Abstract

We proposed and demonstrated a novel optical modulator based on a bidirectional grating coupler designed for perfectly vertical fiber coupling. The grating functions as the fiber coupler and 3-dB splitter. To observe the interference, an arm difference of 30μm is introduced. As a result of the high coupling efficiency and near perfect split ratio of the grating coupler, this device exhibits a low on-chip insertion loss of 5.4dB (coupling loss included) and high on-off extinction ratio more than 20dB. The modulation efficiency is estimated to be within 3-3.84V•cm. In order to investigate the fiber misalignment tolerance of this modulator, misalignment influence of the static characteristics is analyzed. 10Gb/s Data transmission experiments of this device are performed with different fiber launch positions. The energy efficiency is estimated to be 8.1pJ/bit.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (9)

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15093–15099 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tanaka, S. H. Jeong, S. Sekiguchi, T. Kurahashi, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “High-output-power, single-wavelength silicon hybrid laser using precise flip-chip bonding technology,” Opt. Express 20(27), 28057–28069 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Messaoudene, S. Keyvaninia, C. Jany, F. Poingt, F. Lelarge, G. De Valicourt, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, F. Lelarge, J. Fedeli, and G. Duan, “Low-Threshold Heterogeneously Integrated InP/SOI Lasers With a Double Adiabatic Taper Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 76–78 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Hui and W. Bogaerts, “An Equivalent Circuit Model of the Traveling Wave Electrode for Carrier-Depletion-Based Silicon Optical Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(11), 1602–1609 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ding, H. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Ji, Y. Tian, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, and R. Min, “Low-voltage, high-extinction-ratio, Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator for CMOS-compatible integration,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3209–3218 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE 8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ding, H. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Ji, Y. Tian, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, R. Min, and M. Yu, “Ultra-low-power carrier-depletion Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator,” Opt. Express 20(7), 7081–7087 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-Enabled CMOS Photonics Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. Van Thourhout, “Grating-Based Optical Fiber Interfaces for Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 571–580 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Song, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18029–18035 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

Y. H. Y. Hui, B. W., and D. K. A., “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1763–1768 (2010).

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, “Performance Evolutions of Carrier Depletion Silicon Optical Modulators: From p-n to p-i-p-i-n Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 179–184 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Etched waveguide grating variable 1×2 splitter/combiner and waveguide coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(5), 268–270 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 29(23), 2749–2751 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

A., D. K.

Y. H. Y. Hui, B. W., and D. K. A., “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(12), 1763–1768 (2010).

Abdalla, S.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE 8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

Alic, N.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

Almeida, V. R.

Baets, R.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bienstman, P.

Bogaerts, W.

Bowers, J. E.

Cassan, E.

G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, “Performance Evolutions of Carrier Depletion Silicon Optical Modulators: From p-n to p-i-p-i-n Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 179–184 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Etched waveguide grating variable 1×2 splitter/combiner and waveguide coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(5), 268–270 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chu, T.

Cohen, O.

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

De Dobbelaere, P.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-Enabled CMOS Photonics Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

De Dobbelaere, P. M.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE 8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Valicourt, G.

S. Messaoudene, S. Keyvaninia, C. Jany, F. Poingt, F. Lelarge, G. De Valicourt, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, F. Lelarge, J. Fedeli, and G. Duan, “Low-Threshold Heterogeneously Integrated InP/SOI Lasers With a Double Adiabatic Taper Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 76–78 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

Duan, G.

S. Messaoudene, S. Keyvaninia, C. Jany, F. Poingt, F. Lelarge, G. De Valicourt, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, F. Lelarge, J. Fedeli, and G. Duan, “Low-Threshold Heterogeneously Integrated InP/SOI Lasers With a Double Adiabatic Taper Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 76–78 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dumon, P.

Emerson, N. G.

Fang, A. W.

Fedeli, J.

S. Messaoudene, S. Keyvaninia, C. Jany, F. Poingt, F. Lelarge, G. De Valicourt, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, F. Lelarge, J. Fedeli, and G. Duan, “Low-Threshold Heterogeneously Integrated InP/SOI Lasers With a Double Adiabatic Taper Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 76–78 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J.-M.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Foltz, D.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE 8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fung, C. K. Y.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gardes, F. Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gloeckner, S.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE 8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-Enabled CMOS Photonics Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[Crossref]

Halir, R.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. Van Thourhout, “Grating-Based Optical Fiber Interfaces for Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 571–580 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

Hovey, S.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE 8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, Y.

