Abstract

We present a design for a low-footprint optical interconnect that efficiently couples between two photonic planes with significant vertical separation up to 10 μm and a footprint less than 10 μm × 10 μm. The device may be used to connect between deposited passive waveguide devices in the upper plane and active devices on a substrate. The design is based on a vertical stack of coupled ring resonators. We demonstrate basic feasibility of the design and estimates of device performance based on numerical simulation. A matrix model is presented to estimate spectral performance as a function of several design parameters.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (5)

2011 (2)

2010 (4)

2009 (5)

K. Preston, S. Manipatruni, A. Gondarenko, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Deposited silicon high-speed integrated electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express17(7), 5118–5124 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shafiei, M. Khanzadeh, M. Agha-Bolorizadeh, and R. F. Moghaddam, “Linear transmission properties of a vertically stacked multiring resonator with a defect,” Appl. Opt.48(31), G148–G155 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun.282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Transparent amorphous silicon channel waveguides with silicon nitride intercladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(14), 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” Micro, IEEE29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE6898, 689804, 689804-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Y. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Impedance matching vertical optical waveguide couplers for dense high index contrast circuits,” Opt. Express16(16), 11682–11690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

1999 (1)

1997 (1)

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. E. Little and W. P. Huang, “Coupled-mode theory for optical waveguides,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res.10, 217–270 (1995).

1987 (1)

H. Haus, W. Huang, S. Kawakami, and N. Whitaker, “Coupled-mode theory of optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.5(1), 16–23 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

A. Yariv, “Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.9(9), 919–933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Agha-Bolorizadeh, M.

Ahn, D. H.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE6898, 689804, 689804-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Apsel, A.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE6898, 689804, 689804-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Armenise, M. N.

Asanovic, K.

A. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” Micro, IEEE29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun.282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Batten, A.

A. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” Micro, IEEE29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Beals, M.

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Transparent amorphous silicon channel waveguides with silicon nitride intercladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(14), 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Y. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Impedance matching vertical optical waveguide couplers for dense high index contrast circuits,” Opt. Express16(16), 11682–11690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE6898, 689804, 689804-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beattie, J.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE6898, 689804, 689804-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bessette, J. T.

Biberman, A.

Bienstman, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bogaerts, W.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun.282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bok, J. K.

H.-C. Ji, K. H. Ha, K. W. Na, S. G. Kim, I. S. Joe, D. J. Shin, K. H. Lee, S. D. Suh, J. K. Bok, Y. S. You, Y. W. Hyung, S. S. Kim, Y. D. Park, and C. H. Chung, “Bulk silicon photonic wire for one-chip integrated optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of 2010 7th IEEE International Conference on the Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2010), pp. 96–98.
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y.

Camacho-Aguilera, R. E.

Campanella, C. E.

Carothers, D.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE6898, 689804, 689804-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. K.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE6898, 689804, 689804-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, J.

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Transparent amorphous silicon channel waveguides with silicon nitride intercladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(14), 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Y. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Impedance matching vertical optical waveguide couplers for dense high index contrast circuits,” Opt. Express16(16), 11682–11690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S. T.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chung, C. H.

H.-C. Ji, K. H. Ha, K. W. Na, S. G. Kim, I. S. Joe, D. J. Shin, K. H. Lee, S. D. Suh, J. K. Bok, Y. S. You, Y. W. Hyung, S. S. Kim, Y. D. Park, and C. H. Chung, “Bulk silicon photonic wire for one-chip integrated optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of 2010 7th IEEE International Conference on the Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2010), pp. 96–98.
[CrossRef]

Ciminelli, C.

Claes, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De Heyn, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De Vos, K.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dell’Olio, F.

Duan, X.

K. A. McComber, X. Duan, J. Liu, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Single-crystal germanium growth on amorphous silicon,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(5), 1049–1057 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun.282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Foresi, J.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Georgas, M.

Gill, D. M.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE6898, 689804, 689804-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gondarenko, A.

Ha, K. H.

