Abstract

We demonstrated the first 30Tb/s (350 × 85.74Gb/s) optical transmission over 10,181km using bidirectional C/L-bands, 121.2km hybrid fiber spans, DP-QPSK modulation and EDFAs. Achieved 306Petabit/s•km capacity × distance product is the highest reported to date for WDM transmission.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

I. B. Djordjevic, L. L. Minkov, L. Xu, and T. Wang, “Suppression of fiber nonlinearities and PMD in coded-modulation schemes with coherent detection by using turbo equalization,” JOCN1(6), 555–564 (2009).

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

L. D. Garrett, M. H. Eiselt, J. M. Wiesenfeld, M. R. Young, and R. W. Tkach, “Bidirectional ULH Transmission of 160 Gb/s Full-Duplex Capacity over 5000 km in a Fully Bidirectional Recirculating Loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(7), 1757–1759 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

1999 (2)

J. Kani, M. Jinno, T. Sakamoto, S. Aisawa, M. Fukui, K. Hattori, and K. Oguchi, “Interwavelength-band nonlinear interactions and their suppression in multiwavelength-band WDM transmission systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.17(11), 2249–2260 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, A. Farbert, J.-P. Elbers, A. Schopflin, E. Gottwald, and G. Fischer, “3.2Tb/s (80x40 Gbit/s) bidirectional WDM ETDM transmission over 40km standard single mode fibre,” Electron. Lett.35(20), 1752–1753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

K. Suzuki, H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K. Aida, and K. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional 10-channel 2.5 Gbit/s WDM transmission over 250 km using 76 nm (1531–1607 nm) gain-band bidirectional erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.33(23), 1967–1968 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. Chi and M. Kao, “Bidirectional optical fiber transmission systems using Raman amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(2), 312–317 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Abbott, S. M.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

Aida, K.

K. Suzuki, H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K. Aida, and K. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional 10-channel 2.5 Gbit/s WDM transmission over 250 km using 76 nm (1531–1607 nm) gain-band bidirectional erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.33(23), 1967–1968 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aisawa, S.

Anderson, W.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

Aoki, Y.

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Arabaci, M.

Bakhshi, B.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

Bergano, N. S.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

Berganoproc, N.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

Bigo, S.

Cai, J.-X.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

Cai, Y.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

Charlet, G.

Chi, S.

S. Chi and M. Kao, “Bidirectional optical fiber transmission systems using Raman amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(2), 312–317 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Corbel, E.

Corbett, P.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

Corbett, P. C.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

Davidson, C. R.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

Dischler, R.

Djordjevic, I.

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Djordjevic, I. B.

Domagala, G.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

Dutisseuil, E.

M. Salsi, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, C. Koebele, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “155×100Gbit/s coherent PDM-QPSK transmission over 7,200km,” in Proc of ECOC2009, PDP2.5.

Eiselt, M. H.

L. D. Garrett, M. H. Eiselt, J. M. Wiesenfeld, M. R. Young, and R. W. Tkach, “Bidirectional ULH Transmission of 160 Gb/s Full-Duplex Capacity over 5000 km in a Fully Bidirectional Recirculating Loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(7), 1757–1759 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Elbers, J.-P.

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, A. Farbert, J.-P. Elbers, A. Schopflin, E. Gottwald, and G. Fischer, “3.2Tb/s (80x40 Gbit/s) bidirectional WDM ETDM transmission over 40km standard single mode fibre,” Electron. Lett.35(20), 1752–1753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Farbert, A.

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, A. Farbert, J.-P. Elbers, A. Schopflin, E. Gottwald, and G. Fischer, “3.2Tb/s (80x40 Gbit/s) bidirectional WDM ETDM transmission over 40km standard single mode fibre,” Electron. Lett.35(20), 1752–1753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, G.

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, A. Farbert, J.-P. Elbers, A. Schopflin, E. Gottwald, and G. Fischer, “3.2Tb/s (80x40 Gbit/s) bidirectional WDM ETDM transmission over 40km standard single mode fibre,” Electron. Lett.35(20), 1752–1753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Foursa, D.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

Foursa, D. G.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

Fukui, M.

