Abstract

We present a preliminary investigation of macroscopic polarimetric imaging of uterine cervix. Orthogonal state contrast (OSC) images of healthy and anomalous cervices have been taken in vivo at 550 nm. Four ex vivo cervix samples have been studied in full Muller polarimetry, at 550 nm and 700 nm, and characterized in detail by standard pathology. One sample was totally healthy, another one carried CIN lesions at very early stage (CIN1) in its visible exocervical region, while for the other two samples more advanced (CIN3) lesions were present, together with visible glandular epithelium (ectropion). Significant birefringence has been observed in the healthy regions of all six samples, both in vivo and ex vivo. Standard treatments of the Mueller images of the ex vivo samples allowed to quantify both retardation and depolarization. Retardation reached 60° in healthy regions, and disappeared in the anomalous regions of the other three ex vivo samples. The depolarization power was largest in healthy regions, and lower in CINs and ectropion. Possible origins of the observed effects are briefly discussed.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (1)

2012 (2)

M. Underwood, M. Arbyn, W. Parry-Smith, S. De Bellis-Ayres, R. Todd, C. W. Redman, and E. L. Moss, “Accuracy of colposcopy-directed punch biopsies: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” BJOG119(11), 1293–1301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Alali, K. J. Aitken, A. Schröder, D. J. Bagli, and I. Vitkin, “Optical assessment of tissue anisotropy in ex vivo distended rat bladders,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 086010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

J. Ferlay, H. R. Shin, F. Bray, D. Forman, C. Mathers, and D. M. Parkin, “Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008,” Int. J. Cancer127(12), 2893–2917 (2010), Globocan.iarc.fr/ .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. P. Martin-Hirsch, E. Paraskevaidis, A. Bryant, H. O. Dickinson, and S. L. Keep, “Surgery for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.16 (2010).

2009 (1)

2008 (6)

S. W. Lee, J. Y. Yoo, J. H. Kang, M. S. Kang, S. H. Jung, Y. Chong, D. S. Cha, K. H. Han, and B. M. Kim, “Optical diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasm (CIN) using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Express16(4), 2709–2719 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Anastasiadou, A. De Martino, D. Clément, F. Liège, B. Laude-Boulesteix, N. Quang, J. Dreyfuss, B. Huynh, A. Nazac, L. Schwartz, and H. Cohen, “Polarimetric imaging for the diagnosis of cervical cancer,” Phys. Status Solidi5(5c), 1423–1426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jacques, R. Samatham, S. Isenath, and K. Lee, “Polarized light camera to guide surgical excision of skin cancers,” Proc. SPIE6842, 68420I (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Cantor, M. Cárdenas-Turanzas, D. D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, G. M. Nogueras-Gonzalez, J. R. Beck, M. Follen, and J. L. Benedet, “Accuracy of colposcopy in the diagnostic setting compared with the screening setting,” Obstet. Gynecol.111(1), 7–14 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Lowy, D. Solomon, A. Hildesheim, J. T. Schiller, and M. Schiffman, “Human papillomavirus infection and the primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer,” Cancer113(7Suppl), 1980–1993 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Thekkek and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical imaging for cervical cancer detection: solutions for a continuing global problem,” Nat. Rev. Cancer8(9), 725–731 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

R. D. Alvarez, T. C. Wright, and Optical Detection Group, “Increased detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia utilizing an optical detection system as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Gynecol. Oncol.106(1), 23–28 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Alvarez, T. C. Wright, and Optical Detection Group, “Effective cervical neoplasia detection with a novel optical detection system: a randomized trial,” Gynecol. Oncol.104(2), 281–289 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cardenas-Turanzas, J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, R. Richards-Kortum, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and S. B. Cantor, “The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we?” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S138–S146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. DeSantis, N. Chakhtoura, L. Twiggs, D. Ferris, M. Lashgari, L. Flowers, M. Faupel, S. Bambot, S. Raab, and E. Wilkinson, “Spectroscopic imaging as a triage test for cervical disease: a prospective multicenter clinical trial,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis.11(1), 18–24 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light Scattering from Collagen Fiber Networks:Micro-Optical Properties of Normal and Neoplastic Stroma,” Biophys. J.92(9), 3260–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

L. S. Massad and Y. C. Collins, “Strength of correlations between colposcopic impression and biopsy histology,” Gynecol. Oncol.89(3), 424–428 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

Aitken, K. J.

