature on the properties exhibited by ITO, IZO and GZO thin films,” Thin Solid Films515(24), 8562–8566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhanced light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using textured n-type GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 161110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic Carbon-implanted InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. C. Hu, C. K. Hsieh, and G. C. Chi, “Effects of thermal annealing on Al-doped ZnO films deposited on p-type Gallium Nitride,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(4), G296–G298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Y. Oh, M. C. Jeong, W. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, “Properties of transparent conductive ZnO:Al films prepared by co-sputtering,” J. Cryst. Growth274(3–4), 453–457 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

C. C. Pan, C. M. Lee, J. W. Liu, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, “Luminescence efficiency of InGaN multiple-quantum-well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(25), 5249–5251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

T. Agne, Z. Guan, X. M. Li, H. Wolf, T. Wichert, H. Natter, and R. Hempelmann, “Doping of the nanocrystalline semiconductor zinc oxide with the donor indium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(6), 1204–1206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, and J. T. Hsu, “Enhanced output power of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with high-transparency nickel-oxide–indium-tin-oxide ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(5), 646–648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Sun, K. A. Rickert, J. M. Redwing, A. B. Ellis, F. J. Himpsel, and T. F. Kuech, “P-GaN surface treatments for metal contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(4), 415–417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Agne, T.

T. Agne, Z. Guan, X. M. Li, H. Wolf, T. Wichert, H. Natter, and R. Hempelmann, “Doping of the nanocrystalline semiconductor zinc oxide with the donor indium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(6), 1204–1206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barquinha, P.

G. Gonçalves, E. Elangovan, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, R. Martins, and E. Fortunato, “Influence of post-annealing temperature on the properties exhibited by ITO, IZO and GZO thin films,” Thin Solid Films515(24), 8562–8566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

J. T. Yan, C. H. Chen, S. F. Yen, and C. T. Lee, “Ultraviolet ZnO nanorod/p-GaN-heterostructured light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(3), 146–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G. T.

C. C. Pan, C. M. Lee, J. W. Liu, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, “Luminescence efficiency of InGaN multiple-quantum-well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(25), 5249–5251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P. H.

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chi, “Low operation voltage of Nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.11(9), H269 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P. S.

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic Carbon-implanted InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. P.

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, P. S. Lin, T. P. Chen, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Performance of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs using Ga-doped ZnO TCLs prepared by ALD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(23), 2105–2108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chi, G. C.

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chi, “Low operation voltage of Nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.11(9), H269 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. C. Hu, C. K. Hsieh, and G. C. Chi, “Effects of thermal annealing on Al-doped ZnO films deposited on p-type Gallium Nitride,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(4), G296–G298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, P. S. Lin, T. P. Chen, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Performance of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs using Ga-doped ZnO TCLs prepared by ALD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(23), 2105–2108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

H. Kim, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhanced light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using textured n-type GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 161110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. S.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chou, C. H.

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, P. S. Lin, T. P. Chen, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Performance of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs using Ga-doped ZnO TCLs prepared by ALD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(23), 2105–2108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chyi, J. I.

C. C. Pan, C. M. Lee, J. W. Liu, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, “Luminescence efficiency of InGaN multiple-quantum-well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(25), 5249–5251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elangovan, E.

G. Gonçalves, E. Elangovan, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, R. Martins, and E. Fortunato, “Influence of post-annealing temperature on the properties exhibited by ITO, IZO and GZO thin films,” Thin Solid Films515(24), 8562–8566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ellis, A. B.

J. Sun, K. A. Rickert, J. M. Redwing, A. B. Ellis, F. J. Himpsel, and T. F. Kuech, “P-GaN surface treatments for metal contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(4), 415–417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. M.

S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, and J. T. Hsu, “Enhanced output power of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with high-transparency nickel-oxide–indium-tin-oxide ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(5), 646–648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fang, J. S.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fortunato, E.

G. Gonçalves, E. Elangovan, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, R. Martins, and E. Fortunato, “Influence of post-annealing temperature on the properties exhibited by ITO, IZO and GZO thin films,” Thin Solid Films515(24), 8562–8566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fu, Y. C.

Gonçalves, G.

G. Gonçalves, E. Elangovan, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, R. Martins, and E. Fortunato, “Influence of post-annealing temperature on the properties exhibited by ITO, IZO and GZO thin films,” Thin Solid Films515(24), 8562–8566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gong, J. R.

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, P. S. Lin, T. P. Chen, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Performance of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs using Ga-doped ZnO TCLs prepared by ALD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(23), 2105–2108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guan, Z.

