Abstract

Organic semiconductor lasers were fabricated by UV-nanoimprint lithography with thresholds as low as 57 W/cm2 under 4 ns pulsed operation. The nanoimprinted lasers employed mixed-order distributed feedback resonators, with second-order gratings surrounded by first-order gratings, combined with a light-emitting conjugated polymer. They were pumped by InGaN LEDs to produce green-emitting lasers, with thresholds of 208 W/cm2 (102 nJ/pulse). These hybrid lasers incorporate a scalable UV-nanoimprint lithography process, compatible with high-performance LEDs, therefore we have demonstrated a coherent, compact, low-cost light source.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. R. D. Xia, W. Y. Lai, P. A. Levermore, W. Huang, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low-threshold distributed-feedback lasers based on pyrene-cored starburst molecules with 1,3,6,8-attached oligo(9,9-dialkylfluorene) arms,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(17), 2844–2850 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Kim, N. Schulte, G. Zhou, K. Müllen, and F. Laquai, “A high gain and high charge carrier mobility indenofluorene-phenanthrene copolymer for light amplification and organic lasing,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 894–897 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser,” Phys. Rev. B67(16), 165107 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. von Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1726–1729 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D. Pisignano, L. Persano, M. F. Raganato, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Gigli, “Room-temperature nanoimprint lithography of non-thermoplastic organic films,” Adv. Mater.16(6), 525–529 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. B. Christiansen, M. Schøler, and A. Kristensen, “Integration of active and passive polymer optics,” Opt. Express15(7), 3931–3939 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, V. Navarro-Fuster, I. Vragovic, J. M. Villalvilla, I. Alonso, V. Trabadelo, S. Merino, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Efficient organic distributed feedback lasers with imprinted active films,” Opt. Express19(23), 22443–22454 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography: Methods and material requirements,” Adv. Mater.19(4), 495–513 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. Rose, Z. G. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature434(7035), 876–879 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. Y. J. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a pi-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron.12(1), 62–69 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(13), 1536–1538 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(20), 201108 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Ichikawa, Y. Tanaka, N. Suganuma, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Low-threshold photopumped distributed feedback plastic laser made by replica molding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.1(42), 5590–5593 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Inigo, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, and G. A. Turnbull, “Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater.25(20), 2826–2830 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

H. Kim, N. Schulte, G. Zhou, K. Müllen, and F. Laquai, “A high gain and high charge carrier mobility indenofluorene-phenanthrene copolymer for light amplification and organic lasing,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Ramirez, P. G. Boj, V. Navarro-Fuster, I. Vragovic, J. M. Villalvilla, I. Alonso, V. Trabadelo, S. Merino, and M. A. Díaz-García, “Efficient organic distributed feedback lasers with imprinted active films,” Opt. Express19(23), 22443–22454 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a pi-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron.12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low Thresholds in Polymer Lasers on Conductive Substrates by Distributed Feedback Nanoimprinting: Progress Toward Electrically Pumped Plastic Lasers,” Adv. Mater.21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Xia, W. Y. Lai, P. A. Levermore, W. Huang, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low-threshold distributed-feedback lasers based on pyrene-cored starburst molecules with 1,3,6,8-attached oligo(9,9-dialkylfluorene) arms,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(17), 2844–2850 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakata and H. Takeuchi, “Diode-pumped polymeric dye lasers operating at a pump power level of 10 mW,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev.107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stroisch, T. Woggon, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, G. Violakis, and S. Pissadakis, “Organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by direct laser interference ablation,” Opt. Express15(7), 3968–3973 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. Demello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Baumann, T. Stoferle, N. Moll, R. F. Mahrt, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, C. Moormann, and U. Scherf, “Organic mixed-order photonic crystal lasers with ultrasmall footprint,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(17), 171108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Christiansen, M. Schøler, and A. Kristensen, “Integration of active and passive polymer optics,” Opt. Express15(7), 3931–3939 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography: Methods and material requirements,” Adv. Mater.19(4), 495–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Vasdekis, G. Tsiminis, J. C. Ribierre, L. O’ Faolain, T. F. Krauss, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Diode pumped distributed Bragg reflector lasers based on a dye-to-polymer energy transfer blend,” Opt. Express14(20), 9211–9216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

A. Rose, Z. G. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature434(7035), 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, M. F. Raganato, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Gigli, “Room-temperature nanoimprint lithography of non-thermoplastic organic films,” Adv. Mater.16(6), 525–529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser,” Phys. Rev. B67(16), 165107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. von Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1726–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ichikawa, Y. Tanaka, N. Suganuma, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Low-threshold photopumped distributed feedback plastic laser made by replica molding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.1(42), 5590–5593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

J. R. Lawrence, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, M. Buck, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Optical properties of a light-emitting polymer directly patterned by soft lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(11), 1955–1957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(13), 1536–1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Alonso, I.