S. Alali, K. J. Aitken, A. Schröder, D. J. Bagli, and I. Vitkin, “Optical assessment of tissue anisotropy in ex vivo distended rat bladders,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 086010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alali, S.

S. Alali, K. J. Aitken, A. Schröder, D. J. Bagli, and I. Vitkin, “Optical assessment of tissue anisotropy in ex vivo distended rat bladders,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 086010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alvarez, R. D.

R. D. Alvarez, T. C. Wright, and Optical Detection Group, “Effective cervical neoplasia detection with a novel optical detection system: a randomized trial,” Gynecol. Oncol.104(2), 281–289 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Alvarez, T. C. Wright, and Optical Detection Group, “Increased detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia utilizing an optical detection system as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Gynecol. Oncol.106(1), 23–28 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anastasiadou, M.

M. Anastasiadou, A. De Martino, D. Clément, F. Liège, B. Laude-Boulesteix, N. Quang, J. Dreyfuss, B. Huynh, A. Nazac, L. Schwartz, and H. Cohen, “Polarimetric imaging for the diagnosis of cervical cancer,” Phys. Status Solidi5(5c), 1423–1426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Antonelli, M. R.

A. Pierangelo, A. Benali, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, P. Validire, B. Gayet, and A. De Martino, “Ex-vivo characterization of human colon cancer by Mueller polarimetric imaging,” Opt. Express19(2), 1582–1593 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, “Multi-spectral Mueller polarimetric imaging detecting residual cancer and cancer regression after neoadjuvant treatment for colorectal carcinomas,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Arbyn, M.

M. Underwood, M. Arbyn, W. Parry-Smith, S. De Bellis-Ayres, R. Todd, C. W. Redman, and E. L. Moss, “Accuracy of colposcopy-directed punch biopsies: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” BJOG119(11), 1293–1301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arifler, D.

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light Scattering from Collagen Fiber Networks:Micro-Optical Properties of Normal and Neoplastic Stroma,” Biophys. J.92(9), 3260–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atkinson, E. N.

S. B. Cantor, M. Cárdenas-Turanzas, D. D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, G. M. Nogueras-Gonzalez, J. R. Beck, M. Follen, and J. L. Benedet, “Accuracy of colposcopy in the diagnostic setting compared with the screening setting,” Obstet. Gynecol.111(1), 7–14 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cardenas-Turanzas, J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, R. Richards-Kortum, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and S. B. Cantor, “The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we?” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S138–S146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bagli, D. J.

S. Alali, K. J. Aitken, A. Schröder, D. J. Bagli, and I. Vitkin, “Optical assessment of tissue anisotropy in ex vivo distended rat bladders,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 086010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bambot, S.

T. DeSantis, N. Chakhtoura, L. Twiggs, D. Ferris, M. Lashgari, L. Flowers, M. Faupel, S. Bambot, S. Raab, and E. Wilkinson, “Spectroscopic imaging as a triage test for cervical disease: a prospective multicenter clinical trial,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis.11(1), 18–24 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, J. R.

S. B. Cantor, M. Cárdenas-Turanzas, D. D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, G. M. Nogueras-Gonzalez, J. R. Beck, M. Follen, and J. L. Benedet, “Accuracy of colposcopy in the diagnostic setting compared with the screening setting,” Obstet. Gynecol.111(1), 7–14 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benali, A.

A. Pierangelo, A. Benali, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, P. Validire, B. Gayet, and A. De Martino, “Ex-vivo characterization of human colon cancer by Mueller polarimetric imaging,” Opt. Express19(2), 1582–1593 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, “Multi-spectral Mueller polarimetric imaging detecting residual cancer and cancer regression after neoadjuvant treatment for colorectal carcinomas,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Benedet, J. L.

S. B. Cantor, M. Cárdenas-Turanzas, D. D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, G. M. Nogueras-Gonzalez, J. R. Beck, M. Follen, and J. L. Benedet, “Accuracy of colposcopy in the diagnostic setting compared with the screening setting,” Obstet. Gynecol.111(1), 7–14 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cardenas-Turanzas, J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, R. Richards-Kortum, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and S. B. Cantor, “The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we?” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S138–S146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bray, F.

J. Ferlay, H. R. Shin, F. Bray, D. Forman, C. Mathers, and D. M. Parkin, “Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008,” Int. J. Cancer127(12), 2893–2917 (2010), Globocan.iarc.fr/ .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brookner, C. K.