T. Agne, Z. Guan, X. M. Li, H. Wolf, T. Wichert, H. Natter, and R. Hempelmann, “Doping of the nanocrystalline semiconductor zinc oxide with the donor indium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(6), 1204–1206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hempelmann, R.

T. Agne, Z. Guan, X. M. Li, H. Wolf, T. Wichert, H. Natter, and R. Hempelmann, “Doping of the nanocrystalline semiconductor zinc oxide with the donor indium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(6), 1204–1206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Himpsel, F. J.

J. Sun, K. A. Rickert, J. M. Redwing, A. B. Ellis, F. J. Himpsel, and T. F. Kuech, “P-GaN surface treatments for metal contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(4), 415–417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Ou, D. S. Wuu, S. P. Liu, Y. C. Fu, S. C. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “Pulsed laser deposition of ITO/AZO transparent contact layers for GaN LED applications,” Opt. Express19(17), 16244–16251 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, C. K.

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. C. Hu, C. K. Hsieh, and G. C. Chi, “Effects of thermal annealing on Al-doped ZnO films deposited on p-type Gallium Nitride,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(4), G296–G298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, J. T.

S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, and J. T. Hsu, “Enhanced output power of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with high-transparency nickel-oxide–indium-tin-oxide ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(5), 646–648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hu, C. C.

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. C. Hu, C. K. Hsieh, and G. C. Chi, “Effects of thermal annealing on Al-doped ZnO films deposited on p-type Gallium Nitride,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(4), G296–G298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. C.

Huang, S. Y.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, D. M.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, J. H.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, M. C.

B. Y. Oh, M. C. Jeong, W. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, “Properties of transparent conductive ZnO:Al films prepared by co-sputtering,” J. Cryst. Growth274(3–4), 453–457 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. W.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhanced light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using textured n-type GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 161110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhanced light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using textured n-type GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 161110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. W.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diodes using selective area photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diodes using selective area photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. C.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuech, T. F.

J. Sun, K. A. Rickert, J. M. Redwing, A. B. Ellis, F. J. Himpsel, and T. F. Kuech, “P-GaN surface treatments for metal contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(4), 415–417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. H.

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chi, “Low operation voltage of Nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.11(9), H269 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, M. K.

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diodes using selective area photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lai, W. C.

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chi, “Low operation voltage of Nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.11(9), H269 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. E.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. M.

C. C. Pan, C. M. Lee, J. W. Liu, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, “Luminescence efficiency of InGaN multiple-quantum-well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(25), 5249–5251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. S.

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic Carbon-implanted InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. T.

J. T. Yan, C. H. Chen, S. F. Yen, and C. T. Lee, “Ultraviolet ZnO nanorod/p-GaN-heterostructured light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(3), 146–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic Carbon-implanted InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. W.

H. Kim, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhanced light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using textured n-type GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 161110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. D.

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diodes using selective area photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. L.

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. C. Hu, C. K. Hsieh, and G. C. Chi, “Effects of thermal annealing on Al-doped ZnO films deposited on p-type Gallium Nitride,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(4), G296–G298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

B. Y. Oh, M. C. Jeong, W. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, “Properties of transparent conductive ZnO:Al films prepared by co-sputtering,” J. Cryst. Growth274(3–4), 453–457 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. W.

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, P. S. Lin, T. P. Chen, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Performance of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs using Ga-doped ZnO TCLs prepared by ALD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(23), 2105–2108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. M.

T. Agne, Z. Guan, X. M. Li, H. Wolf, T. Wichert, H. Natter, and R. Hempelmann, “Doping of the nanocrystalline semiconductor zinc oxide with the donor indium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(6), 1204–1206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, P. S.

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, P. S. Lin, T. P. Chen, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Performance of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs using Ga-doped ZnO TCLs prepared by ALD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(23), 2105–2108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T. Y.

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, P. S. Lin, T. P. Chen, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Performance of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs using Ga-doped ZnO TCLs prepared by ALD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(23), 2105–2108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. Y.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. W.

C. C. Pan, C. M. Lee, J. W. Liu, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, “Luminescence efficiency of InGaN multiple-quantum-well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(25), 5249–5251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. P.

Lu, Y. S.

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Makino, H.

T. Yamada, A. Miyake, H. Makino, N. Yamamoto, and T. Yamamoto, “Effect of thermal annealing on electrical properties of transparent conductive Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by ion-plating using direct-current arc discharge,” Thin Solid Films517(10), 3134–3137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martins, R.

G. Gonçalves, E. Elangovan, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, R. Martins, and E. Fortunato, “Influence of post-annealing temperature on the properties exhibited by ITO, IZO and GZO thin films,” Thin Solid Films515(24), 8562–8566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, A.