Andrew, P.

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser,” Phys. Rev. B67(16), 165107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lawrence, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, M. Buck, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Optical properties of a light-emitting polymer directly patterned by soft lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(11), 1955–1957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barbarella, G.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, M. F. Raganato, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Gigli, “Room-temperature nanoimprint lithography of non-thermoplastic organic films,” Adv. Mater.16(6), 525–529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser,” Phys. Rev. B67(16), 165107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lawrence, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, M. Buck, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Optical properties of a light-emitting polymer directly patterned by soft lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(11), 1955–1957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bastian, G.

Baumann, K.

K. Baumann, T. Stoferle, N. Moll, R. F. Mahrt, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, C. Moormann, and U. Scherf, “Organic mixed-order photonic crystal lasers with ultrasmall footprint,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(17), 171108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boj, P. G.

Bolten, J.

K. Baumann, T. Stoferle, N. Moll, R. F. Mahrt, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, C. Moormann, and U. Scherf, “Organic mixed-order photonic crystal lasers with ultrasmall footprint,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(17), 171108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, D. D. C.

R. D. Xia, W. Y. Lai, P. A. Levermore, W. Huang, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low-threshold distributed-feedback lasers based on pyrene-cored starburst molecules with 1,3,6,8-attached oligo(9,9-dialkylfluorene) arms,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(17), 2844–2850 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. Demello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bräse, S.

Buck, M.

J. R. Lawrence, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, M. Buck, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Optical properties of a light-emitting polymer directly patterned by soft lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(11), 1955–1957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

A. Rose, Z. G. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature434(7035), 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y. J.

Y. J. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a pi-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron.12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Christiansen, M. B.

Cingolani, R.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, M. F. Raganato, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Gigli, “Room-temperature nanoimprint lithography of non-thermoplastic organic films,” Adv. Mater.16(6), 525–529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crewett, J.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. von Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1726–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

Y. J. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a pi-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron.12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Demello, J. C.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. Demello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Diaz-Garcia, M. A.

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(13), 1536–1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Díaz-García, M. A.

Farrell, T.

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Favaretto, L.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, M. F. Raganato, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Gigli, “Room-temperature nanoimprint lithography of non-thermoplastic organic films,” Adv. Mater.16(6), 525–529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. von Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1726–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Forster, M.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. von Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1726–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gartner, C.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. Demello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gigli, G.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, M. F. Raganato, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Gigli, “Room-temperature nanoimprint lithography of non-thermoplastic organic films,” Adv. Mater.16(6), 525–529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

Y. J. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a pi-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron.12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guilhabert, B.

Y. J. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a pi-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron.12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography: Methods and material requirements,” Adv. Mater.19(4), 495–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, R.

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(13), 1536–1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gyrtner, C.

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Haug, V.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. Demello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low Thresholds in Polymer Lasers on Conductive Substrates by Distributed Feedback Nanoimprinting: Progress Toward Electrically Pumped Plastic Lasers,” Adv. Mater.21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(13), 1536–1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heliotis, G.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. Demello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Herrnsdorf, J.

Y. J. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a pi-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron.12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hide, F.

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(13), 1536–1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hinze, P.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holleitner, A. W.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. von Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1726–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

R. D. Xia, W. Y. Lai, P. A. Levermore, W. Huang, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low-threshold distributed-feedback lasers based on pyrene-cored starburst molecules with 1,3,6,8-attached oligo(9,9-dialkylfluorene) arms,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(17), 2844–2850 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huska, K.

Ichikawa, M.

