Abstract

The scattering of electrically excited surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) into photons at the edges of gold metal stripes is investigated. The SPPs are locally generated by the inelastic tunneling current of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The majority of the collected light arising from the scattering of SPPs at the stripe edges is emitted in the forward direction and is collected at large angle (close to the air-glass critical angle, θc). A much weaker isotropic component of the scattered light gives rise to an interference pattern in the Fourier plane images, demonstrating that plasmons may be scattered coherently. An analysis of the interference pattern as a function of excitation position on the stripe is used to determine a value of 1.42 ± 0.18 for the relative plasmon wave vector (kSPP/k0) of the corresponding SPPs. From these results, we interpret the directional, large angle (θ~θc) scattering to be mainly from plasmons on the air-gold interface, and the diffuse scattering forming interference fringes to be dominantly from plasmons on the gold-substrate interface.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (4)

2011 (7)

M. Song, A. Bouhelier, P. Bramant, J. Sharma, E. Dujardin, D. Zhang, and G. Colas-des-Francs, “Imaging symmetry-selected corner plasmon modes in penta-twinned crystalline Ag nanowires,” ACS Nano5(7), 5874–5880 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wang, E. Boer-Duchemin, Y. Zhang, G. Comtet, and G. Dujardin, “Excitation of propagating surface plasmons with a scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nanotechnology22(17), 175201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Bharadwaj, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Electrical excitation of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(22), 226802 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Douillard and F. Charra, “High-resolution mapping of plasmonic modes: photoemission and scanning tunnelling luminescence microscopies,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(46), 464002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(2), 706–711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Barnard, T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Imaging the hidden modes of ultrathin plasmonic strip antennas by cathodoluminescence,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4265–4269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Huck, S. Kumar, A. Shakoor, and U. L. Andersen, “Controlled coupling of a single nitrogen-vacancy center to a silver nanowire,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(9), 096801 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Li, K. Bao, Y. Fang, Y. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, “Correlation between incident and emission polarization in nanowire surface plasmon waveguides,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

Z. Li, F. Hao, Y. Huang, Y. Fang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, “Directional light emission from propagating surface plasmons of silver nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4383–4386 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wei, D. Ratchford, X. E. Li, H. Xu, and C.-K. Shih, “Propagating surface plasmon induced photon emission from quantum dots,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4168–4171 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ravets, J. C. Rodier, B. Ea Kim, J. P. Hugonin, L. Jacubowiez, and P. Lalanne, “Surface plasmons in the Young slit doublet experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B26(12), B28–B33 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Philos. Roy. Soc. A149, 220–229 (2008).

2007 (4)

R. Zia and M. L. Brongersma, “Surface plasmon polariton analogue to Young’s double-slit experiment,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(7), 426–429 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. R. Vesseur, R. de Waele, M. Kuttge, and A. Polman, “Direct observation of plasmonic modes in Au nanowires using high-resolution cathodoluminescence spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.7(9), 2843–2846 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. B. Zon, “Reflection, refraction, and transformation into photons of surface plasmons on a metal wedge,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24(8), 1960–1967 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B74(16), 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, and M. L. Brongersma, “Leaky and bound modes of surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B71(16), 165431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(25), 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

S. Egusa, Y.-H. Liau, and N. F. Scherer, “Imaging scanning tunneling microscope-induced electroluminescence in plasmonic corrals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(8), 1257–1259 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Lieb, J. M. Zavislan, and L. Novotny, “Single-molecule orientations determined by direct emission pattern imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B21(6), 1210–1215 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Krenn and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon polaritons in metal stripes and wires,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci362(1817), 739–756 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B68(11), 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of asymmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B63(12), 125417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, “Unidirectional plasmon propagation in metallic nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(26), 6095–6098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, C. Girard, J. R. Krenn, and J.-P. Goudonnet, “Plasmon polaritons of metallic nanowires for controlling submicron propagation of light,” Phys. Rev. B60(12), 9061–9068 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Nakamura, Y. Mera, and K. Maeda, “A reproducible method to fabricate atomically sharp tips for scanning tunneling microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70(8), 3373–3376 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

P. Dawson, F. D. Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon propagation and edge interaction using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(18), 2927–2930 (1994).