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bryant, A.

P. P. Martin-Hirsch, E. Paraskevaidis, A. Bryant, H. O. Dickinson, and S. L. Keep, “Surgery for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.16 (2010).

Cantor, S. B.

S. B. Cantor, M. Cárdenas-Turanzas, D. D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, G. M. Nogueras-Gonzalez, J. R. Beck, M. Follen, and J. L. Benedet, “Accuracy of colposcopy in the diagnostic setting compared with the screening setting,” Obstet. Gynecol.111(1), 7–14 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cardenas-Turanzas, J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, R. Richards-Kortum, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and S. B. Cantor, “The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we?” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S138–S146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cardenas-Turanzas, M.

M. Cardenas-Turanzas, J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, R. Richards-Kortum, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and S. B. Cantor, “The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we?” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S138–S146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cárdenas-Turanzas, M.

S. B. Cantor, M. Cárdenas-Turanzas, D. D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, G. M. Nogueras-Gonzalez, J. R. Beck, M. Follen, and J. L. Benedet, “Accuracy of colposcopy in the diagnostic setting compared with the screening setting,” Obstet. Gynecol.111(1), 7–14 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cha, D. S.

Chakhtoura, N.

T. DeSantis, N. Chakhtoura, L. Twiggs, D. Ferris, M. Lashgari, L. Flowers, M. Faupel, S. Bambot, S. Raab, and E. Wilkinson, “Spectroscopic imaging as a triage test for cervical disease: a prospective multicenter clinical trial,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis.11(1), 18–24 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chatterjee, S.

Chipman, R. A.

Chong, Y.

Clément, D.

M. Anastasiadou, A. De Martino, D. Clément, F. Liège, B. Laude-Boulesteix, N. Quang, J. Dreyfuss, B. Huynh, A. Nazac, L. Schwartz, and H. Cohen, “Polarimetric imaging for the diagnosis of cervical cancer,” Phys. Status Solidi5(5c), 1423–1426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, H.

M. Anastasiadou, A. De Martino, D. Clément, F. Liège, B. Laude-Boulesteix, N. Quang, J. Dreyfuss, B. Huynh, A. Nazac, L. Schwartz, and H. Cohen, “Polarimetric imaging for the diagnosis of cervical cancer,” Phys. Status Solidi5(5c), 1423–1426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Collier, T.

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, Y. C.

L. S. Massad and Y. C. Collins, “Strength of correlations between colposcopic impression and biopsy histology,” Gynecol. Oncol.89(3), 424–428 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, D. D.

S. B. Cantor, M. Cárdenas-Turanzas, D. D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, G. M. Nogueras-Gonzalez, J. R. Beck, M. Follen, and J. L. Benedet, “Accuracy of colposcopy in the diagnostic setting compared with the screening setting,” Obstet. Gynecol.111(1), 7–14 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cardenas-Turanzas, J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, R. Richards-Kortum, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and S. B. Cantor, “The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we?” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S138–S146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Das, N.

De Bellis-Ayres, S.

M. Underwood, M. Arbyn, W. Parry-Smith, S. De Bellis-Ayres, R. Todd, C. W. Redman, and E. L. Moss, “Accuracy of colposcopy-directed punch biopsies: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” BJOG119(11), 1293–1301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Martino, A.

A. Pierangelo, A. Benali, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, P. Validire, B. Gayet, and A. De Martino, “Ex-vivo characterization of human colon cancer by Mueller polarimetric imaging,” Opt. Express19(2), 1582–1593 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Anastasiadou, A. De Martino, D. Clément, F. Liège, B. Laude-Boulesteix, N. Quang, J. Dreyfuss, B. Huynh, A. Nazac, L. Schwartz, and H. Cohen, “Polarimetric imaging for the diagnosis of cervical cancer,” Phys. Status Solidi5(5c), 1423–1426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Laude-Boulesteix, A. De Martino, B. Drévillon, and L. Schwartz, “Mueller polarimetric imaging system with liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt.43(14), 2824–2832 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, “Multi-spectral Mueller polarimetric imaging detecting residual cancer and cancer regression after neoadjuvant treatment for colorectal carcinomas,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

DeSantis, T.