T. Yamada, A. Miyake, H. Makino, N. Yamamoto, and T. Yamamoto, “Effect of thermal annealing on electrical properties of transparent conductive Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by ion-plating using direct-current arc discharge,” Thin Solid Films517(10), 3134–3137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Myoung, J. M.

B. Y. Oh, M. C. Jeong, W. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, “Properties of transparent conductive ZnO:Al films prepared by co-sputtering,” J. Cryst. Growth274(3–4), 453–457 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Natter, H.

T. Agne, Z. Guan, X. M. Li, H. Wolf, T. Wichert, H. Natter, and R. Hempelmann, “Doping of the nanocrystalline semiconductor zinc oxide with the donor indium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(6), 1204–1206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oh, B. Y.

B. Y. Oh, M. C. Jeong, W. Lee, and J. M. Myoung, “Properties of transparent conductive ZnO:Al films prepared by co-sputtering,” J. Cryst. Growth274(3–4), 453–457 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ou, S. L.

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Ou, D. S. Wuu, S. P. Liu, Y. C. Fu, S. C. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “Pulsed laser deposition of ITO/AZO transparent contact layers for GaN LED applications,” Opt. Express19(17), 16244–16251 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pai, S. F.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pan, C. C.

C. C. Pan, C. M. Lee, J. W. Liu, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, “Luminescence efficiency of InGaN multiple-quantum-well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(25), 5249–5251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pan, S. M.

S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, and J. T. Hsu, “Enhanced output power of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with high-transparency nickel-oxide–indium-tin-oxide ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(5), 646–648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. J.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diodes using selective area photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, T. Y.

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

H. Kim, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhanced light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using textured n-type GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 161110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, L.

G. Gonçalves, E. Elangovan, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, R. Martins, and E. Fortunato, “Influence of post-annealing temperature on the properties exhibited by ITO, IZO and GZO thin films,” Thin Solid Films515(24), 8562–8566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Redwing, J. M.

J. Sun, K. A. Rickert, J. M. Redwing, A. B. Ellis, F. J. Himpsel, and T. F. Kuech, “P-GaN surface treatments for metal contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(4), 415–417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rickert, K. A.

J. Sun, K. A. Rickert, J. M. Redwing, A. B. Ellis, F. J. Himpsel, and T. F. Kuech, “P-GaN surface treatments for metal contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(4), 415–417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seong, T. Y.

H. Kim, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhanced light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using textured n-type GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 161110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shen, C. C.

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, K. C.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chi, “Low operation voltage of Nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.11(9), H269 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. C. Hu, C. K. Hsieh, and G. C. Chi, “Effects of thermal annealing on Al-doped ZnO films deposited on p-type Gallium Nitride,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(4), G296–G298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shih, W. C.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

H. Kim, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhanced light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using textured n-type GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 161110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

J. Sun, K. A. Rickert, J. M. Redwing, A. B. Ellis, F. J. Himpsel, and T. F. Kuech, “P-GaN surface treatments for metal contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(4), 415–417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tu, R. C.

S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, and J. T. Hsu, “Enhanced output power of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with high-transparency nickel-oxide–indium-tin-oxide ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(5), 646–648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tun, C. J.

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chi, “Low operation voltage of Nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.11(9), H269 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, M. L. Lee, C. C. Hu, C. K. Hsieh, and G. C. Chi, “Effects of thermal annealing on Al-doped ZnO films deposited on p-type Gallium Nitride,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(4), G296–G298 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. K.

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wen, K. S.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wichert, T.

T. Agne, Z. Guan, X. M. Li, H. Wolf, T. Wichert, H. Natter, and R. Hempelmann, “Doping of the nanocrystalline semiconductor zinc oxide with the donor indium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(6), 1204–1206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, H.

T. Agne, Z. Guan, X. M. Li, H. Wolf, T. Wichert, H. Natter, and R. Hempelmann, “Doping of the nanocrystalline semiconductor zinc oxide with the donor indium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(6), 1204–1206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L. W.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Ou, D. S. Wuu, S. P. Liu, Y. C. Fu, S. C. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “Pulsed laser deposition of ITO/AZO transparent contact layers for GaN LED applications,” Opt. Express19(17), 16244–16251 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Wuu, W. K. Wang, W. C. Shih, R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, W. Y. Lin, and J. S. Fang, “Enhanced output power of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs grown on patterned sapphire substrates,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(2), 288–290 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

T. Yamada, A. Miyake, H. Makino, N. Yamamoto, and T. Yamamoto, “Effect of thermal annealing on electrical properties of transparent conductive Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by ion-plating using direct-current arc discharge,” Thin Solid Films517(10), 3134–3137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, N.

