Abstract

We proposed and demonstrated a novel optical modulator based on a bidirectional grating coupler designed for perfectly vertical fiber coupling. The grating functions as the fiber coupler and 3-dB splitter. To observe the interference, an arm difference of 30μm is introduced. As a result of the high coupling efficiency and near perfect split ratio of the grating coupler, this device exhibits a low on-chip insertion loss of 5.4dB (coupling loss included) and high on-off extinction ratio more than 20dB. The modulation efficiency is estimated to be within 3-3.84V•cm. In order to investigate the fiber misalignment tolerance of this modulator, misalignment influence of the static characteristics is analyzed. 10Gb/s Data transmission experiments of this device are performed with different fiber launch positions. The energy efficiency is estimated to be 8.1pJ/bit.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (9)

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Messaoudene, S. Keyvaninia, C. Jany, F. Poingt, F. Lelarge, G. De Valicourt, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, F. Lelarge, J. Fedeli, and G. Duan, “Low-Threshold Heterogeneously Integrated InP/SOI Lasers With a Double Adiabatic Taper Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 76–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Ding, H. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Ji, Y. Tian, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, and R. Min, “Low-voltage, high-extinction-ratio, Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator for CMOS-compatible integration,” Opt. Express20(3), 3209–3218 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ding, H. Chen, L. Yang, L. Zhang, R. Ji, Y. Tian, W. Zhu, Y. Lu, P. Zhou, R. Min, and M. Yu, “Ultra-low-power carrier-depletion Mach-Zehnder silicon optical modulator,” Opt. Express20(7), 7081–7087 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Xu, X. Xiao, X. Li, Y. Hu, Z. Li, T. Chu, Y. Yu, and J. Yu, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on interleaved PN junctions,” Opt. Express20(14), 15093–15099 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Hui and W. Bogaerts, “An Equivalent Circuit Model of the Traveling Wave Electrode for Carrier-Depletion-Based Silicon Optical Modulators,” J. Lightwave Technol.30(11), 1602–1609 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Tanaka, S. H. Jeong, S. Sekiguchi, T. Kurahashi, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “High-output-power, single-wavelength silicon hybrid laser using precise flip-chip bonding technology,” Opt. Express20(27), 28057–28069 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Tu, T. Y. Liow, J. Song, M. Yu, and G. Q. Lo, “Fabrication of low loss and high speed silicon optical modulator using doping compensation method,” Opt. Express19(19), 18029–18035 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-Enabled CMOS Photonics Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. Van Thourhout, “Grating-Based Optical Fiber Interfaces for Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 571–580 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (6)

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun.283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, “Performance Evolutions of Carrier Depletion Silicon Optical Modulators: From p-n to p-i-p-i-n Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 179–184 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Y. Hui, B. W., and D. K. A., “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(12), 1763–1768 (2010).

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Etched waveguide grating variable 1×2 splitter/combiner and waveguide coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(5), 268–270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

2005 (1)

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Taillaert, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Compact efficient broadband grating coupler for silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Lett.29(23), 2749–2751 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

1987 (1)

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A., D. K.

Y. H. Y. Hui, B. W., and D. K. A., “Optimization of ion implantation condition for depletion-type silicon optical modulators,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(12), 1763–1768 (2010).

Abdalla, S.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Absil, P.

Alic, N.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alloatti, L.

Almeida, V. R.

Baets, R.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B.

R. Soref and B. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

Bogaerts, W.

Bowers, J. E.

Cassan, E.

G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, “Performance Evolutions of Carrier Depletion Silicon Optical Modulators: From p-n to p-i-p-i-n Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 179–184 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Etched waveguide grating variable 1×2 splitter/combiner and waveguide coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(5), 268–270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

Cohen, O.

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De Dobbelaere, P.

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-Enabled CMOS Photonics Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

De Dobbelaere, P. M.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De Valicourt, G.

S. Messaoudene, S. Keyvaninia, C. Jany, F. Poingt, F. Lelarge, G. De Valicourt, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, F. Lelarge, J. Fedeli, and G. Duan, “Low-Threshold Heterogeneously Integrated InP/SOI Lasers With a Double Adiabatic Taper Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 76–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ding, J.