H.-C. Ji, K. H. Ha, K. W. Na, S. G. Kim, I. S. Joe, D. J. Shin, K. H. Lee, S. D. Suh, J. K. Bok, Y. S. You, Y. W. Hyung, S. S. Kim, Y. D. Park, and C. H. Chung, “Bulk silicon photonic wire for one-chip integrated optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of 2010 7th IEEE International Conference on the Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2010), pp. 96–98.
[CrossRef]

Haus, H.

H. Haus, W. Huang, S. Kawakami, and N. Whitaker, “Coupled-mode theory of optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.5(1), 16–23 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, C. W.

A. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” Micro, IEEE29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. Y.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE6898, 689804, 689804-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Y. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Impedance matching vertical optical waveguide couplers for dense high index contrast circuits,” Opt. Express16(16), 11682–11690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoyt, J. L.

A. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” Micro, IEEE29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W.

H. Haus, W. Huang, S. Kawakami, and N. Whitaker, “Coupled-mode theory of optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.5(1), 16–23 (1987).
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Huang, W. P.

B. E. Little and W. P. Huang, “Coupled-mode theory for optical waveguides,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res.10, 217–270 (1995).

Huang, Y.

Hyung, Y. W.

H.-C. Ji, K. H. Ha, K. W. Na, S. G. Kim, I. S. Joe, D. J. Shin, K. H. Lee, S. D. Suh, J. K. Bok, Y. S. You, Y. W. Hyung, S. S. Kim, Y. D. Park, and C. H. Chung, “Bulk silicon photonic wire for one-chip integrated optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of 2010 7th IEEE International Conference on the Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2010), pp. 96–98.
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Ji, H.-C.

H.-C. Ji, K. H. Ha, K. W. Na, S. G. Kim, I. S. Joe, D. J. Shin, K. H. Lee, S. D. Suh, J. K. Bok, Y. S. You, Y. W. Hyung, S. S. Kim, Y. D. Park, and C. H. Chung, “Bulk silicon photonic wire for one-chip integrated optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of 2010 7th IEEE International Conference on the Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2010), pp. 96–98.
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Joe, I. S.

H.-C. Ji, K. H. Ha, K. W. Na, S. G. Kim, I. S. Joe, D. J. Shin, K. H. Lee, S. D. Suh, J. K. Bok, Y. S. You, Y. W. Hyung, S. S. Kim, Y. D. Park, and C. H. Chung, “Bulk silicon photonic wire for one-chip integrated optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of 2010 7th IEEE International Conference on the Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2010), pp. 96–98.
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A. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” Micro, IEEE29(4), 8–21 (2009).
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Kartner, F. X.

A. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” Micro, IEEE29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, S.

H. Haus, W. Huang, S. Kawakami, and N. Whitaker, “Coupled-mode theory of optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.5(1), 16–23 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Khanzadeh, M.

Khilo, A.

A. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” Micro, IEEE29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. G.

H.-C. Ji, K. H. Ha, K. W. Na, S. G. Kim, I. S. Joe, D. J. Shin, K. H. Lee, S. D. Suh, J. K. Bok, Y. S. You, Y. W. Hyung, S. S. Kim, Y. D. Park, and C. H. Chung, “Bulk silicon photonic wire for one-chip integrated optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of 2010 7th IEEE International Conference on the Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2010), pp. 96–98.
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. S.

H.-C. Ji, K. H. Ha, K. W. Na, S. G. Kim, I. S. Joe, D. J. Shin, K. H. Lee, S. D. Suh, J. K. Bok, Y. S. You, Y. W. Hyung, S. S. Kim, Y. D. Park, and C. H. Chung, “Bulk silicon photonic wire for one-chip integrated optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of 2010 7th IEEE International Conference on the Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2010), pp. 96–98.
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Kimerling, L.

Kimerling, L. C.

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. McComber, X. Duan, J. Liu, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Single-crystal germanium growth on amorphous silicon,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(5), 1049–1057 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Transparent amorphous silicon channel waveguides with silicon nitride intercladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(14), 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE6898, 689804, 689804-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kopa, A.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE6898, 689804, 689804-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

Laine, J.-P.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K. H.