T. DeSantis, N. Chakhtoura, L. Twiggs, D. Ferris, M. Lashgari, L. Flowers, M. Faupel, S. Bambot, S. Raab, and E. Wilkinson, “Spectroscopic imaging as a triage test for cervical disease: a prospective multicenter clinical trial,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis.11(1), 18–24 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickinson, H. O.

P. P. Martin-Hirsch, E. Paraskevaidis, A. Bryant, H. O. Dickinson, and S. L. Keep, “Surgery for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.16 (2010).

Drévillon, B.

Dreyfuss, J.

M. Anastasiadou, A. De Martino, D. Clément, F. Liège, B. Laude-Boulesteix, N. Quang, J. Dreyfuss, B. Huynh, A. Nazac, L. Schwartz, and H. Cohen, “Polarimetric imaging for the diagnosis of cervical cancer,” Phys. Status Solidi5(5c), 1423–1426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Drezek, R. A.

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fallet, C.

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, “Multi-spectral Mueller polarimetric imaging detecting residual cancer and cancer regression after neoadjuvant treatment for colorectal carcinomas,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Faupel, M.

T. DeSantis, N. Chakhtoura, L. Twiggs, D. Ferris, M. Lashgari, L. Flowers, M. Faupel, S. Bambot, S. Raab, and E. Wilkinson, “Spectroscopic imaging as a triage test for cervical disease: a prospective multicenter clinical trial,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis.11(1), 18–24 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferlay, J.

J. Ferlay, H. R. Shin, F. Bray, D. Forman, C. Mathers, and D. M. Parkin, “Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008,” Int. J. Cancer127(12), 2893–2917 (2010), Globocan.iarc.fr/ .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferris, D.

T. DeSantis, N. Chakhtoura, L. Twiggs, D. Ferris, M. Lashgari, L. Flowers, M. Faupel, S. Bambot, S. Raab, and E. Wilkinson, “Spectroscopic imaging as a triage test for cervical disease: a prospective multicenter clinical trial,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis.11(1), 18–24 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flowers, L.

T. DeSantis, N. Chakhtoura, L. Twiggs, D. Ferris, M. Lashgari, L. Flowers, M. Faupel, S. Bambot, S. Raab, and E. Wilkinson, “Spectroscopic imaging as a triage test for cervical disease: a prospective multicenter clinical trial,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis.11(1), 18–24 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

S. B. Cantor, M. Cárdenas-Turanzas, D. D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, G. M. Nogueras-Gonzalez, J. R. Beck, M. Follen, and J. L. Benedet, “Accuracy of colposcopy in the diagnostic setting compared with the screening setting,” Obstet. Gynecol.111(1), 7–14 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cardenas-Turanzas, J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, R. Richards-Kortum, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and S. B. Cantor, “The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we?” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S138–S146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forman, D.

J. Ferlay, H. R. Shin, F. Bray, D. Forman, C. Mathers, and D. M. Parkin, “Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008,” Int. J. Cancer127(12), 2893–2917 (2010), Globocan.iarc.fr/ .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freeberg, J. A.

M. Cardenas-Turanzas, J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, R. Richards-Kortum, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and S. B. Cantor, “The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we?” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S138–S146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gayet, B.

A. Pierangelo, A. Benali, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, P. Validire, B. Gayet, and A. De Martino, “Ex-vivo characterization of human colon cancer by Mueller polarimetric imaging,” Opt. Express19(2), 1582–1593 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, “Multi-spectral Mueller polarimetric imaging detecting residual cancer and cancer regression after neoadjuvant treatment for colorectal carcinomas,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Ghosh, N.

Gillenwater, A.

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light Scattering from Collagen Fiber Networks:Micro-Optical Properties of Normal and Neoplastic Stroma,” Biophys. J.92(9), 3260–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, K. H.

Hildesheim, A.

D. R. Lowy, D. Solomon, A. Hildesheim, J. T. Schiller, and M. Schiffman, “Human papillomavirus infection and the primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer,” Cancer113(7Suppl), 1980–1993 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huynh, B.

M. Anastasiadou, A. De Martino, D. Clément, F. Liège, B. Laude-Boulesteix, N. Quang, J. Dreyfuss, B. Huynh, A. Nazac, L. Schwartz, and H. Cohen, “Polarimetric imaging for the diagnosis of cervical cancer,” Phys. Status Solidi5(5c), 1423–1426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Isenath, S.

S. L. Jacques, R. Samatham, S. Isenath, and K. Lee, “Polarized light camera to guide surgical excision of skin cancers,” Proc. SPIE6842, 68420I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jacques, S. L.