T. Yamada, A. Miyake, H. Makino, N. Yamamoto, and T. Yamamoto, “Effect of thermal annealing on electrical properties of transparent conductive Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by ion-plating using direct-current arc discharge,” Thin Solid Films517(10), 3134–3137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, T.

T. Yamada, A. Miyake, H. Makino, N. Yamamoto, and T. Yamamoto, “Effect of thermal annealing on electrical properties of transparent conductive Ga-doped ZnO films prepared by ion-plating using direct-current arc discharge,” Thin Solid Films517(10), 3134–3137 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J. T.

J. T. Yan, C. H. Chen, S. F. Yen, and C. T. Lee, “Ultraviolet ZnO nanorod/p-GaN-heterostructured light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(3), 146–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, U. Z.

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic Carbon-implanted InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, C. L.

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chi, “Low operation voltage of Nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.11(9), H269 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, R. C.

S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, and J. T. Hsu, “Enhanced output power of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with high-transparency nickel-oxide–indium-tin-oxide ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(5), 646–648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yen, K. Y.

K. Y. Yen, C. H. Chiu, C. W. Li, C. H. Chou, P. S. Lin, T. P. Chen, T. Y. Lin, and J. R. Gong, “Performance of InGaN/GaN MQW LEDs using Ga-doped ZnO TCLs prepared by ALD,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(23), 2105–2108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yen, S. F.

J. T. Yan, C. H. Chen, S. F. Yen, and C. T. Lee, “Ultraviolet ZnO nanorod/p-GaN-heterostructured light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(3), 146–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.

H. Kim, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhanced light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using textured n-type GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 161110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Y. Kim, M. K. Kwon, S. J. Park, S. H. Kim, and K. D. Lee, “Enhancement of light extraction from GaN-based green light-emitting diodes using selective area photonic crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Kim, J. Cho, J. W. Lee, S. Yoon, H. Kim, C. Sone, Y. Park, and T. Y. Seong, “Enhanced light extraction of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using textured n-type GaN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(16), 161110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Sheu, Y. S. Lu, M. L. Lee, W. C. Lai, C. H. Kuo, and C. J. Tun, “Enhanced efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with periodic textured Ga-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(26), 263511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Pan, C. M. Lee, J. W. Liu, G. T. Chen, and J. I. Chyi, “Luminescence efficiency of InGaN multiple-quantum-well ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(25), 5249–5251 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Park, Y. S. Choi, J. W. Kang, J. H. Jeong, S. J. Park, D. M. Jeon, J. W. Kim, and Y. C. Kim, “Enhanced optical power and low forward voltage of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with Ga-doped ZnO transparent conducting layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(5), 051124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Agne, Z. Guan, X. M. Li, H. Wolf, T. Wichert, H. Natter, and R. Hempelmann, “Doping of the nanocrystalline semiconductor zinc oxide with the donor indium,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(6), 1204–1206 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Sun, K. A. Rickert, J. M. Redwing, A. B. Ellis, F. J. Himpsel, and T. F. Kuech, “P-GaN surface treatments for metal contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(4), 415–417 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.

C. H. Kuo, C. L. Yeh, P. H. Chen, W. C. Lai, C. J. Tun, J. K. Sheu, and G. C. Chi, “Low operation voltage of Nitride-based LEDs with Al-doped ZnO transparent contact layer,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.11(9), H269 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic Carbon-implanted InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Pan, R. C. Tu, Y. M. Fan, R. C. Yeh, and J. T. Hsu, “Enhanced output power of InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes with high-transparency nickel-oxide–indium-tin-oxide ohmic contacts,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(5), 646–648 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Yan, C. H. Chen, S. F. Yen, and C. T. Lee, “Ultraviolet ZnO nanorod/p-GaN-heterostructured light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(3), 146–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

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[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

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[CrossRef]

G. Gonçalves, E. Elangovan, P. Barquinha, L. Pereira, R. Martins, and E. Fortunato, “Influence of post-annealing temperature on the properties exhibited by ITO, IZO and GZO thin films,” Thin Solid Films515(24), 8562–8566 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Other

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmittance spectra of ITO and GZO films with annealing 600°C and 800°C. The inset shows XRD in 2θ scan mode of the annealed 600°C and 800°C GZO films on sapphire substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

I-V curves of the ITO and the GZO on the p-GaN surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

XPS data analysis of GZO/p-GaN samples: (a) as-deposited state and (b) annealing at 800°C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

AFM images of the (a) as-deposited, annealed (b) 600°C and (c) 800°C GZO/LED samples.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Output power as a function of injection current for GZO-LEDs and ITO-LEDs.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Electrical Properties of ITO and GZO Films

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