H.-C. Ji, K. H. Ha, K. W. Na, S. G. Kim, I. S. Joe, D. J. Shin, K. H. Lee, S. D. Suh, J. K. Bok, Y. S. You, Y. W. Hyung, S. S. Kim, Y. D. Park, and C. H. Chung, “Bulk silicon photonic wire for one-chip integrated optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of 2010 7th IEEE International Conference on the Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2010), pp. 96–98.
[CrossRef]

Lee, R. K.

Leu, J.

Li, H.

J. S. Orcutt, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Leu, M. Georgas, J. Shainline, E. Zgraggen, H. Li, J. Sun, M. Weaver, S. Urošević, M. Popović, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “Open foundry platform for high-performance electronic-photonic integration,” Opt. Express20(11), 12222–12232 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” Micro, IEEE29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Little, B. E.

B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, H. A. Haus, J. Foresi, and J.-P. Laine, “Microring resonator channel dropping filters,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(6), 998–1005 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. E. Little and W. P. Huang, “Coupled-mode theory for optical waveguides,” Prog. Electromagnetics Res.10, 217–270 (1995).

Liu, H.-C.

Liu, J.

K. A. McComber, X. Duan, J. Liu, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Single-crystal germanium growth on amorphous silicon,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(5), 1049–1057 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. F.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE6898, 689804, 689804-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lo, G. Q.

Manipatruni, S.

McComber, K.

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Transparent amorphous silicon channel waveguides with silicon nitride intercladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(14), 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McComber, K. A.

K. A. McComber, X. Duan, J. Liu, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Single-crystal germanium growth on amorphous silicon,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(5), 1049–1057 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

K. A. McComber, X. Duan, J. Liu, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Single-crystal germanium growth on amorphous silicon,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(5), 1049–1057 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Camacho-Aguilera, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped germanium laser,” Opt. Express20(10), 11316–11320 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Michel, J. Liu, and L. Kimerling, “High-performance Ge-on-Si photodetectors,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 527–534 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Transparent amorphous silicon channel waveguides with silicon nitride intercladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(14), 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Y. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Impedance matching vertical optical waveguide couplers for dense high index contrast circuits,” Opt. Express16(16), 11682–11690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE6898, 689804, 689804-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moghaddam, R. F.

Mookherjea, S.

Moss, B.

J. S. Orcutt, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Leu, M. Georgas, J. Shainline, E. Zgraggen, H. Li, J. Sun, M. Weaver, S. Urošević, M. Popović, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “Open foundry platform for high-performance electronic-photonic integration,” Opt. Express20(11), 12222–12232 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” Micro, IEEE29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Na, K. W.

H.-C. Ji, K. H. Ha, K. W. Na, S. G. Kim, I. S. Joe, D. J. Shin, K. H. Lee, S. D. Suh, J. K. Bok, Y. S. You, Y. W. Hyung, S. S. Kim, Y. D. Park, and C. H. Chung, “Bulk silicon photonic wire for one-chip integrated optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of 2010 7th IEEE International Conference on the Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2010), pp. 96–98.
[CrossRef]

Orcutt, J.

A. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” Micro, IEEE29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Orcutt, J. S.

Paloczi, G. T.

Park, Y. D.

H.-C. Ji, K. H. Ha, K. W. Na, S. G. Kim, I. S. Joe, D. J. Shin, K. H. Lee, S. D. Suh, J. K. Bok, Y. S. You, Y. W. Hyung, S. S. Kim, Y. D. Park, and C. H. Chung, “Bulk silicon photonic wire for one-chip integrated optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of 2010 7th IEEE International Conference on the Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2010), pp. 96–98.
[CrossRef]

Patel, N.

Patel, S. S.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE6898, 689804, 689804-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Poitras, C. B.

Pomerene, A.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE6898, 689804, 689804-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Y. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Impedance matching vertical optical waveguide couplers for dense high index contrast circuits,” Opt. Express16(16), 11682–11690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poon, J. K. S.

Popovic, M.

Popovic, M. A.

A. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” Micro, IEEE29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Preston, K.

Ram, R. J.

J. S. Orcutt, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Leu, M. Georgas, J. Shainline, E. Zgraggen, H. Li, J. Sun, M. Weaver, S. Urošević, M. Popović, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “Open foundry platform for high-performance electronic-photonic integration,” Opt. Express20(11), 12222–12232 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” Micro, IEEE29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rasras, M. S.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE6898, 689804, 689804-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Romagnoli, M.

