Abstract

This study systematically investigates the influence of free carriers on the generation of THz in ZnTe crystals, over a wide range of pumping fluences. As the pumping fluence is increased (< 6.36 mJ/cm2), the concentration of free carriers gradually increases and the THz output power is saturated, as clearly demonstrated by the time delay in the THz temporal waveforms, the changes in the THz spectral weight and the red-shift in the PL spectra. For high pumping fluences (> 6.36 mJ/cm2), spectacularly, there is a significant quadratic increase in the THz output power when the pumping fluence is increased, as well as at low pumping fluences of < 0.58 mJ/cm2, because of the saturation of free carriers.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2012 (2)

C.-M. Tu, S. A. Ku, W.-C. Chu, C. W. Luo, J.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Chi, “Pulsed terahertz radiation due to coherent phonon-polariton excitation in <110> ZnTe Crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.112(9), 093110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Turchinovich and M. C. Hoffmann, “Self-phase modulation of a single-cycle terahertz pulse by nonlinear free-carrier response in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. B85(20), 201304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

S. Vidal, J. Degert, M. Tondusson, J. Oberlé, and E. Freysz, “Impact of dispersion, free carriers, and two-photon absorption on the generation of intense terahertz pulses in ZnTe crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(19), 191103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

S. M. Harrel, R. L. Milot, J. M. Schleicher, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Influence of free-carrier absorption on terahertz generation from ZnTe (110),” J. Appl. Phys.107(3), 033526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, G. Kaur, and X.-C. Zhang, “Photoluminescence quenching dynamics in cadmium telluride and gallium arsenide induced by ultrashort terahertz pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann and D. Turchinovich, “Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, E. Freysz, and A. K. Sood, “Influence of two photon absorption induced free carriers on coherent polariton and phonon generation in ZnTe crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.107(10), 103102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

2007 (2)

2005 (3)

V. Y. Gaivoronsky, M. M. Nazarov, D. A. Sapozhnikov, Y. V. Shepelyavyi, S. A. Shkel’nyuk, A. P. Shkurinov, and A. V. Shuvaev, “Competition between linear and nonlinear processes during generation of pulsed terahertz radiation in a ZnTe crystal,” Quantum Electron.35(5), 407–414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Löffler, T. Hahn, M. Thomson, F. Jacob, and H. G. Roskos, “Large-area electro-optic ZnTe terahertz emitters,” Opt. Express13(14), 5353–5362 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, Y. D. Zheng, R. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “Fermi-level band filling and band-gap renormalization in Ga-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(19), 192111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schall and P. U. Jepsen, “Above-band gap two-photon absorption and its influence on ultrafast carrier dynamics in ZnTe and CdTe,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4771–4773 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. Wang, K. S. Wong, B. A. Foreman, Z. Y. Yang, and G. K. L. Wong, “One-and two-photon-excited time-resolved photoluminescence investigations of bulk and surface recombination dynamics in ZnSe,” J. Appl. Phys.83(9), 4773–4776 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

Bandulet, H.-C.

Blanchard, F.

Chen, J.-C.

C.-M. Tu, S. A. Ku, W.-C. Chu, C. W. Luo, J.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Chi, “Pulsed terahertz radiation due to coherent phonon-polariton excitation in <110> ZnTe Crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.112(9), 093110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chi, C.-C.

C.-M. Tu, S. A. Ku, W.-C. Chu, C. W. Luo, J.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Chi, “Pulsed terahertz radiation due to coherent phonon-polariton excitation in <110> ZnTe Crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.112(9), 093110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chu, W.-C.

C.-M. Tu, S. A. Ku, W.-C. Chu, C. W. Luo, J.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Chi, “Pulsed terahertz radiation due to coherent phonon-polariton excitation in <110> ZnTe Crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.112(9), 093110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Degert, J.

S. Vidal, J. Degert, M. Tondusson, J. Oberlé, and E. Freysz, “Impact of dispersion, free carriers, and two-photon absorption on the generation of intense terahertz pulses in ZnTe crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(19), 191103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, B.

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foreman, B. A.

H. Wang, K. S. Wong, B. A. Foreman, Z. Y. Yang, and G. K. L. Wong, “One-and two-photon-excited time-resolved photoluminescence investigations of bulk and surface recombination dynamics in ZnSe,” J. Appl. Phys.83(9), 4773–4776 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Freysz, E.