Duan, G.

S. Messaoudene, S. Keyvaninia, C. Jany, F. Poingt, F. Lelarge, G. De Valicourt, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, F. Lelarge, J. Fedeli, and G. Duan, “Low-Threshold Heterogeneously Integrated InP/SOI Lasers With a Double Adiabatic Taper Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 76–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

Emerson, N. G.

Fang, A. W.

Fedeli, J.

S. Messaoudene, S. Keyvaninia, C. Jany, F. Poingt, F. Lelarge, G. De Valicourt, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, F. Lelarge, J. Fedeli, and G. Duan, “Low-Threshold Heterogeneously Integrated InP/SOI Lasers With a Double Adiabatic Taper Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 76–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Foltz, D.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fung, C. K. Y.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gloeckner, S.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-Enabled CMOS Photonics Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Halir, R.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. Van Thourhout, “Grating-Based Optical Fiber Interfaces for Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 571–580 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hillerkuss, D.

Hovey, S.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
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A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
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M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun.283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
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X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
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A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
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A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
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A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-Enabled CMOS Photonics Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 597–608 (2011).
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S. Messaoudene, S. Keyvaninia, C. Jany, F. Poingt, F. Lelarge, G. De Valicourt, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, F. Lelarge, J. Fedeli, and G. Duan, “Low-Threshold Heterogeneously Integrated InP/SOI Lasers With a Double Adiabatic Taper Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 76–78 (2012).
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A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-Enabled CMOS Photonics Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 597–608 (2011).
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L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
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A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
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A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
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M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun.283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
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Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
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A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
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A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
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A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-Enabled CMOS Photonics Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 597–608 (2011).
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S. Messaoudene, S. Keyvaninia, C. Jany, F. Poingt, F. Lelarge, G. De Valicourt, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, F. Lelarge, J. Fedeli, and G. Duan, “Low-Threshold Heterogeneously Integrated InP/SOI Lasers With a Double Adiabatic Taper Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 76–78 (2012).
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Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
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M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun.283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, “Performance Evolutions of Carrier Depletion Silicon Optical Modulators: From p-n to p-i-p-i-n Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 179–184 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
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F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
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G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roelkens, G.

S. Messaoudene, S. Keyvaninia, C. Jany, F. Poingt, F. Lelarge, G. De Valicourt, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, F. Lelarge, J. Fedeli, and G. Duan, “Low-Threshold Heterogeneously Integrated InP/SOI Lasers With a Double Adiabatic Taper Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 76–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. Van Thourhout, “Grating-Based Optical Fiber Interfaces for Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 571–580 (2011).
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D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
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L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahni, S.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-Enabled CMOS Photonics Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 597–608 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schramm, J.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
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Sekiguchi, S.

Selvaraja, S.

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. Van Thourhout, “Grating-Based Optical Fiber Interfaces for Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 571–580 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharp, M.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
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Song, D.

A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
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D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express19(12), 11804–11814 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

Tsang, H. K.

X. Chen, C. Li, C. K. Y. Fung, S. M. G. Lo, and H. K. Tsang, “Apodized waveguide grating couplers for efficient coupling to optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(15), 1156–1158 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Chen, C. Li, and H. K. Tsang, “Etched waveguide grating variable 1×2 splitter/combiner and waveguide coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(5), 268–270 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tu, X.

Van Campenhout, J.

Van Thourhout, D.

S. Messaoudene, S. Keyvaninia, C. Jany, F. Poingt, F. Lelarge, G. De Valicourt, G. Roelkens, D. Van Thourhout, F. Lelarge, J. Fedeli, and G. Duan, “Low-Threshold Heterogeneously Integrated InP/SOI Lasers With a Double Adiabatic Taper Coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 76–78 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, R. Halir, W. Bogaerts, and D. Van Thourhout, “Grating-Based Optical Fiber Interfaces for Silicon-on-Insulator Photonic Integrated Circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 571–580 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Vermeulen, S. Selvaraja, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, W. Bogaerts, P. Absil, D. Van Thourhout, and G. Roelkens, “High-efficiency fiber-to-chip grating couplers realized using an advanced CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator platform,” Opt. Express18(17), 18278–18283 (2010).
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Vermeulen, D.