1991 (1)

R. Berndt, J. K. Gimzewski, and P. Johansson, “Inelastic tunneling excitation of tip-induced plasmon modes on noble-metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett.67(27), 3796–3799 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

R. Innes and J. Sambles, “Optical characterisation of gold using surface plasmon-polaritons,” J. Phys. F Met. Phys.17(1), 277–287 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Akimov, A. V.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allegrini, M.

Andersen, U. L.

A. Huck, S. Kumar, A. Shakoor, and U. L. Andersen, “Controlled coupling of a single nitrogen-vacancy center to a silver nanowire,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(9), 096801 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier and H. A. Atwater, “Plasmonics: localization and guiding of electromagnetic energy in metal/dielectric structures,” J. Appl. Phys.98(1), 011101 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Philos. Roy. Soc. A149, 220–229 (2008).

Aussenegg, F. R.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(25), 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, K.

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(2), 706–711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, K. Bao, Y. Fang, Y. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, “Correlation between incident and emission polarization in nanowire surface plasmon waveguides,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnard, E. S.

E. S. Barnard, T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Imaging the hidden modes of ultrathin plasmonic strip antennas by cathodoluminescence,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4265–4269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bellessa, J.

Berini, P.

P. Berini, “Plasmon-polariton waves guided by thin lossy metal films of finite width: Bound modes of asymmetric structures,” Phys. Rev. B63(12), 125417 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Berndt, R.

R. Berndt, J. K. Gimzewski, and P. Johansson, “Inelastic tunneling excitation of tip-induced plasmon modes on noble-metal surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett.67(27), 3796–3799 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berthelot, J.

Bharadwaj, P.

P. Bharadwaj, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Electrical excitation of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(22), 226802 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boer-Duchemin, E.

T. Wang, E. Boer-Duchemin, Y. Zhang, G. Comtet, and G. Dujardin, “Excitation of propagating surface plasmons with a scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nanotechnology22(17), 175201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

J. Berthelot, F. Tantussi, P. Rai, G. Colas des Francs, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, F. Fuso, M. Allegrini, and A. Bouhelier, “Determinant role of the edges in defining surface plasmon propagation in stripe waveguides and tapered concentrators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(2), 226–231 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Bharadwaj, A. Bouhelier, and L. Novotny, “Electrical excitation of surface plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(22), 226802 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Song, A. Bouhelier, P. Bramant, J. Sharma, E. Dujardin, D. Zhang, and G. Colas-des-Francs, “Imaging symmetry-selected corner plasmon modes in penta-twinned crystalline Ag nanowires,” ACS Nano5(7), 5874–5880 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bramant, P.

M. Song, A. Bouhelier, P. Bramant, J. Sharma, E. Dujardin, D. Zhang, and G. Colas-des-Francs, “Imaging symmetry-selected corner plasmon modes in penta-twinned crystalline Ag nanowires,” ACS Nano5(7), 5874–5880 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brixner, T.

C. Rewitz, T. Keitzl, P. Tuchscherer, J.-S. Huang, P. Geisler, G. Razinskas, B. Hecht, and T. Brixner, “Ultrafast plasmon propagation in nanowires characterized by far-field spectral interferometry,” Nano Lett.12(1), 45–49 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brongersma, M. L.

E. S. Barnard, T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Imaging the hidden modes of ultrathin plasmonic strip antennas by cathodoluminescence,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4265–4269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zia and M. L. Brongersma, “Surface plasmon polariton analogue to Young’s double-slit experiment,” Nat. Nanotechnol.2(7), 426–429 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B74(16), 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, and M. L. Brongersma, “Leaky and bound modes of surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B71(16), 165431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chang, D. E.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charra, F.

L. Douillard and F. Charra, “High-resolution mapping of plasmonic modes: photoemission and scanning tunnelling luminescence microscopies,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(46), 464002 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Coenen, T.

E. S. Barnard, T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Imaging the hidden modes of ultrathin plasmonic strip antennas by cathodoluminescence,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4265–4269 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colas des Francs, G.

Colas-des-Francs, G.

M. Song, A. Bouhelier, P. Bramant, J. Sharma, E. Dujardin, D. Zhang, and G. Colas-des-Francs, “Imaging symmetry-selected corner plasmon modes in penta-twinned crystalline Ag nanowires,” ACS Nano5(7), 5874–5880 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comtet, G.