Garrett, L. D.

L. D. Garrett, M. H. Eiselt, J. M. Wiesenfeld, M. R. Young, and R. W. Tkach, “Bidirectional ULH Transmission of 160 Gb/s Full-Duplex Capacity over 5000 km in a Fully Bidirectional Recirculating Loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(7), 1757–1759 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glingener, C.

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, A. Farbert, J.-P. Elbers, A. Schopflin, E. Gottwald, and G. Fischer, “3.2Tb/s (80x40 Gbit/s) bidirectional WDM ETDM transmission over 40km standard single mode fibre,” Electron. Lett.35(20), 1752–1753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Golovchenko, E. A.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

Gottwald, E.

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, A. Farbert, J.-P. Elbers, A. Schopflin, E. Gottwald, and G. Fischer, “3.2Tb/s (80x40 Gbit/s) bidirectional WDM ETDM transmission over 40km standard single mode fibre,” Electron. Lett.35(20), 1752–1753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, V.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

Harvey, G. T.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

Hattori, K.

Huang, M.-F.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Transoceanic Transmission of 40×117.6Gb/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultralow-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(4), 498–505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Idler, W.

Inada, Y.

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Inoue, T.

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Jinno, M.

Jorge, F.

Kajiya, S.

Kani, J.

Kao, M.

S. Chi and M. Kao, “Bidirectional optical fiber transmission systems using Raman amplification,” J. Lightwave Technol.6(2), 312–317 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kawai, S.

K. Suzuki, H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K. Aida, and K. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional 10-channel 2.5 Gbit/s WDM transmission over 250 km using 76 nm (1531–1607 nm) gain-band bidirectional erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.33(23), 1967–1968 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kinjo, K.

Klekamp, A.

Koebele, C.

M. Salsi, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, C. Koebele, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “155×100Gbit/s coherent PDM-QPSK transmission over 7,200km,” in Proc of ECOC2009, PDP2.5.

Konczykowska, A.

Kovsh, D. I.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

Lazaro, J.

Li, H.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

Liu, L.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

Lucero, A.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

Lucero, A. J.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

Lynch, R. L.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

Manna, M.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

Marcoccia, R. M.

Mardoyan, H.

Masuda, H.

K. Suzuki, H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K. Aida, and K. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional 10-channel 2.5 Gbit/s WDM transmission over 250 km using 76 nm (1531–1607 nm) gain-band bidirectional erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.33(23), 1967–1968 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mateo, E.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Transoceanic Transmission of 40×117.6Gb/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultralow-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(4), 498–505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Mazurczyk, M.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

Minkov, L. L.

I. B. Djordjevic, L. L. Minkov, L. Xu, and T. Wang, “Suppression of fiber nonlinearities and PMD in coded-modulation schemes with coherent detection by using turbo equalization,” JOCN1(6), 555–564 (2009).

Mizuochi, T.

Mohs, G.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

Motoshima, K.

Nakagawa, K.

K. Suzuki, H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K. Aida, and K. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional 10-channel 2.5 Gbit/s WDM transmission over 250 km using 76 nm (1531–1607 nm) gain-band bidirectional erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.33(23), 1967–1968 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nissov, M.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

Ogata, T.

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Oguchi, K.

Patterson, W.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

Patterson, W. W.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

Pilipetskii, A.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

Pilipetskii, A. N.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

Qian, D.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Transoceanic Transmission of 40×117.6Gb/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultralow-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(4), 498–505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Sakamoto, T.

Salsi, M.

M. Salsi, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, C. Koebele, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “155×100Gbit/s coherent PDM-QPSK transmission over 7,200km,” in Proc of ECOC2009, PDP2.5.

Sanders, M. M.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

Saunders, R.

Scheerer, C.

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, A. Farbert, J.-P. Elbers, A. Schopflin, E. Gottwald, and G. Fischer, “3.2Tb/s (80x40 Gbit/s) bidirectional WDM ETDM transmission over 40km standard single mode fibre,” Electron. Lett.35(20), 1752–1753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schopflin, A.