M. Ichikawa, Y. Tanaka, N. Suganuma, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Low-threshold photopumped distributed feedback plastic laser made by replica molding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.1(42), 5590–5593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Inigo, A. R.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Inigo, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, and G. A. Turnbull, “Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater.25(20), 2826–2830 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johannes, H. H.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kanibolotsky, A. L.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Inigo, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, and G. A. Turnbull, “Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater.25(20), 2826–2830 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a pi-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron.12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karnutsch, C.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. Demello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

H. Kim, N. Schulte, G. Zhou, K. Müllen, and F. Laquai, “A high gain and high charge carrier mobility indenofluorene-phenanthrene copolymer for light amplification and organic lasing,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klar, T. A.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. von Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1726–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klinkhammer, S.

Kowalsky, W.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Koyama, T.

M. Ichikawa, Y. Tanaka, N. Suganuma, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Low-threshold photopumped distributed feedback plastic laser made by replica molding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.1(42), 5590–5593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, P. R.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, T. F.

Kristensen, A.

Lai, W. Y.

R. D. Xia, W. Y. Lai, P. A. Levermore, W. Huang, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low-threshold distributed-feedback lasers based on pyrene-cored starburst molecules with 1,3,6,8-attached oligo(9,9-dialkylfluorene) arms,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(17), 2844–2850 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laquai, F.

H. Kim, N. Schulte, G. Zhou, K. Müllen, and F. Laquai, “A high gain and high charge carrier mobility indenofluorene-phenanthrene copolymer for light amplification and organic lasing,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laurand, N.

Y. J. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a pi-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron.12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, J. R.

J. R. Lawrence, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, M. Buck, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Optical properties of a light-emitting polymer directly patterned by soft lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(11), 1955–1957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ledochowitsch, P.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low Thresholds in Polymer Lasers on Conductive Substrates by Distributed Feedback Nanoimprinting: Progress Toward Electrically Pumped Plastic Lasers,” Adv. Mater.21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

S. Klinkhammer, X. Liu, K. Huska, Y. X. Shen, S. Vanderheiden, S. Valouch, C. Vannahme, S. Bräse, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “Continuously tunable solution-processed organic semiconductor DFB lasers pumped by laser diode,” Opt. Express20(6), 6357–6364 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stroisch, T. Woggon, U. Lemmer, G. Bastian, G. Violakis, and S. Pissadakis, “Organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by direct laser interference ablation,” Opt. Express15(7), 3968–3973 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. Demello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. von Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1726–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Levermore, P. A.

R. D. Xia, W. Y. Lai, P. A. Levermore, W. Huang, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low-threshold distributed-feedback lasers based on pyrene-cored starburst molecules with 1,3,6,8-attached oligo(9,9-dialkylfluorene) arms,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(17), 2844–2850 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Lupton, J. M.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. von Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1726–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mackintosh, A. R.

Y. J. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a pi-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron.12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Madigan, C. F.

A. Rose, Z. G. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature434(7035), 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mahrt, R. F.

K. Baumann, T. Stoferle, N. Moll, R. F. Mahrt, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, C. Moormann, and U. Scherf, “Organic mixed-order photonic crystal lasers with ultrasmall footprint,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(17), 171108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mappes, T.

McGehee, M. D.

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(13), 1536–1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mednick, S. R.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low Thresholds in Polymer Lasers on Conductive Substrates by Distributed Feedback Nanoimprinting: Progress Toward Electrically Pumped Plastic Lasers,” Adv. Mater.21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Merino, S.

Miller, E. K.

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(13), 1536–1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moll, N.

K. Baumann, T. Stoferle, N. Moll, R. F. Mahrt, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, C. Moormann, and U. Scherf, “Organic mixed-order photonic crystal lasers with ultrasmall footprint,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(17), 171108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mollenhauer, T.

K. Baumann, T. Stoferle, N. Moll, R. F. Mahrt, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, C. Moormann, and U. Scherf, “Organic mixed-order photonic crystal lasers with ultrasmall footprint,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(17), 171108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moormann, C.

K. Baumann, T. Stoferle, N. Moll, R. F. Mahrt, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, C. Moormann, and U. Scherf, “Organic mixed-order photonic crystal lasers with ultrasmall footprint,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(17), 171108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low Thresholds in Polymer Lasers on Conductive Substrates by Distributed Feedback Nanoimprinting: Progress Toward Electrically Pumped Plastic Lasers,” Adv. Mater.21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(13), 1536–1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Müllen, K.

H. Kim, N. Schulte, G. Zhou, K. Müllen, and F. Laquai, “A high gain and high charge carrier mobility indenofluorene-phenanthrene copolymer for light amplification and organic lasing,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Namdas, E. B.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low Thresholds in Polymer Lasers on Conductive Substrates by Distributed Feedback Nanoimprinting: Progress Toward Electrically Pumped Plastic Lasers,” Adv. Mater.21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Navarro-Fuster, V.