S. L. Jacques, R. Samatham, S. Isenath, and K. Lee, “Polarized light camera to guide surgical excision of skin cancers,” Proc. SPIE6842, 68420I (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jagtap, J.

Jung, S. H.

Kang, J. H.

Kang, M. S.

Kappou, D.

I. M. Orfanoudaki, D. Kappou, and S. Sifakis, “Recent advances in optical imaging for cervical cancer detection,” Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.284(5), 1197–1208 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keep, S. L.

P. P. Martin-Hirsch, E. Paraskevaidis, A. Bryant, H. O. Dickinson, and S. L. Keep, “Surgery for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.16 (2010).

Kim, B. M.

Lashgari, M.

T. DeSantis, N. Chakhtoura, L. Twiggs, D. Ferris, M. Lashgari, L. Flowers, M. Faupel, S. Bambot, S. Raab, and E. Wilkinson, “Spectroscopic imaging as a triage test for cervical disease: a prospective multicenter clinical trial,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis.11(1), 18–24 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laude-Boulesteix, B.

M. Anastasiadou, A. De Martino, D. Clément, F. Liège, B. Laude-Boulesteix, N. Quang, J. Dreyfuss, B. Huynh, A. Nazac, L. Schwartz, and H. Cohen, “Polarimetric imaging for the diagnosis of cervical cancer,” Phys. Status Solidi5(5c), 1423–1426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Laude-Boulesteix, A. De Martino, B. Drévillon, and L. Schwartz, “Mueller polarimetric imaging system with liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt.43(14), 2824–2832 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K.

S. L. Jacques, R. Samatham, S. Isenath, and K. Lee, “Polarized light camera to guide surgical excision of skin cancers,” Proc. SPIE6842, 68420I (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. W.

Liège, F.

M. Anastasiadou, A. De Martino, D. Clément, F. Liège, B. Laude-Boulesteix, N. Quang, J. Dreyfuss, B. Huynh, A. Nazac, L. Schwartz, and H. Cohen, “Polarimetric imaging for the diagnosis of cervical cancer,” Phys. Status Solidi5(5c), 1423–1426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lotan, R.

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lowy, D. R.

D. R. Lowy, D. Solomon, A. Hildesheim, J. T. Schiller, and M. Schiffman, “Human papillomavirus infection and the primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer,” Cancer113(7Suppl), 1980–1993 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, S.-Y.

MacAulay, C.

M. Cardenas-Turanzas, J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, R. Richards-Kortum, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and S. B. Cantor, “The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we?” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S138–S146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manhas, S.

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, “Multi-spectral Mueller polarimetric imaging detecting residual cancer and cancer regression after neoadjuvant treatment for colorectal carcinomas,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Martin-Hirsch, P. P.

P. P. Martin-Hirsch, E. Paraskevaidis, A. Bryant, H. O. Dickinson, and S. L. Keep, “Surgery for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.16 (2010).

Massad, L. S.

L. S. Massad and Y. C. Collins, “Strength of correlations between colposcopic impression and biopsy histology,” Gynecol. Oncol.89(3), 424–428 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathers, C.

J. Ferlay, H. R. Shin, F. Bray, D. Forman, C. Mathers, and D. M. Parkin, “Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008,” Int. J. Cancer127(12), 2893–2917 (2010), Globocan.iarc.fr/ .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moss, E. L.

M. Underwood, M. Arbyn, W. Parry-Smith, S. De Bellis-Ayres, R. Todd, C. W. Redman, and E. L. Moss, “Accuracy of colposcopy-directed punch biopsies: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” BJOG119(11), 1293–1301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nazac, A.

M. Anastasiadou, A. De Martino, D. Clément, F. Liège, B. Laude-Boulesteix, N. Quang, J. Dreyfuss, B. Huynh, A. Nazac, L. Schwartz, and H. Cohen, “Polarimetric imaging for the diagnosis of cervical cancer,” Phys. Status Solidi5(5c), 1423–1426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nogueras-Gonzalez, G. M.

S. B. Cantor, M. Cárdenas-Turanzas, D. D. Cox, E. N. Atkinson, G. M. Nogueras-Gonzalez, J. R. Beck, M. Follen, and J. L. Benedet, “Accuracy of colposcopy in the diagnostic setting compared with the screening setting,” Obstet. Gynecol.111(1), 7–14 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novikova, T.