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, A. Farbert, J.-P. Elbers, A. Schopflin, E. Gottwald, and G. Fischer, “3.2Tb/s (80x40 Gbit/s) bidirectional WDM ETDM transmission over 40km standard single mode fibre,” Electron. Lett.35(20), 1752–1753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shao, Y.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Transoceanic Transmission of 40×117.6Gb/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultralow-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(4), 498–505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Sinkin, O.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

Suzuki, K.

K. Suzuki, H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K. Aida, and K. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional 10-channel 2.5 Gbit/s WDM transmission over 250 km using 76 nm (1531–1607 nm) gain-band bidirectional erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.33(23), 1967–1968 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tkach, R. W.

L. D. Garrett, M. H. Eiselt, J. M. Wiesenfeld, M. R. Young, and R. W. Tkach, “Bidirectional ULH Transmission of 160 Gb/s Full-Duplex Capacity over 5000 km in a Fully Bidirectional Recirculating Loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(7), 1757–1759 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tokura, T.

Tran, P.

Vaa, M.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

Wang, T.

I. B. Djordjevic, L. L. Minkov, L. Xu, and T. Wang, “Suppression of fiber nonlinearities and PMD in coded-modulation schemes with coherent detection by using turbo equalization,” JOCN1(6), 555–564 (2009).

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Wiesenfeld, J. M.

L. D. Garrett, M. H. Eiselt, J. M. Wiesenfeld, M. R. Young, and R. W. Tkach, “Bidirectional ULH Transmission of 160 Gb/s Full-Duplex Capacity over 5000 km in a Fully Bidirectional Recirculating Loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(7), 1757–1759 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, L.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Transoceanic Transmission of 40×117.6Gb/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultralow-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(4), 498–505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. B. Djordjevic, L. L. Minkov, L. Xu, and T. Wang, “Suppression of fiber nonlinearities and PMD in coded-modulation schemes with coherent detection by using turbo equalization,” JOCN1(6), 555–564 (2009).

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Yaman, F.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Transoceanic Transmission of 40×117.6Gb/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultralow-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(4), 498–505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Young, M. R.

L. D. Garrett, M. H. Eiselt, J. M. Wiesenfeld, M. R. Young, and R. W. Tkach, “Bidirectional ULH Transmission of 160 Gb/s Full-Duplex Capacity over 5000 km in a Fully Bidirectional Recirculating Loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(7), 1757–1759 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Transoceanic Transmission of 40×117.6Gb/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultralow-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(4), 498–505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Zhang, Y.

S. Zhang, Y. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, L. Xu, Y. Shao, and I. B. Djordjevic, “Transoceanic Transmission of 40×117.6Gb/s PDM-OFDM-16QAM over hybrid large-core/ultralow-loss fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol.31(4), 498–505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. Suzuki, H. Masuda, S. Kawai, K. Aida, and K. Nakagawa, “Bidirectional 10-channel 2.5 Gbit/s WDM transmission over 250 km using 76 nm (1531–1607 nm) gain-band bidirectional erbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” Electron. Lett.33(23), 1967–1968 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Scheerer, C. Glingener, A. Farbert, J.-P. Elbers, A. Schopflin, E. Gottwald, and G. Fischer, “3.2Tb/s (80x40 Gbit/s) bidirectional WDM ETDM transmission over 40km standard single mode fibre,” Electron. Lett.35(20), 1752–1753 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. D. Garrett, M. H. Eiselt, J. M. Wiesenfeld, M. R. Young, and R. W. Tkach, “Bidirectional ULH Transmission of 160 Gb/s Full-Duplex Capacity over 5000 km in a Fully Bidirectional Recirculating Loop,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(7), 1757–1759 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

JOCN (1)

I. B. Djordjevic, L. L. Minkov, L. Xu, and T. Wang, “Suppression of fiber nonlinearities and PMD in coded-modulation schemes with coherent detection by using turbo equalization,” JOCN1(6), 555–564 (2009).

Opt. Express (1)

Other (11)

S. Radic, S. Chandrasekhar, A. Srivastava, H. Kim, L. Nelson, S. Liang, K. Tai, and N. Copner, “25 GHz interleaved bi-directional transmission over nonzero dispersion shifted fiber,” in Proc of OFC2001, TuF7.