Nehls, B.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nehls, B. S.

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O’ Faolain, L.

Perepichka, I. F.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Persano, L.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, M. F. Raganato, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Gigli, “Room-temperature nanoimprint lithography of non-thermoplastic organic films,” Adv. Mater.16(6), 525–529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pethrick, R. A.

Y. J. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a pi-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron.12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pflumm, C.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. Demello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pisignano, D.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, M. F. Raganato, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Gigli, “Room-temperature nanoimprint lithography of non-thermoplastic organic films,” Adv. Mater.16(6), 525–529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pissadakis, S.

Rabe, T.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Raganato, M. F.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, M. F. Raganato, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Gigli, “Room-temperature nanoimprint lithography of non-thermoplastic organic films,” Adv. Mater.16(6), 525–529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ramirez, M. G.

Renstrom, P. J.

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ribierre, J. C.

Riedl, T.

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rose, A.

A. Rose, Z. G. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature434(7035), 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakata, H.

H. Sakata and H. Takeuchi, “Diode-pumped polymeric dye lasers operating at a pump power level of 10 mW,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Samuel, I. D. W.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Inigo, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, and G. A. Turnbull, “Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater.25(20), 2826–2830 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a pi-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron.12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev.107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Vasdekis, G. Tsiminis, J. C. Ribierre, L. O’ Faolain, T. F. Krauss, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Diode pumped distributed Bragg reflector lasers based on a dye-to-polymer energy transfer blend,” Opt. Express14(20), 9211–9216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser,” Phys. Rev. B67(16), 165107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lawrence, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, M. Buck, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Optical properties of a light-emitting polymer directly patterned by soft lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(11), 1955–1957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Scherf, U.

K. Baumann, T. Stoferle, N. Moll, R. F. Mahrt, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, C. Moormann, and U. Scherf, “Organic mixed-order photonic crystal lasers with ultrasmall footprint,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(17), 171108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. von Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1726–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schindler, F.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. von Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1726–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schøler, M.

Schulte, N.

H. Kim, N. Schulte, G. Zhou, K. Müllen, and F. Laquai, “A high gain and high charge carrier mobility indenofluorene-phenanthrene copolymer for light amplification and organic lasing,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw, P. E.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. X.

Skabara, P. J.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Inigo, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, and G. A. Turnbull, “Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater.25(20), 2826–2830 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a pi-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron.12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sperling, R.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. von Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1726–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stehr, J.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. von Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1726–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stoferle, T.

K. Baumann, T. Stoferle, N. Moll, R. F. Mahrt, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, C. Moormann, and U. Scherf, “Organic mixed-order photonic crystal lasers with ultrasmall footprint,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(17), 171108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stroisch, M.

Suganuma, N.

M. Ichikawa, Y. Tanaka, N. Suganuma, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Low-threshold photopumped distributed feedback plastic laser made by replica molding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.1(42), 5590–5593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Swager, T. M.

A. Rose, Z. G. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature434(7035), 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takeuchi, H.

H. Sakata and H. Takeuchi, “Diode-pumped polymeric dye lasers operating at a pump power level of 10 mW,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

M. Ichikawa, Y. Tanaka, N. Suganuma, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Low-threshold photopumped distributed feedback plastic laser made by replica molding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.1(42), 5590–5593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, Y.

M. Ichikawa, Y. Tanaka, N. Suganuma, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Low-threshold photopumped distributed feedback plastic laser made by replica molding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.1(42), 5590–5593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tong, M.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low Thresholds in Polymer Lasers on Conductive Substrates by Distributed Feedback Nanoimprinting: Progress Toward Electrically Pumped Plastic Lasers,” Adv. Mater.21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trabadelo, V.