T. Wang, E. Boer-Duchemin, Y. Zhang, G. Comtet, and G. Dujardin, “Excitation of propagating surface plasmons with a scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nanotechnology22(17), 175201 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dawson, P.

P. Dawson, F. D. Fornel, and J. P. Goudonnet, “Imaging of surface plasmon propagation and edge interaction using a photon scanning tunneling microscope,” Phys. Rev. Lett.72(18), 2927–2930 (1994).

de Waele, R.

E. J. R. Vesseur, R. de Waele, M. Kuttge, and A. Polman, “Direct observation of plasmonic modes in Au nanowires using high-resolution cathodoluminescence spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.7(9), 2843–2846 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

J. Berthelot, F. Tantussi, P. Rai, G. Colas des Francs, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, F. Fuso, M. Allegrini, and A. Bouhelier, “Determinant role of the edges in defining surface plasmon propagation in stripe waveguides and tapered concentrators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(2), 226–231 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B68(11), 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, C. Girard, J. R. Krenn, and J.-P. Goudonnet, “Plasmon polaritons of metallic nanowires for controlling submicron propagation of light,” Phys. Rev. B60(12), 9061–9068 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dickson, R. M.

R. M. Dickson and L. A. Lyon, “Unidirectional plasmon propagation in metallic nanowires,” J. Phys. Chem. B104(26), 6095–6098 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ditlbacher, H.

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H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(25), 257403 (2005).
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M. Song, A. Bouhelier, P. Bramant, J. Sharma, E. Dujardin, D. Zhang, and G. Colas-des-Francs, “Imaging symmetry-selected corner plasmon modes in penta-twinned crystalline Ag nanowires,” ACS Nano5(7), 5874–5880 (2011).
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T. Wang, E. Boer-Duchemin, Y. Zhang, G. Comtet, and G. Dujardin, “Excitation of propagating surface plasmons with a scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nanotechnology22(17), 175201 (2011).
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C. Rewitz, T. Keitzl, P. Tuchscherer, J.-S. Huang, P. Geisler, G. Razinskas, B. Hecht, and T. Brixner, “Ultrafast plasmon propagation in nanowires characterized by far-field spectral interferometry,” Nano Lett.12(1), 45–49 (2012).
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H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(25), 257403 (2005).
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A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Philos. Roy. Soc. A149, 220–229 (2008).

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(25), 257403 (2005).
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Z. Li, K. Bao, Y. Fang, Y. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, “Correlation between incident and emission polarization in nanowire surface plasmon waveguides,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
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Z. Li, F. Hao, Y. Huang, Y. Fang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, “Directional light emission from propagating surface plasmons of silver nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4383–4386 (2009).
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A. Huck, S. Kumar, A. Shakoor, and U. L. Andersen, “Controlled coupling of a single nitrogen-vacancy center to a silver nanowire,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(9), 096801 (2011).
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R. Innes and J. Sambles, “Optical characterisation of gold using surface plasmon-polaritons,” J. Phys. F Met. Phys.17(1), 277–287 (1987).
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Johansson, P.

T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(2), 706–711 (2011).
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T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(2), 706–711 (2011).
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C. Rewitz, T. Keitzl, P. Tuchscherer, J.-S. Huang, P. Geisler, G. Razinskas, B. Hecht, and T. Brixner, “Ultrafast plasmon propagation in nanowires characterized by far-field spectral interferometry,” Nano Lett.12(1), 45–49 (2012).
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A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Philos. Roy. Soc. A149, 220–229 (2008).

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H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(25), 257403 (2005).
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A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Philos. Roy. Soc. A149, 220–229 (2008).

Krenn, J. R.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(25), 257403 (2005).
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A. Huck, S. Kumar, A. Shakoor, and U. L. Andersen, “Controlled coupling of a single nitrogen-vacancy center to a silver nanowire,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(9), 096801 (2011).
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E. J. R. Vesseur, R. de Waele, M. Kuttge, and A. Polman, “Direct observation of plasmonic modes in Au nanowires using high-resolution cathodoluminescence spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.7(9), 2843–2846 (2007).
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Laverdant, J.