S. Vidal, J. Degert, M. Tondusson, J. Oberlé, and E. Freysz, “Impact of dispersion, free carriers, and two-photon absorption on the generation of intense terahertz pulses in ZnTe crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(19), 191103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, E. Freysz, and A. K. Sood, “Influence of two photon absorption induced free carriers on coherent polariton and phonon generation in ZnTe crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.107(10), 103102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gaivoronsky, V. Y.

V. Y. Gaivoronsky, M. M. Nazarov, D. A. Sapozhnikov, Y. V. Shepelyavyi, S. A. Shkel’nyuk, A. P. Shkurinov, and A. V. Shuvaev, “Competition between linear and nonlinear processes during generation of pulsed terahertz radiation in a ZnTe crystal,” Quantum Electron.35(5), 407–414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gu, S. L.

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, Y. D. Zheng, R. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “Fermi-level band filling and band-gap renormalization in Ga-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(19), 192111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

Hahn, T.

Harrel, S. M.

S. M. Harrel, R. L. Milot, J. M. Schleicher, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Influence of free-carrier absorption on terahertz generation from ZnTe (110),” J. Appl. Phys.107(3), 033526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haugen, H. K.

Hebling, J.

Hegmann, F. A.

Hoffmann, M. C.

D. Turchinovich and M. C. Hoffmann, “Self-phase modulation of a single-cycle terahertz pulse by nonlinear free-carrier response in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. B85(20), 201304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann and D. Turchinovich, “Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann, K.-L. Yeh, J. Hebling, and K. A. Nelson, “Efficient terahertz generation by optical rectification at 1035 nm,” Opt. Express15(18), 11706–11713 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ichikawa, Y.

Jacob, F.

Jepsen, P. U.

M. Schall and P. U. Jepsen, “Above-band gap two-photon absorption and its influence on ultrafast carrier dynamics in ZnTe and CdTe,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4771–4773 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jewariya, M.

Ji, W.

E. G. Sun, W. Ji, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-photon absorption induced saturation of THz radiation in ZeTe,” Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers Electro-Optics, OSA, 2000, 479–480.

Kamaraju, N.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, E. Freysz, and A. K. Sood, “Influence of two photon absorption induced free carriers on coherent polariton and phonon generation in ZnTe crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.107(10), 103102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaur, G.

J. Liu, G. Kaur, and X.-C. Zhang, “Photoluminescence quenching dynamics in cadmium telluride and gallium arsenide induced by ultrashort terahertz pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J.-C.

Ku, S. A.

C.-M. Tu, S. A. Ku, W.-C. Chu, C. W. Luo, J.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Chi, “Pulsed terahertz radiation due to coherent phonon-polariton excitation in <110> ZnTe Crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.112(9), 093110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, E. Freysz, and A. K. Sood, “Influence of two photon absorption induced free carriers on coherent polariton and phonon generation in ZnTe crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.107(10), 103102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Liu, G. Kaur, and X.-C. Zhang, “Photoluminescence quenching dynamics in cadmium telluride and gallium arsenide induced by ultrashort terahertz pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. M.

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, Y. D. Zheng, R. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “Fermi-level band filling and band-gap renormalization in Ga-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(19), 192111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Löffler, T.

Luo, C. W.

C.-M. Tu, S. A. Ku, W.-C. Chu, C. W. Luo, J.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Chi, “Pulsed terahertz radiation due to coherent phonon-polariton excitation in <110> ZnTe Crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.112(9), 093110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Milot, R. L.

S. M. Harrel, R. L. Milot, J. M. Schleicher, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Influence of free-carrier absorption on terahertz generation from ZnTe (110),” J. Appl. Phys.107(3), 033526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morandotti, R.

Nagai, M.

Nazarov, M. M.

V. Y. Gaivoronsky, M. M. Nazarov, D. A. Sapozhnikov, Y. V. Shepelyavyi, S. A. Shkel’nyuk, A. P. Shkurinov, and A. V. Shuvaev, “Competition between linear and nonlinear processes during generation of pulsed terahertz radiation in a ZnTe crystal,” Quantum Electron.35(5), 407–414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, K. A.

Oberlé, J.