Tsiminis, G.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Inigo, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, and G. A. Turnbull, “Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater.25(20), 2826–2830 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Vasdekis, G. Tsiminis, J. C. Ribierre, L. O’ Faolain, T. F. Krauss, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Diode pumped distributed Bragg reflector lasers based on a dye-to-polymer energy transfer blend,” Opt. Express14(20), 9211–9216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turnbull, G. A.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Inigo, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, and G. A. Turnbull, “Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater.25(20), 2826–2830 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a pi-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron.12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev.107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. E. Vasdekis, G. Tsiminis, J. C. Ribierre, L. O’ Faolain, T. F. Krauss, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Diode pumped distributed Bragg reflector lasers based on a dye-to-polymer energy transfer blend,” Opt. Express14(20), 9211–9216 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser,” Phys. Rev. B67(16), 165107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lawrence, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, M. Buck, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Optical properties of a light-emitting polymer directly patterned by soft lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(11), 1955–1957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Valouch, S.

Vanderheiden, S.

Vannahme, C.

Vasdekis, A. E.

Villalvilla, J. M.

Violakis, G.

Visconti, P.

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, M. F. Raganato, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Gigli, “Room-temperature nanoimprint lithography of non-thermoplastic organic films,” Adv. Mater.16(6), 525–529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

von Plessen, G.

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. von Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1726–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vragovic, I.

Wahlbrink, T.

K. Baumann, T. Stoferle, N. Moll, R. F. Mahrt, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, C. Moormann, and U. Scherf, “Organic mixed-order photonic crystal lasers with ultrasmall footprint,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(17), 171108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. Demello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Inigo, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, and G. A. Turnbull, “Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater.25(20), 2826–2830 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. J. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a pi-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron.12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weimann, T.

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. Demello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Woggon, T.

Xia, R. D.

R. D. Xia, W. Y. Lai, P. A. Levermore, W. Huang, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low-threshold distributed-feedback lasers based on pyrene-cored starburst molecules with 1,3,6,8-attached oligo(9,9-dialkylfluorene) arms,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(17), 2844–2850 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yuen, J. D.

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low Thresholds in Polymer Lasers on Conductive Substrates by Distributed Feedback Nanoimprinting: Progress Toward Electrically Pumped Plastic Lasers,” Adv. Mater.21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, G.

H. Kim, N. Schulte, G. Zhou, K. Müllen, and F. Laquai, “A high gain and high charge carrier mobility indenofluorene-phenanthrene copolymer for light amplification and organic lasing,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Z. G.

A. Rose, Z. G. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature434(7035), 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

R. D. Xia, W. Y. Lai, P. A. Levermore, W. Huang, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low-threshold distributed-feedback lasers based on pyrene-cored starburst molecules with 1,3,6,8-attached oligo(9,9-dialkylfluorene) arms,” Adv. Funct. Mater.19(17), 2844–2850 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (6)

H. Kim, N. Schulte, G. Zhou, K. Müllen, and F. Laquai, “A high gain and high charge carrier mobility indenofluorene-phenanthrene copolymer for light amplification and organic lasing,” Adv. Mater.23(7), 894–897 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Stehr, J. Crewett, F. Schindler, R. Sperling, G. von Plessen, U. Lemmer, J. M. Lupton, T. A. Klar, J. Feldmann, A. W. Holleitner, M. Forster, and U. Scherf, “A low threshold polymer laser based on metallic nanoparticle gratings,” Adv. Mater.15(20), 1726–1729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Inigo, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, and G. A. Turnbull, “Nanoimprinted organic semiconductor laser pumped by a light-emitting diode,” Adv. Mater.25(20), 2826–2830 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Pisignano, L. Persano, M. F. Raganato, P. Visconti, R. Cingolani, G. Barbarella, L. Favaretto, and G. Gigli, “Room-temperature nanoimprint lithography of non-thermoplastic organic films,” Adv. Mater.16(6), 525–529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Namdas, M. Tong, P. Ledochowitsch, S. R. Mednick, J. D. Yuen, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Low Thresholds in Polymer Lasers on Conductive Substrates by Distributed Feedback Nanoimprinting: Progress Toward Electrically Pumped Plastic Lasers,” Adv. Mater.21(7), 799–802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Guo, “Nanoimprint lithography: Methods and material requirements,” Adv. Mater.19(4), 495–513 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