D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, M. Nissov, M. A. Mills, L. Xu, J.-X. Cai, A. N. Pilipetskii, Y. Cai, C. Breverman, R. R. Cordell, T. J. Carvelli, P. C. Corbett, H. D. Kidorf, and N. S. Bergano, “2.56 Tb/s (256×10Gb/s) transmission over 11,000 km using hybrid Raman/EDFA’s with 80nm of continuous bandwidth,” in Proc of OFC 2002, post-deadline paper FC3.

B. Bakhshi, D. I. Kovsh, G. Mohs, R. L. Lynch, M. Manna, E. A. Golovchenko, W. W. Patterson, M. Vaa, P. Corbett, M. M. Sanders, H. Li, G. T. Harvey, and S. M. Abbott, “Terabit/s field trial over the first installed dispersion-flattened transpacific system,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD27.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, G. Domagala, H. Li, L. Liu, W. W. Patterson, A. N. Pilipetskii, M. Nissov, and N. S. Bergano, “A DWDM Demonstration of 3.73Tb/s over 11,000km using 373 RZ-DPSK Channels at 10Gb/s,” in Proc of OFC2003, PD22.

J.-X. Cai, D. G. Foursa, L. Liu, C. R. Davidson, Y. Cai, W. W. Patterson, A. J. Lucero, B. Bakhshi, G. Mohs, P. C. Corbett, V. Gupta, W. Anderson, M. Vaa, G. Domagala, M. Mazurczyk, H. Li, M. Nissov, A. N. Pilipetskii, and N. S. Bergano, “RZ-DPSK field trial over 13 100 km of installed non slope-matched submarine fibers,” in Proc of OFC2004, PDP34.

M. Salsi, H. Mardoyan, P. Tran, C. Koebele, E. Dutisseuil, G. Charlet, and S. Bigo, “155×100Gbit/s coherent PDM-QPSK transmission over 7,200km,” in Proc of ECOC2009, PDP2.5.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, D. G. Foursa, A. Lucero, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Philipetskii, G. Mohs And, and N. Bergano, “Transmission of 96x100G pre-filtered PDM-RZ-QPSK channels with 300% spectral efficiency over 10,608 km and 400% spectral efficiency over 4,368 km,” in Proc of OFC 2010, Paper PDPB10.

J.-X. Cai, Y. Cai, C. R. Davidson, A. Lucero, H. Zhang, D. Foursa, O. Sinkin, W. Patterson, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and N. Berganoproc, “20 Tbit/s capacity transmission over 6,860 km,” in Proc of OFC2011, PDPB4.

D. Qian, M. F. Huang, S. Zhang, P. Ji, Y. Shao, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “Transmission of 115×100G PDM-8QAM-OFDM channels with 4bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 10,181km,” in Proc of ECOC 2011, PD Th.13.K.3.

S. Zhang, M.-F. Huang, F. Yaman, E. Mateo, D. Qian, Y. Zhang, L. Xu, Y. Shao, I. Djordjevic, T. Wang, Y. Inada, T. Inoue, T. Ogata, and Y. Aoki, “40×117.6 Gb/s PDM-16QAM OFDM transmission over 10,181 km with soft-decision LDPC coding and nonlinearity compensation,” in Proc of OFC2012, PDP5C.

M. Mazurczyk, D. G. Foursa, H. G. Batshon, H. Zhang, C. R. Davidson, J.-X. Cai, A. Pilipetskii, G. Mohs, and S. Neal, Bergano., “30 Tb/s Transmission over 6,630 km Using 16QAM Signals at 6.1 bits/s/Hz Spectral Efficiency,” in Proc of ECOC2012, PD Th.3.C.2.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

C × D product over time.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup and optical spectrum (at 0.01nm RBW).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FEC waterfall.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Back-to-back measurement of received signal Q-factor vs. OSNR.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Optical spectrum (in 0.1nm RBW) after 10,181-km transmission.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured Q-factor after 10,181-km transmission.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Q-factor vs. transmitted distance.

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