S. Vidal, J. Degert, M. Tondusson, J. Oberlé, and E. Freysz, “Impact of dispersion, free carriers, and two-photon absorption on the generation of intense terahertz pulses in ZnTe crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(19), 191103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ohtake, H.

Ozaki, T.

Razzari, L.

Reid, M.

Roskos, H. G.

Said, A. A.

Sapozhnikov, D. A.

V. Y. Gaivoronsky, M. M. Nazarov, D. A. Sapozhnikov, Y. V. Shepelyavyi, S. A. Shkel’nyuk, A. P. Shkurinov, and A. V. Shuvaev, “Competition between linear and nonlinear processes during generation of pulsed terahertz radiation in a ZnTe crystal,” Quantum Electron.35(5), 407–414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schall, M.

M. Schall and P. U. Jepsen, “Above-band gap two-photon absorption and its influence on ultrafast carrier dynamics in ZnTe and CdTe,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4771–4773 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schleicher, J. M.

S. M. Harrel, R. L. Milot, J. M. Schleicher, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Influence of free-carrier absorption on terahertz generation from ZnTe (110),” J. Appl. Phys.107(3), 033526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmuttenmaer, C. A.

S. M. Harrel, R. L. Milot, J. M. Schleicher, and C. A. Schmuttenmaer, “Influence of free-carrier absorption on terahertz generation from ZnTe (110),” J. Appl. Phys.107(3), 033526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, G.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Shepelyavyi, Y. V.

V. Y. Gaivoronsky, M. M. Nazarov, D. A. Sapozhnikov, Y. V. Shepelyavyi, S. A. Shkel’nyuk, A. P. Shkurinov, and A. V. Shuvaev, “Competition between linear and nonlinear processes during generation of pulsed terahertz radiation in a ZnTe crystal,” Quantum Electron.35(5), 407–414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, Y. D. Zheng, R. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “Fermi-level band filling and band-gap renormalization in Ga-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(19), 192111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shkel’nyuk, S. A.

V. Y. Gaivoronsky, M. M. Nazarov, D. A. Sapozhnikov, Y. V. Shepelyavyi, S. A. Shkel’nyuk, A. P. Shkurinov, and A. V. Shuvaev, “Competition between linear and nonlinear processes during generation of pulsed terahertz radiation in a ZnTe crystal,” Quantum Electron.35(5), 407–414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shkurinov, A. P.

V. Y. Gaivoronsky, M. M. Nazarov, D. A. Sapozhnikov, Y. V. Shepelyavyi, S. A. Shkel’nyuk, A. P. Shkurinov, and A. V. Shuvaev, “Competition between linear and nonlinear processes during generation of pulsed terahertz radiation in a ZnTe crystal,” Quantum Electron.35(5), 407–414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shuvaev, A. V.

V. Y. Gaivoronsky, M. M. Nazarov, D. A. Sapozhnikov, Y. V. Shepelyavyi, S. A. Shkel’nyuk, A. P. Shkurinov, and A. V. Shuvaev, “Competition between linear and nonlinear processes during generation of pulsed terahertz radiation in a ZnTe crystal,” Quantum Electron.35(5), 407–414 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sood, A. K.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, E. Freysz, and A. K. Sood, “Influence of two photon absorption induced free carriers on coherent polariton and phonon generation in ZnTe crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.107(10), 103102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, T.

Sun, E. G.

E. G. Sun, W. Ji, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-photon absorption induced saturation of THz radiation in ZeTe,” Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers Electro-Optics, OSA, 2000, 479–480.

Tanaka, K.

Thomson, M.

Tiedje, H. F.

Tondusson, M.

S. Vidal, J. Degert, M. Tondusson, J. Oberlé, and E. Freysz, “Impact of dispersion, free carriers, and two-photon absorption on the generation of intense terahertz pulses in ZnTe crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(19), 191103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tu, C.-M.

C.-M. Tu, S. A. Ku, W.-C. Chu, C. W. Luo, J.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Chi, “Pulsed terahertz radiation due to coherent phonon-polariton excitation in <110> ZnTe Crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.112(9), 093110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Turchinovich, D.

D. Turchinovich and M. C. Hoffmann, “Self-phase modulation of a single-cycle terahertz pulse by nonlinear free-carrier response in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. B85(20), 201304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann and D. Turchinovich, “Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Uehara, Y.