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H. Wei, D. Ratchford, X. E. Li, H. Xu, and C.-K. Shih, “Propagating surface plasmon induced photon emission from quantum dots,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4168–4171 (2009).
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Z. Li, K. Bao, Y. Fang, Y. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, “Correlation between incident and emission polarization in nanowire surface plasmon waveguides,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
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S. Egusa, Y.-H. Liau, and N. F. Scherer, “Imaging scanning tunneling microscope-induced electroluminescence in plasmonic corrals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(8), 1257–1259 (2004).
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T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(2), 706–711 (2011).
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A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
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Y. Nakamura, Y. Mera, and K. Maeda, “A reproducible method to fabricate atomically sharp tips for scanning tunneling microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.70(8), 3373–3376 (1999).
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T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(2), 706–711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, K. Bao, Y. Fang, Y. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, “Correlation between incident and emission polarization in nanowire surface plasmon waveguides,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, F. Hao, Y. Huang, Y. Fang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, “Directional light emission from propagating surface plasmons of silver nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4383–4386 (2009).
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A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
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E. S. Barnard, T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Imaging the hidden modes of ultrathin plasmonic strip antennas by cathodoluminescence,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4265–4269 (2011).
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Ratchford, D.

H. Wei, D. Ratchford, X. E. Li, H. Xu, and C.-K. Shih, “Propagating surface plasmon induced photon emission from quantum dots,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4168–4171 (2009).
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Razinskas, G.

C. Rewitz, T. Keitzl, P. Tuchscherer, J.-S. Huang, P. Geisler, G. Razinskas, B. Hecht, and T. Brixner, “Ultrafast plasmon propagation in nanowires characterized by far-field spectral interferometry,” Nano Lett.12(1), 45–49 (2012).
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C. Rewitz, T. Keitzl, P. Tuchscherer, J.-S. Huang, P. Geisler, G. Razinskas, B. Hecht, and T. Brixner, “Ultrafast plasmon propagation in nanowires characterized by far-field spectral interferometry,” Nano Lett.12(1), 45–49 (2012).
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Rogers, M.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(25), 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Innes and J. Sambles, “Optical characterisation of gold using surface plasmon-polaritons,” J. Phys. F Met. Phys.17(1), 277–287 (1987).
[CrossRef]

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S. Egusa, Y.-H. Liau, and N. F. Scherer, “Imaging scanning tunneling microscope-induced electroluminescence in plasmonic corrals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(8), 1257–1259 (2004).
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R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B74(16), 165415 (2006).
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R. Zia, M. D. Selker, and M. L. Brongersma, “Leaky and bound modes of surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B71(16), 165431 (2005).
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A. Huck, S. Kumar, A. Shakoor, and U. L. Andersen, “Controlled coupling of a single nitrogen-vacancy center to a silver nanowire,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(9), 096801 (2011).
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M. Song, A. Bouhelier, P. Bramant, J. Sharma, E. Dujardin, D. Zhang, and G. Colas-des-Francs, “Imaging symmetry-selected corner plasmon modes in penta-twinned crystalline Ag nanowires,” ACS Nano5(7), 5874–5880 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(2), 706–711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Wei, D. Ratchford, X. E. Li, H. Xu, and C.-K. Shih, “Propagating surface plasmon induced photon emission from quantum dots,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4168–4171 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Song, A. Bouhelier, P. Bramant, J. Sharma, E. Dujardin, D. Zhang, and G. Colas-des-Francs, “Imaging symmetry-selected corner plasmon modes in penta-twinned crystalline Ag nanowires,” ACS Nano5(7), 5874–5880 (2011).
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A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Philos. Roy. Soc. A149, 220–229 (2008).

Stepanov, A.

A. Drezet, A. Hohenau, D. Koller, A. Stepanov, H. Ditlbacher, B. Steinberger, F. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. Krenn, “Leakage radiation microscopy of surface plasmon polaritons,” Philos. Roy. Soc. A149, 220–229 (2008).

Symonds, C.

Takahara, J.

Taki, H.

Tantussi, F.