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A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
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A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-Enabled CMOS Photonics Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
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A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
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A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE 8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
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M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
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Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
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A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
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Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
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F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
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G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
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S. Messaoudene, S. Keyvaninia, C. Jany, F. Poingt, F. Lelarge, G. De Valicourt, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, F. Lelarge, J. Fedeli, and G. Duan, “Low-Threshold Heterogeneously Integrated InP/SOI Lasers With a Double Adiabatic Taper Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 76–78 (2012).
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G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. Van Thourhout, “Grating-Based Optical Fiber Interfaces for Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 571–580 (2011).
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D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
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L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
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A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE 8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
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A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-Enabled CMOS Photonics Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(3), 597–608 (2011).
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A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
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Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
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Schramm, J.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE 8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
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Selvaraja, S.

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D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
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A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE 8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
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A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE 8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
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[Crossref]

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express 19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
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Tsang, H. K.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Etched waveguide grating variable 1×2 splitter/combiner and waveguide coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(5), 268–270 (2009).
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Van Campenhout, J.

Van Thourhout, D.

S. Messaoudene, S. Keyvaninia, C. Jany, F. Poingt, F. Lelarge, G. De Valicourt, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, F. Lelarge, J. Fedeli, and G. Duan, “Low-Threshold Heterogeneously Integrated InP/SOI Lasers With a Double Adiabatic Taper Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(1), 76–78 (2012).
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A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE 8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
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Xiao, X.

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Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature 435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
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G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 518–526 (2010).
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Nature (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature 427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
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D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express 18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
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Other (1)

G. Roelkens, J. Schrauwen, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “High Efficiency Fiber-to-Waveguide Grating Couplers in Silicon-on-Insulator Waveguide Structures,” in Integrated Photonics and Nanophotonics Research and Applications / Slow and Fast Light (Optical Society of America, 2007), p. C2.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The 3-D schematic of the proposed optical modulator device structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characteristics of the grating. (a) Cross-sectional view of the grating coupler. (b) Simulated electric field intensity distribution of the grating cross-section (c) Split ratio of the bidirectional grating with different fiber launch positions. (d) Comparison between the simulated and measured coupling efficiency at different fiber launch positions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The total coupling efficiency curve of the grating coupler with different filling factor (FF). (b) The wavelength dependent split ratio curve of different grating filling factor (FF).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic cross-sectional view of the phase shifter. (b) The microscope photo of the fabricated optical modulator.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured fiber to fiber normalized transmission of the device. (b) Misalignment tolerance of the modulator IL and notch depth.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectra response with different applied voltages (a) when LP = −1μm (b) when LP = 0μm (c) when LP = 1μm respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The wavelength dependent relationship of the static ER with the applied voltage varying from 0 to 6v at different fiber launch positions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental set-up of the modulator measurement.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

10Gb/s Eye diagrams test with fiber launch positions of (a) −1μm (b) 0μm (c) 1μm.

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Λ= λ N eff
E d1 (x) D L d exp( ( x+L/2 ) 2 L d )
E d2 (x) D L d exp( ( xL/2 ) 2 L d )
E f (x) 1 w 0 exp( ( xμ ) 2 w 0 2 )
η 1 = | μd/2 μ+d/2 E d1 (x)Aexp[ (xμ) 2 w 0 2 ] dx | 2
η 2 = | μd/2 μ+d/2 E d2 (x)Aexp[ ( xμ ) 2 w 0 2 ]dx | 2
η 1 exp( μ L d )
η 2 exp( μ L d )
R(μ)= S 1S = η 2 η 1 =exp( 2μ L d )
I out = I in ( 1 2 + S(1S) cosΔΦ )
ΔΦ= 2π N effw λ ΔL± 2π N effg λ 2Δx
ΔΦ=(2n+1)π
λ d = 2 N effw ΔL±2 N effg 2Δx 2n+1
FSR= λ 1 λ 2 N gw ΔL λ 0 2 N gw ΔL
FSR= λ 1 λ 2 N gw ΔL± N gg 2Δx λ 0 2 N gw ΔL± N gg 2Δx
E=C V PP 2 /4

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