Schaekers, M.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun.282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Scheuer, J.

Selvaraja, S. K.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun.282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shafiei, M.

Shainline, J.

Sherwood-Droz, N.

Shin, D. J.

H.-C. Ji, K. H. Ha, K. W. Na, S. G. Kim, I. S. Joe, D. J. Shin, K. H. Lee, S. D. Suh, J. K. Bok, Y. S. You, Y. W. Hyung, S. S. Kim, Y. D. Park, and C. H. Chung, “Bulk silicon photonic wire for one-chip integrated optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of 2010 7th IEEE International Conference on the Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2010), pp. 96–98.
[CrossRef]

Sleeckx, E.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun.282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Smith, H. I.

A. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” Micro, IEEE29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sparacin, D.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE6898, 689804, 689804-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sparacin, D. K.

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Transparent amorphous silicon channel waveguides with silicon nitride intercladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(14), 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stojanovic, V.

J. S. Orcutt, B. Moss, C. Sun, J. Leu, M. Georgas, J. Shainline, E. Zgraggen, H. Li, J. Sun, M. Weaver, S. Urošević, M. Popović, R. J. Ram, and V. Stojanović, “Open foundry platform for high-performance electronic-photonic integration,” Opt. Express20(11), 12222–12232 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Batten, A. Joshi, J. Orcutt, A. Khilo, B. Moss, C. W. Holzwarth, M. A. Popovic, H. Li, H. I. Smith, J. L. Hoyt, F. X. Kartner, R. J. Ram, V. Stojanovic, and K. Asanovic, “Building many-core processor-to-DRAM networks with monolithic CMOS silicon photonics,” Micro, IEEE29(4), 8–21 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suh, S. D.

H.-C. Ji, K. H. Ha, K. W. Na, S. G. Kim, I. S. Joe, D. J. Shin, K. H. Lee, S. D. Suh, J. K. Bok, Y. S. You, Y. W. Hyung, S. S. Kim, Y. D. Park, and C. H. Chung, “Bulk silicon photonic wire for one-chip integrated optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of 2010 7th IEEE International Conference on the Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2010), pp. 96–98.
[CrossRef]

Sumetsky, M.

Sun, C.

Sun, J.

Sun, R.

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Transparent amorphous silicon channel waveguides with silicon nitride intercladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(14), 141108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Sun, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, J. Cheng, C. Y. Hong, L. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Impedance matching vertical optical waveguide couplers for dense high index contrast circuits,” Opt. Express16(16), 11682–11690 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE6898, 689804, 689804-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thourhout, D. V.

S. K. Selvaraja, E. Sleeckx, M. Schaekers, W. Bogaerts, D. V. Thourhout, P. Dumon, and R. Baets, “Low-loss amorphous silicon-on-insulator technology for photonic integrated circuitry,” Opt. Commun.282(9), 1767–1770 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Timurdogan, E.

Trotter, D. C.

Tu, K. Y.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE6898, 689804, 689804-14 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Uroševic, S.

Van Thourhout, D.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Van Vaerenbergh, T.

W. Bogaerts, P. De Heyn, T. Van Vaerenbergh, K. De Vos, S. K. Selvaraja, T. Claes, P. Dumon, P. Bienstman, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Silicon microring resonators,” Laser Photonics Rev.6(1), 47–73 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

Weaver, M.

Whitaker, N.

H. Haus, W. Huang, S. Kawakami, and N. Whitaker, “Coupled-mode theory of optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol.5(1), 16–23 (1987).
[CrossRef]

White, A. E.

M. Beals, J. Michel, J. F. Liu, D. H. Ahn, D. Sparacin, R. Sun, C. Y. Hong, L. C. Kimerling, A. Pomerene, D. Carothers, J. Beattie, A. Kopa, A. Apsel, M. S. Rasras, D. M. Gill, S. S. Patel, K. Y. Tu, Y. K. Chen, and A. E. White, “Process flow innovations for photonic device integration in CMOS,” Proc. SPIE6898, 689804, 689804-14 (2008).
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Xu, Y.