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A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
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A. Mekis, S. Abdalla, P. M. De Dobbelaere, D. Foltz, S. Gloeckner, S. Hovey, S. Jackson, Y. Liang, M. Mack, G. Masini, R. Novais, M. Peterson, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, J. Schramm, M. Sharp, D. Song, B. P. Welch, K. Yokoyama, and S. Yu, “Scaling CMOS photonics transceivers beyond 100 Gb/s,” Proc. SPIE8265, 82650A–82650A, 82650A-8 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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G. Rasigade, D. Marris-Morini, L. Vivien, and E. Cassan, “Performance Evolutions of Carrier Depletion Silicon Optical Modulators: From p-n to p-i-p-i-n Diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 179–184 (2010).
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A. Mekis, S. Gloeckner, G. Masini, A. Narasimha, T. Pinguet, S. Sahni, and P. De Dobbelaere, “A grating-coupler-Enabled CMOS Photonics Platform,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(3), 597–608 (2011).
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A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. Pu, L. Liu, H. Ou, K. Yvind, and J. M. Hvam, “Ultra-low-loss inverted taper coupler for silicon-on-insulator ridge waveguide,” Opt. Commun.283(19), 3678–3682 (2010).
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S. Tanaka, S. H. Jeong, S. Sekiguchi, T. Kurahashi, Y. Tanaka, and K. Morito, “High-output-power, single-wavelength silicon hybrid laser using precise flip-chip bonding technology,” Opt. Express20(27), 28057–28069 (2012).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The 3-D schematic of the proposed optical modulator device structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characteristics of the grating. (a) Cross-sectional view of the grating coupler. (b) Simulated electric field intensity distribution of the grating cross-section (c) Split ratio of the bidirectional grating with different fiber launch positions. (d) Comparison between the simulated and measured coupling efficiency at different fiber launch positions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The total coupling efficiency curve of the grating coupler with different filling factor (FF). (b) The wavelength dependent split ratio curve of different grating filling factor (FF).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic cross-sectional view of the phase shifter. (b) The microscope photo of the fabricated optical modulator.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Measured fiber to fiber normalized transmission of the device. (b) Misalignment tolerance of the modulator IL and notch depth.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectra response with different applied voltages (a) when LP = −1μm (b) when LP = 0μm (c) when LP = 1μm respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The wavelength dependent relationship of the static ER with the applied voltage varying from 0 to 6v at different fiber launch positions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Experimental set-up of the modulator measurement.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

10Gb/s Eye diagrams test with fiber launch positions of (a) −1μm (b) 0μm (c) 1μm.

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Λ= λ N eff
E d1 (x) D L d exp( ( x+L/2 ) 2 L d )
E d2 (x) D L d exp( ( xL/2 ) 2 L d )
E f (x) 1 w 0 exp( ( xμ ) 2 w 0 2 )
η 1 = | μd/2 μ+d/2 E d1 (x)Aexp[ (xμ) 2 w 0 2 ] dx | 2
η 2 = | μd/2 μ+d/2 E d2 (x)Aexp[ ( xμ ) 2 w 0 2 ]dx | 2
η 1 exp( μ L d )
η 2 exp( μ L d )
R(μ)= S 1S = η 2 η 1 =exp( 2μ L d )
I out = I in ( 1 2 + S(1S) cosΔΦ )
ΔΦ= 2π N effw λ ΔL± 2π N effg λ 2Δx
ΔΦ=(2n+1)π
λ d = 2 N effw ΔL±2 N effg 2Δx 2n+1
FSR= λ 1 λ 2 N gw ΔL λ 0 2 N gw ΔL
FSR= λ 1 λ 2 N gw ΔL± N gg 2Δx λ 0 2 N gw ΔL± N gg 2Δx
E=C V PP 2 /4

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