Y. Yang, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Hybrid optoelectronics: A polymer laser pumped by a nitride light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(16), 163306 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. McGehee, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, F. Hide, R. Gupta, E. K. Miller, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Semiconducting polymer distributed feedback lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.72(13), 1536–1538 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Gyrtner, V. Haug, U. Lemmer, T. Farrell, B. S. Nehls, U. Scherf, J. Wang, T. Weimann, G. Heliotis, C. Pflumm, J. C. deMello, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Low threshold blue conjugated polymer lasers with first- and second-order distributed feedback,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(20), 201108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Lawrence, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, M. Buck, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Optical properties of a light-emitting polymer directly patterned by soft lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(11), 1955–1957 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Sakata and H. Takeuchi, “Diode-pumped polymeric dye lasers operating at a pump power level of 10 mW,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(11), 113310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Karnutsch, C. Pflumm, G. Heliotis, J. C. Demello, D. D. C. Bradley, J. Wang, T. Weimann, V. Haug, C. Gartner, and U. Lemmer, “Improved organic semiconductor lasers based on a mixed-order distributed feedback resonator design,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(13), 131104 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Baumann, T. Stoferle, N. Moll, R. F. Mahrt, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, T. Mollenhauer, C. Moormann, and U. Scherf, “Organic mixed-order photonic crystal lasers with ultrasmall footprint,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(17), 171108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedl, T. Rabe, H. H. Johannes, W. Kowalsky, J. Wang, T. Weimann, P. Hinze, B. Nehls, T. Farrell, and U. Scherf, “Tunable organic thin-film laser pumped by an inorganic violet diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(24), 241116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Tsiminis, Y. Wang, P. E. Shaw, A. L. Kanibolotsky, I. F. Perepichka, M. D. Dawson, P. J. Skabara, G. A. Turnbull, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Low-threshold organic laser based on an oligofluorene truxene with low optical losses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 243304 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

I. D. W. Samuel and G. A. Turnbull, “Organic semiconductor lasers,” Chem. Rev.107(4), 1272–1295 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

S. Y. Chou, P. R. Krauss, and P. J. Renstrom, “Nanoimprint lithography,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B14(6), 4129–4133 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Ichikawa, Y. Tanaka, N. Suganuma, T. Koyama, and Y. Taniguchi, “Low-threshold photopumped distributed feedback plastic laser made by replica molding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.1(42), 5590–5593 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Rose, Z. G. Zhu, C. F. Madigan, T. M. Swager, and V. Bulović, “Sensitivity gains in chemosensing by lasing action in organic polymers,” Nature434(7035), 876–879 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (5)

Org. Electron. (1)

Y. J. Chen, J. Herrnsdorf, B. Guilhabert, A. L. Kanibolotsky, A. R. Mackintosh, Y. Wang, R. A. Pethrick, E. Gu, G. A. Turnbull, P. J. Skabara, I. D. W. Samuel, N. Laurand, and M. D. Dawson, “Laser action in a surface-structured free-standing membrane based on a pi-conjugated polymer-composite,” Org. Electron.12(1), 62–69 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

G. A. Turnbull, P. Andrew, W. L. Barnes, and I. D. W. Samuel, “Photonic mode dispersion of a two-dimensional distributed feedback polymer laser,” Phys. Rev. B67(16), 165107 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Threshold of second order DFB lasers made with a holographic grating (period of 355 nm), as a function of output wavelength, the solid line is a guide for the eye. Insert: the CYTOP-encapsulated laser structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic drawing of a mixed-order grating with four periods of second-order gratings in the outcoupling region; (b) Schematic fabrication steps for the DFB structure. A rigid nanostructure template in silicon, a ‘master,’ is pressed onto a perfluoro polyether polymer film to form a negative of the master, a ‘stamp’. Finally, the stamp is used to print the nanostructures into a UV-NIL resist; (c) SEM image of the master structure with fifteen periods of second order gratings in the middle; (d) SEM image of the reference master grating; (e) A cleaved edge SEM image with 75° viewing angle of a UV-NIL mixed-order grating imprinted from the master in (c). The groove depths of the imprinted first and second-order gratings are 65 ± 5 nm and 85 ± 5 nm respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Output intensity as a function of pump power for NIL second-order DFB (open circles) and mixed-order DFB (closed circles); surface emission spectra below (dashed line) and above (solid line) the lasing threshold for (b) second-order and (c) mixed-order DFB. The lasing wavelengths are 536 and 537 nm respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic drawing of a LED pumped polymer laser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Output intensity (closed circles) from a pulsed LED as a function of driving current and the corresponding pulse duration (open circles); (b) surface emission of a mixed-order BBEHP-PPV laser at a wavelength of 537.1 nm as a function of LED intensity; (c) and (d) are the emission spectra at different LED pump intensities showing the onset of two band-edge lasing modes.

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