Yariv, A.

You, Y. S.

H.-C. Ji, K. H. Ha, K. W. Na, S. G. Kim, I. S. Joe, D. J. Shin, K. H. Lee, S. D. Suh, J. K. Bok, Y. S. You, Y. W. Hyung, S. S. Kim, Y. D. Park, and C. H. Chung, “Bulk silicon photonic wire for one-chip integrated optical interconnection,” in Proceedings of 2010 7th IEEE International Conference on the Group IV Photonics (GFP) (2010), pp. 96–98.
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Zgraggen, E.

Zhu, S.

Zortman, W. A.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

K. A. McComber, X. Duan, J. Liu, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Single-crystal germanium growth on amorphous silicon,” Adv. Funct. Mater.22(5), 1049–1057 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Sun, K. McComber, J. Cheng, D. K. Sparacin, M. Beals, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Transparent amorphous silicon channel waveguides with silicon nitride intercladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(14), 141108 (2009).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A schematic representation of vertical multi-ring coupler device with path of optical energy flow represented. (b) Schematic cross section of monolithic integration of active and passive photonic devices in a silicon CMOS process and vertical optical coupling.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Magnitude of TE optical mode at 1.55 μm shown in the x-y plane of each ring in a 5 ring interconnect stack similar to the device illustrated in Fig. 1 made from a-Si layers with SiO2 cladding. Calculations performed with Lumerical FDTD Solutions 3D solver. Period of vertical ring placement is 800 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Representation of waveguide modes used in the coupled mode model. Straight section represents the combined input/output bus modes. The circular section represents the ring stack with N modes.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectra calculated using the CMT matrix method (dashed blue) and 3D-FDTD simulation (solid red) for 400 nm × 200 nm a-Si ring guides with SiO2 cladding. Ring radius is 4 μm. a,b) 3-ring stack with 800 nm vertical ring spacing period (1.6 μm total vertical rise) ; c,d) 14-ring stack with 800 nm vertical ring spacing period (10.4 μm total vertical rise). Approximately 3 dB/cm apparent bending loss is included.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission spectrum calculated using the CMT matrix method for two similar 5-ring interconnect designs with waveguide cross-sections of 200 × 400 nm, and ring radius of 4 μm. The ring spacing period is: 800 nm (solid blue) and 900 nm (dashed green). Both designs use a bus-to-ring coupling distance of 60 nm and assume 3 dB/cm propagation loss.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Transmission spectra of two 5-ring stacks calculated using the CMT matrix model. One stack has uniform ring spacing with rings positioned at h = 0 nm, ± 900 nm, and ± 1800 nm (solid blue). The second has variable ring spacing with rings position at h = 0 nm, ± 916 nm, and ± 1800 nm (dashed red). The ripple is more evenly distributed for the stack with variable spacing.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmission spectrum calculated using the CMT matrix method for three similar 5-ring interconnect designs with waveguide cross-sections of 200 × 400 nm, ring radius of 4 μm, and rings vertically positioned at h = 0 nm, ± 916 nm, and ± 1800 nm. A 3 dB/cm propagation loss is assumed. The bus-to-ring spacings are a) 60 nm, b) 40 nm bus-to-ring spacing, c) 10 nm bus-to-ring spacing.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Depth of ripple (defined as the difference between transmission maximum and minimum within the pass band) for ring stacks similar to the examples in Fig. 7 with variable bus-to-ring spacings.

Equations (11)

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b=Ta+U r ,
r + =Va+W r .
r =Δ r + .
b=Sa,
r + =Va+WΔ r + = (IWΔ) 1 Va,
b=[ T+UΔ ( IWΔ ) 1 V ]a.
d dl r(l)=i( B+ P 1 K )r(l),
B ij = β i δ ij ,
P ij = ( E i * × H j + E j × H i * ) z ^ dxdy ,
K ij = 2πc λ ε 0 ( n 2 n j 2 ) E j E i * dxdy.
Δ=Q( exp( i ξ 1 L ) 0 0 exp( i ξ n L ) ) Q 1 ,

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