Van Stryland, E. W.

Vidal, S.

S. Vidal, J. Degert, M. Tondusson, J. Oberlé, and E. Freysz, “Impact of dispersion, free carriers, and two-photon absorption on the generation of intense terahertz pulses in ZnTe crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(19), 191103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Wang, K. S. Wong, B. A. Foreman, Z. Y. Yang, and G. K. L. Wong, “One-and two-photon-excited time-resolved photoluminescence investigations of bulk and surface recombination dynamics in ZnSe,” J. Appl. Phys.83(9), 4773–4776 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wei, T. H.

Wong, G. K. L.

H. Wang, K. S. Wong, B. A. Foreman, Z. Y. Yang, and G. K. L. Wong, “One-and two-photon-excited time-resolved photoluminescence investigations of bulk and surface recombination dynamics in ZnSe,” J. Appl. Phys.83(9), 4773–4776 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. S.

H. Wang, K. S. Wong, B. A. Foreman, Z. Y. Yang, and G. K. L. Wong, “One-and two-photon-excited time-resolved photoluminescence investigations of bulk and surface recombination dynamics in ZnSe,” J. Appl. Phys.83(9), 4773–4776 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. Y.

H. Wang, K. S. Wong, B. A. Foreman, Z. Y. Yang, and G. K. L. Wong, “One-and two-photon-excited time-resolved photoluminescence investigations of bulk and surface recombination dynamics in ZnSe,” J. Appl. Phys.83(9), 4773–4776 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ye, J. D.

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, Y. D. Zheng, R. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “Fermi-level band filling and band-gap renormalization in Ga-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(19), 192111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, K.-L.

Young, J.

Zhang, R.

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, Y. D. Zheng, R. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “Fermi-level band filling and band-gap renormalization in Ga-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(19), 192111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.-C.

J. Liu, G. Kaur, and X.-C. Zhang, “Photoluminescence quenching dynamics in cadmium telluride and gallium arsenide induced by ultrashort terahertz pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Ferguson and X.-C. Zhang, “Materials for terahertz science and technology,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 26–33 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. G. Sun, W. Ji, and X.-C. Zhang, “Two-photon absorption induced saturation of THz radiation in ZeTe,” Proceedings of the Conference on Lasers Electro-Optics, OSA, 2000, 479–480.

Zheng, Y. D.

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, Y. D. Zheng, R. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “Fermi-level band filling and band-gap renormalization in Ga-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(19), 192111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S. M.

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, Y. D. Zheng, R. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “Fermi-level band filling and band-gap renormalization in Ga-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(19), 192111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Vidal, J. Degert, M. Tondusson, J. Oberlé, and E. Freysz, “Impact of dispersion, free carriers, and two-photon absorption on the generation of intense terahertz pulses in ZnTe crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(19), 191103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Schall and P. U. Jepsen, “Above-band gap two-photon absorption and its influence on ultrafast carrier dynamics in ZnTe and CdTe,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(25), 4771–4773 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Ye, S. L. Gu, S. M. Zhu, S. M. Liu, Y. D. Zheng, R. Zhang, and Y. Shi, “Fermi-level band filling and band-gap renormalization in Ga-doped ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(19), 192111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, G. Kaur, and X.-C. Zhang, “Photoluminescence quenching dynamics in cadmium telluride and gallium arsenide induced by ultrashort terahertz pulse,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Hoffmann and D. Turchinovich, “Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(15), 151110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, E. Freysz, and A. K. Sood, “Influence of two photon absorption induced free carriers on coherent polariton and phonon generation in ZnTe crystals,” J. Appl. Phys.107(10), 103102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C.-M. Tu, S. A. Ku, W.-C. Chu, C. W. Luo, J.-C. Chen, and C.-C. Chi, “Pulsed terahertz radiation due to coherent phonon-polariton excitation in <110> ZnTe Crystal,” J. Appl. Phys.112(9), 093110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Wang, K. S. Wong, B. A. Foreman, Z. Y. Yang, and G. K. L. Wong, “One-and two-photon-excited time-resolved photoluminescence investigations of bulk and surface recombination dynamics in ZnSe,” J. Appl. Phys.83(9), 4773–4776 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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