A. Pierangelo, A. Benali, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, P. Validire, B. Gayet, and A. De Martino, “Ex-vivo characterization of human colon cancer by Mueller polarimetric imaging,” Opt. Express19(2), 1582–1593 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, “Multi-spectral Mueller polarimetric imaging detecting residual cancer and cancer regression after neoadjuvant treatment for colorectal carcinomas,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Orfanoudaki, I. M.

I. M. Orfanoudaki, D. Kappou, and S. Sifakis, “Recent advances in optical imaging for cervical cancer detection,” Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.284(5), 1197–1208 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Panigrahi, P. K.

Paraskevaidis, E.

P. P. Martin-Hirsch, E. Paraskevaidis, A. Bryant, H. O. Dickinson, and S. L. Keep, “Surgery for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.16 (2010).

Parkin, D. M.

J. Ferlay, H. R. Shin, F. Bray, D. Forman, C. Mathers, and D. M. Parkin, “Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008,” Int. J. Cancer127(12), 2893–2917 (2010), Globocan.iarc.fr/ .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parry-Smith, W.

M. Underwood, M. Arbyn, W. Parry-Smith, S. De Bellis-Ayres, R. Todd, C. W. Redman, and E. L. Moss, “Accuracy of colposcopy-directed punch biopsies: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” BJOG119(11), 1293–1301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pavlova, I.

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light Scattering from Collagen Fiber Networks:Micro-Optical Properties of Normal and Neoplastic Stroma,” Biophys. J.92(9), 3260–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pierangelo, A.

A. Pierangelo, A. Benali, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, P. Validire, B. Gayet, and A. De Martino, “Ex-vivo characterization of human colon cancer by Mueller polarimetric imaging,” Opt. Express19(2), 1582–1593 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, “Multi-spectral Mueller polarimetric imaging detecting residual cancer and cancer regression after neoadjuvant treatment for colorectal carcinomas,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Pradhan, A.

Quang, N.

M. Anastasiadou, A. De Martino, D. Clément, F. Liège, B. Laude-Boulesteix, N. Quang, J. Dreyfuss, B. Huynh, A. Nazac, L. Schwartz, and H. Cohen, “Polarimetric imaging for the diagnosis of cervical cancer,” Phys. Status Solidi5(5c), 1423–1426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Raab, S.

T. DeSantis, N. Chakhtoura, L. Twiggs, D. Ferris, M. Lashgari, L. Flowers, M. Faupel, S. Bambot, S. Raab, and E. Wilkinson, “Spectroscopic imaging as a triage test for cervical disease: a prospective multicenter clinical trial,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis.11(1), 18–24 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramella-Roman, J. C.

S. L. Jacques, J. C. Ramella-Roman, and K. Lee, “Imaging skin pathology with polarized light,” J. Biomed. Opt.7(3), 329–340 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Redman, C. W.

M. Underwood, M. Arbyn, W. Parry-Smith, S. De Bellis-Ayres, R. Todd, C. W. Redman, and E. L. Moss, “Accuracy of colposcopy-directed punch biopsies: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” BJOG119(11), 1293–1301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

N. Thekkek and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical imaging for cervical cancer detection: solutions for a continuing global problem,” Nat. Rev. Cancer8(9), 725–731 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cardenas-Turanzas, J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, R. Richards-Kortum, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and S. B. Cantor, “The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we?” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S138–S146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light Scattering from Collagen Fiber Networks:Micro-Optical Properties of Normal and Neoplastic Stroma,” Biophys. J.92(9), 3260–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R. R.

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samatham, R.

S. L. Jacques, R. Samatham, S. Isenath, and K. Lee, “Polarized light camera to guide surgical excision of skin cancers,” Proc. SPIE6842, 68420I (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schiffman, M.

D. R. Lowy, D. Solomon, A. Hildesheim, J. T. Schiller, and M. Schiffman, “Human papillomavirus infection and the primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer,” Cancer113(7Suppl), 1980–1993 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schiller, J. T.

D. R. Lowy, D. Solomon, A. Hildesheim, J. T. Schiller, and M. Schiffman, “Human papillomavirus infection and the primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer,” Cancer113(7Suppl), 1980–1993 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schröder, A.

S. Alali, K. J. Aitken, A. Schröder, D. J. Bagli, and I. Vitkin, “Optical assessment of tissue anisotropy in ex vivo distended rat bladders,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 086010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, L.