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P. Li and T. Taubner, “Broadband subwavelength imaging using a tunable graphene-lens,” ACS Nano6(11), 10107–10114 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Rewitz, T. Keitzl, P. Tuchscherer, J.-S. Huang, P. Geisler, G. Razinskas, B. Hecht, and T. Brixner, “Ultrafast plasmon propagation in nanowires characterized by far-field spectral interferometry,” Nano Lett.12(1), 45–49 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. S. Barnard, T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, and M. L. Brongersma, “Imaging the hidden modes of ultrathin plasmonic strip antennas by cathodoluminescence,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4265–4269 (2011).
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E. J. R. Vesseur, R. de Waele, M. Kuttge, and A. Polman, “Direct observation of plasmonic modes in Au nanowires using high-resolution cathodoluminescence spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.7(9), 2843–2846 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vignoli, S.

Wagner, D.

H. Ditlbacher, A. Hohenau, D. Wagner, U. Kreibig, M. Rogers, F. Hofer, F. R. Aussenegg, and J. R. Krenn, “Silver nanowires as surface plasmon resonators,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(25), 257403 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Wang, E. Boer-Duchemin, Y. Zhang, G. Comtet, and G. Dujardin, “Excitation of propagating surface plasmons with a scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nanotechnology22(17), 175201 (2011).
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J. R. Krenn and J. C. Weeber, “Surface plasmon polaritons in metal stripes and wires,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci362(1817), 739–756 (2004).
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J. Berthelot, F. Tantussi, P. Rai, G. Colas des Francs, J.-C. Weeber, A. Dereux, F. Fuso, M. Allegrini, and A. Bouhelier, “Determinant role of the edges in defining surface plasmon propagation in stripe waveguides and tapered concentrators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B29(2), 226–231 (2012).
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J.-C. Weeber, Y. Lacroute, and A. Dereux, “Optical near-field distributions of surface plasmon waveguide modes,” Phys. Rev. B68(11), 115401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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H. Wei, D. Ratchford, X. E. Li, H. Xu, and C.-K. Shih, “Propagating surface plasmon induced photon emission from quantum dots,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4168–4171 (2009).
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T. Shegai, V. D. Miljković, K. Bao, H. Xu, P. Nordlander, P. Johansson, and M. Käll, “Unidirectional broadband light emission from supported plasmonic nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(2), 706–711 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, K. Bao, Y. Fang, Y. Huang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, “Correlation between incident and emission polarization in nanowire surface plasmon waveguides,” Nano Lett.10(5), 1831–1835 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, F. Hao, Y. Huang, Y. Fang, P. Nordlander, and H. Xu, “Directional light emission from propagating surface plasmons of silver nanowires,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4383–4386 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wei, D. Ratchford, X. E. Li, H. Xu, and C.-K. Shih, “Propagating surface plasmon induced photon emission from quantum dots,” Nano Lett.9(12), 4168–4171 (2009).
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Yu, C. L.

A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Zhang, D.

M. Song, A. Bouhelier, P. Bramant, J. Sharma, E. Dujardin, D. Zhang, and G. Colas-des-Francs, “Imaging symmetry-selected corner plasmon modes in penta-twinned crystalline Ag nanowires,” ACS Nano5(7), 5874–5880 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Wang, E. Boer-Duchemin, Y. Zhang, G. Comtet, and G. Dujardin, “Excitation of propagating surface plasmons with a scanning tunnelling microscope,” Nanotechnology22(17), 175201 (2011).
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R. Zia, J. A. Schuller, and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-field characterization of guided polariton propagation and cutoff in surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B74(16), 165415 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Zia, M. D. Selker, and M. L. Brongersma, “Leaky and bound modes of surface plasmon waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B71(16), 165431 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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A. V. Akimov, A. Mukherjee, C. L. Yu, D. E. Chang, A. S. Zibrov, P. R. Hemmer, H. Park, and M. D. Lukin, “Generation of single optical plasmons in metallic nanowires coupled to quantum dots,” Nature450(7168), 402–406 (2007).
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ACS Nano (2)

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Theoretically it may be shown that by assuming that the scattered light is driven by a weighted coherent sum of SPP modes from both interfaces, the effectively observed kSPP/k0 determined from the above fringe shift method is neither that of the air/Au mode nor that of the Au/ITO/glass mode but a weighted average of the two. If both modes mix at the edge, there is some change in fringe visibility (due to partly constructive or destructive interference) and the fringes in the Fourier plane shift as if only one SPP with an effective kSPP is excited.

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