Abstract

One of the challenges of the high refractive index contrast of silicon photonics platform is the high sensitivity of the resonance wavelength of resonators to dimensional variations caused by fabrication process variations. In this work, we have experimentally demonstrated an accurate post-fabrication trimming technique for optical devices that is robust to process variations. Using this technique, we have reduced the random variation of the resonance wavelength of 4 µm diameter resonators by a factor of 6 to below 50 pm. The level of accuracy achieved in this work is adequate for most of the RF-photonic, interconnect, and optical signal processing applications. We also discuss the throughput of this technique and its viability for wafer-scale post-fabrication trimming of silicon photonic chips.

© 2013 OSA

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References

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2012 (3)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

2009 (3)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Athermalizing and Trimming of Slotted Silicon Microring Resonators With UV-Sensitive PMMA Upper-Cladding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1175–1177 (2009).
[Crossref]

Q. Li, M. Soltani, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “Design and demonstration of compact, wide bandwidth coupled-resonator filters on a silicon-on- insulator platform,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2247–2254 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2006 (1)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

H. Haeiwa, T. Naganawa, and Y. Kokubun, “Wide range center wavelength trimming of vertically coupled microring resonator filter by direct UV irradiation to SiN ring core,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 135–137 (2004).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

C. G. Robertson and G. L. Wilkes, “Refractive index: A probe for monitoring volume relaxation during physical aging of glassy polymers,” Polymer (Guildf.) 39(11), 2129–2133 (1998).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

C. B. Norris and E. P. Eernisse, “Ionization dilatation effects in fused silica from 2 to 18-Kev electron-irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(9), 3876–3882 (1974).
[Crossref]

Adibi, A.

Agarwal, A.

Baets, R.

Beeckman, J.

Canciamilla, A.

Chamanzar, M.

De Cort, W.

Eernisse, E. P.

C. B. Norris and E. P. Eernisse, “Ionization dilatation effects in fused silica from 2 to 18-Kev electron-irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(9), 3876–3882 (1974).
[Crossref]

Eftekhar, A. A.

Eich, M.

Gleason, K. K.

Grillanda, S.

Haeiwa, H.

H. Haeiwa, T. Naganawa, and Y. Kokubun, “Wide range center wavelength trimming of vertically coupled microring resonator filter by direct UV irradiation to SiN ring core,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 135–137 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hong, C. Y.

Jen, A. K.

Kimerling, L. C.

Kokubun, Y.

H. Haeiwa, T. Naganawa, and Y. Kokubun, “Wide range center wavelength trimming of vertically coupled microring resonator filter by direct UV irradiation to SiN ring core,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 135–137 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lambert, S.

Lentine, A. L.

Li, Q.

Lock, J. P.

Luo, J.

Melloni, A.

Michel, J.

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

Momeni, B.

Morichetti, F.

Naganawa, T.

H. Haeiwa, T. Naganawa, and Y. Kokubun, “Wide range center wavelength trimming of vertically coupled microring resonator filter by direct UV irradiation to SiN ring core,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 135–137 (2004).
[Crossref]

Neyts, K.

Norris, C. B.

C. B. Norris and E. P. Eernisse, “Ionization dilatation effects in fused silica from 2 to 18-Kev electron-irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(9), 3876–3882 (1974).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, K.

L. Zhou, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Athermalizing and Trimming of Slotted Silicon Microring Resonators With UV-Sensitive PMMA Upper-Cladding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1175–1177 (2009).
[Crossref]

Petrov, A. Y.

Prorok, S.

Robertson, C. G.

C. G. Robertson and G. L. Wilkes, “Refractive index: A probe for monitoring volume relaxation during physical aging of glassy polymers,” Polymer (Guildf.) 39(11), 2129–2133 (1998).
[Crossref]

Schrauwen, J.

Singh, V.

Soltani, M.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sorel, M.

Sparacin, D. K.

Trotter, D. C.

Van Thourhout, D.

Velha, P.

Watts, M. R.

Wilkes, G. L.

C. G. Robertson and G. L. Wilkes, “Refractive index: A probe for monitoring volume relaxation during physical aging of glassy polymers,” Polymer (Guildf.) 39(11), 2129–2133 (1998).
[Crossref]

Xia, Z.

Yegnanarayanan, S.

Yoo, S. J. B.

L. Zhou, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Athermalizing and Trimming of Slotted Silicon Microring Resonators With UV-Sensitive PMMA Upper-Cladding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1175–1177 (2009).
[Crossref]

Young, R. W.

Zhou, L.

L. Zhou, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Athermalizing and Trimming of Slotted Silicon Microring Resonators With UV-Sensitive PMMA Upper-Cladding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1175–1177 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zortman, W. A.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Soref, “The past, present, and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. Haeiwa, T. Naganawa, and Y. Kokubun, “Wide range center wavelength trimming of vertically coupled microring resonator filter by direct UV irradiation to SiN ring core,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 135–137 (2004).
[Crossref]

L. Zhou, K. Okamoto, and S. J. B. Yoo, “Athermalizing and Trimming of Slotted Silicon Microring Resonators With UV-Sensitive PMMA Upper-Cladding,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(17), 1175–1177 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. B. Norris and E. P. Eernisse, “Ionization dilatation effects in fused silica from 2 to 18-Kev electron-irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(9), 3876–3882 (1974).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

J. Schrauwen, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Trimming of silicon ring resonator by electron beam induced compaction and strain,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3738–3743 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Li, M. Soltani, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “Design and demonstration of compact, wide bandwidth coupled-resonator filters on a silicon-on- insulator platform,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2247–2254 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Soltani, Q. Li, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “Toward ultimate miniaturization of high Q silicon traveling-wave microresonators,” Opt. Express 18(19), 19541–19557 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Silicon photonics manufacturing,” Opt. Express 18(23), 23598–23607 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Xia, A. A. Eftekhar, M. Soltani, B. Momeni, Q. Li, M. Chamanzar, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “High resolution on-chip spectroscopy based on miniaturized microdonut resonators,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12356–12364 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Vertical junction silicon microdisk modulators and switches,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21989–22003 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Canciamilla, F. Morichetti, S. Grillanda, P. Velha, M. Sorel, V. Singh, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Melloni, “Photo-induced trimming of chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15807–15817 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Polymer (Guildf.) (1)

C. G. Robertson and G. L. Wilkes, “Refractive index: A probe for monitoring volume relaxation during physical aging of glassy polymers,” Polymer (Guildf.) 39(11), 2129–2133 (1998).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

Y. Shen, I. Divliansky, D. Basov, and S. Mookherjea, “Perfect set-and-forget alignment of silicon photonic resonators and interferometers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPC3.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, G. N. Nielson, D. L. Luck, and R. W. Young, “Adiabatic Resonant Microrings (ARMs) with Directly Integrated Thermal Microphotonics,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CPDB10.

A. H. Atabaki, A. A. Eftekhar, S. Yegnanarayanan, and A. Adibi, “Novel Micro-Heater Structure for Low-Power and Fast Photonic Reconfiguration,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/International Quantum Electronics Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper JThE44.

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