M. Anastasiadou, A. De Martino, D. Clément, F. Liège, B. Laude-Boulesteix, N. Quang, J. Dreyfuss, B. Huynh, A. Nazac, L. Schwartz, and H. Cohen, “Polarimetric imaging for the diagnosis of cervical cancer,” Phys. Status Solidi5(5c), 1423–1426 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Laude-Boulesteix, A. De Martino, B. Drévillon, and L. Schwartz, “Mueller polarimetric imaging system with liquid crystals,” Appl. Opt.43(14), 2824–2832 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sengupta, T. K.

Shin, H. R.

J. Ferlay, H. R. Shin, F. Bray, D. Forman, C. Mathers, and D. M. Parkin, “Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008,” Int. J. Cancer127(12), 2893–2917 (2010), Globocan.iarc.fr/ .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shukla, P.

Sifakis, S.

I. M. Orfanoudaki, D. Kappou, and S. Sifakis, “Recent advances in optical imaging for cervical cancer detection,” Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.284(5), 1197–1208 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solomon, D.

D. R. Lowy, D. Solomon, A. Hildesheim, J. T. Schiller, and M. Schiffman, “Human papillomavirus infection and the primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer,” Cancer113(7Suppl), 1980–1993 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soni, J.

Thekkek, N.

N. Thekkek and R. Richards-Kortum, “Optical imaging for cervical cancer detection: solutions for a continuing global problem,” Nat. Rev. Cancer8(9), 725–731 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Todd, R.

M. Underwood, M. Arbyn, W. Parry-Smith, S. De Bellis-Ayres, R. Todd, C. W. Redman, and E. L. Moss, “Accuracy of colposcopy-directed punch biopsies: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” BJOG119(11), 1293–1301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Totobenazara, J. L.

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, “Multi-spectral Mueller polarimetric imaging detecting residual cancer and cancer regression after neoadjuvant treatment for colorectal carcinomas,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Twiggs, L.

T. DeSantis, N. Chakhtoura, L. Twiggs, D. Ferris, M. Lashgari, L. Flowers, M. Faupel, S. Bambot, S. Raab, and E. Wilkinson, “Spectroscopic imaging as a triage test for cervical disease: a prospective multicenter clinical trial,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis.11(1), 18–24 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Underwood, M.

M. Underwood, M. Arbyn, W. Parry-Smith, S. De Bellis-Ayres, R. Todd, C. W. Redman, and E. L. Moss, “Accuracy of colposcopy-directed punch biopsies: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” BJOG119(11), 1293–1301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Validire, P.

A. Pierangelo, A. Benali, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, P. Validire, B. Gayet, and A. De Martino, “Ex-vivo characterization of human colon cancer by Mueller polarimetric imaging,” Opt. Express19(2), 1582–1593 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pierangelo, S. Manhas, A. Benali, C. Fallet, J. L. Totobenazara, M. R. Antonelli, T. Novikova, B. Gayet, A. De Martino, and P. Validire, “Multi-spectral Mueller polarimetric imaging detecting residual cancer and cancer regression after neoadjuvant treatment for colorectal carcinomas,” J. Biomed. Opt. (to be published).

Vitkin, I.

S. Alali, K. J. Aitken, A. Schröder, D. J. Bagli, and I. Vitkin, “Optical assessment of tissue anisotropy in ex vivo distended rat bladders,” J. Biomed. Opt.17(8), 086010 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vitkin, I. A.

Wilkinson, E.

T. DeSantis, N. Chakhtoura, L. Twiggs, D. Ferris, M. Lashgari, L. Flowers, M. Faupel, S. Bambot, S. Raab, and E. Wilkinson, “Spectroscopic imaging as a triage test for cervical disease: a prospective multicenter clinical trial,” J. Low. Genit. Tract Dis.11(1), 18–24 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, T. C.

R. D. Alvarez, T. C. Wright, and Optical Detection Group, “Effective cervical neoplasia detection with a novel optical detection system: a randomized trial,” Gynecol. Oncol.104(2), 281–289 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Alvarez, T. C. Wright, and Optical Detection Group, “Increased detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia utilizing an optical detection system as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Gynecol. Oncol.106(1), 23–28 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoo, J. Y.

Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. (1)

R. A. Drezek, T. Collier, C. K. Brookner, A. Malpica, R. Lotan, R. R. Richards-Kortum, and M. Follen, “Laser scanning confocal microscopy of cervical tissue before and after application of acetic acid,” Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.182(5), 1135–1139 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Arch. Gynecol. Obstet. (1)

I. M. Orfanoudaki, D. Kappou, and S. Sifakis, “Recent advances in optical imaging for cervical cancer detection,” Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.284(5), 1197–1208 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (1)

D. Arifler, I. Pavlova, A. Gillenwater, and R. Richards-Kortum, “Light Scattering from Collagen Fiber Networks:Micro-Optical Properties of Normal and Neoplastic Stroma,” Biophys. J.92(9), 3260–3274 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

BJOG (1)

M. Underwood, M. Arbyn, W. Parry-Smith, S. De Bellis-Ayres, R. Todd, C. W. Redman, and E. L. Moss, “Accuracy of colposcopy-directed punch biopsies: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” BJOG119(11), 1293–1301 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer (1)

D. R. Lowy, D. Solomon, A. Hildesheim, J. T. Schiller, and M. Schiffman, “Human papillomavirus infection and the primary and secondary prevention of cervical cancer,” Cancer113(7Suppl), 1980–1993 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. (1)

P. P. Martin-Hirsch, E. Paraskevaidis, A. Bryant, H. O. Dickinson, and S. L. Keep, “Surgery for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia,” Cochrane Database Syst. Rev.16 (2010).

Gynecol. Oncol. (4)

L. S. Massad and Y. C. Collins, “Strength of correlations between colposcopic impression and biopsy histology,” Gynecol. Oncol.89(3), 424–428 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Alvarez, T. C. Wright, and Optical Detection Group, “Increased detection of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia utilizing an optical detection system as an adjunct to colposcopy,” Gynecol. Oncol.106(1), 23–28 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Alvarez, T. C. Wright, and Optical Detection Group, “Effective cervical neoplasia detection with a novel optical detection system: a randomized trial,” Gynecol. Oncol.104(2), 281–289 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cardenas-Turanzas, J. A. Freeberg, J. L. Benedet, E. N. Atkinson, D. D. Cox, R. Richards-Kortum, C. MacAulay, M. Follen, and S. B. Cantor, “The clinical effectiveness of optical spectroscopy for the in vivo diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: where are we?” Gynecol. Oncol.107(1Suppl 1), S138–S146 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Int. J. Cancer (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

In vivo images of two cervices, one healthy (top) and one with a pathological region delineated by the dotted yellow line by an experienced practitioner. Left, in color: usual colposcopic images. Right, in grayscale: IOSC images (parts with larger IOSC appear brighter) The IOSC images were taken with III polarizations set at the azimuths indicated above the images.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarimetric images of a healthy cervix, taken at 550 nm, together with the positions of histological cuts (white lines), which confirmed that the sample was healthy.: the tissue inside this limit is denoted by MT Upper left: one of the 16 intensity images taken with the imaging polarimeter for the measurement of complete Mueller image The black solid line shows the limits of the cut, with malpighian tissue (MT) inside and stroma (C) outside. The dashed solid line delineates the regions for which at least one of the 16 raw images was saturated, making the polarimetric data inaccurate. Upper right: image of depolarization Δ. Lower left image of scalar retardation R, in degrees. Lower right: orientation of the birefringence slow axis (in degrees counterclockwise from the vertical).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Analogous to Fig. 2, for a conization specimen exhibiting healthy tissue and CIN1. The dotted line at the center indicates the orifice of the endocervix.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Analogous to Figs. 2 and 3, for a conization specimen exhibiting healthy tissue, CIN3 in its central part (above the endocervix) and bare glandular tissue in the lower right part. For this sample no local saturation of the CCD was observed due to specular reflections.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Left: colposcopic images of the fourth sample, prior to surgery, with acetic acid (a) and iodine (b). Right: Histological characterization of the conization specimen in 8 planes, reported on one intensity image taken with the polarimeter. The cuts AB and CD are shown at the bottom of the right panel. For the latter, the “buried” glandular tissue is clearly visible beneath the superficial CIN3.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Polarimetric images of the fourth sample, taken at 550 nm (left) and 700 nm (right). Scalar retardation R is shown in top panels, and depolarization Δ in bottom ones.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I osc = I I I + I
M=diag{1,a,a,c}
I OSC =a=1 Δ l
M= M Δ M R M D
Δ=1 | a |+| b |+| c | 3

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