Abstract

Advanced modulation formats call for suitable IQ modulators. Using the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform we exploit the linear electro-optic effect by functionalizing a photonic integrated circuit with an organic χ(2)-nonlinear cladding. We demonstrate that this silicon-organic hybrid (SOH) technology allows the fabrication of IQ modulators for generating 16QAM signals with data rates up to 112 Gbit/s. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest single-polarization data rate achieved so far with a silicon-integrated modulator. We found an energy consumption of 640 fJ/bit.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2013 (3)

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in Silicon-Organic Hybrid Technology,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (8)

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters24, 61–63 (2012). Correction: ibid., 24, 2198 (2012).

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y. K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, C. Xie, L. Chen, N. K. Fontaine, and Y. K. Chen, “Experimental demonstration of microring quadrature phase-shift keying modulators,” Opt. Lett.37(7), 1178–1180 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Error-free transmission of microring-modulated BPSK,” Opt. Express20(8), 8681–8688 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Brimont, D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, J. Martí, and P. Sanchis, “High-contrast 40 Gb/s operation of a 500 μm long silicon carrier-depletion slow wave modulator,” Opt. Lett.37(17), 3504–3506 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, C. Xie, L. Chen, L. L. Buhl, and Y.-K. Chen, “112-Gb/s monolithic PDM-QPSK modulator in silicon,” Opt. Express20(26), B624–B629 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Brimont, D. J. Thomson, P. Sanchis, J. Herrera, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High speed silicon electro-optical modulators enhanced via slow light propagation,” Opt. Express19(21), 20876–20885 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bogaerts and S. K. Selvaraja, “Compact single-mode silicon hybrid rib/strip waveguide with adiabatic bends,” IEEE Photon. J.3(3), 422–432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Dalton and S. Benight, “Theory-guided design of organic electro-optic materials and devices,” Polymers3(4), 1325–1351 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. S. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(10), 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “EO polymer modulators reliability study,” Proc. SPIE7599, 75990H (2010).

J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links,” Opt. Express18(16), 16902–16928 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

J. H. Wülbern, A. Petrov, and M. Eich, “Electro-optical modulator in a polymer-infiltrated silicon slotted photonic crystal waveguide heterostructure resonator,” Opt. Express17(1), 304–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

1998 (1)

Absil, P.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alic, N.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alloatti, L.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in Silicon-Organic Hybrid Technology,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersen, K. N.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreani, L. C.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Baets, R.

Baier, M.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in Silicon-Organic Hybrid Technology,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, (2013).
[CrossRef]

Barklund, A.

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Becker, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters24, 61–63 (2012). Correction: ibid., 24, 2198 (2012).

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Benight, S.

L. Dalton and S. Benight, “Theory-guided design of organic electro-optic materials and devices,” Polymers3(4), 1325–1351 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

Bjarklev, A.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Block, B.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. S. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(10), 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Blum, R.

Bogaerts, W.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bogaerts and S. K. Selvaraja, “Compact single-mode silicon hybrid rib/strip waveguide with adiabatic bends,” IEEE Photon. J.3(3), 422–432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bolten, J.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in Silicon-Organic Hybrid Technology,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonk, R.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brimont, A.

Brosi, J.-M.

Bruns, J.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L. L.

Chen, B.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “EO polymer modulators reliability study,” Proc. SPIE7599, 75990H (2010).

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chen, Y. K.

Chen, Y.-K.

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chmielak, B.

Claes, T.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Chang, P.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. S. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(10), 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L.

Di Falco, A.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dinu, R.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in Silicon-Organic Hybrid Technology,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “EO polymer modulators reliability study,” Proc. SPIE7599, 75990H (2010).

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Dreschmann, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters24, 61–63 (2012). Correction: ibid., 24, 2198 (2012).

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dumon, P.

Eich, M.

Ellermeyer, T.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ezra, S. B.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fage-Pedersen, J.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedeli, J.

Fedeli, J. M.

Fedeli, J.-M.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fontaine, N. K.

Fournier, M.

Frandsen, L. H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freude, W.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in Silicon-Organic Hybrid Technology,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters24, 61–63 (2012). Correction: ibid., 24, 2198 (2012).

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frey, F.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

Green, W. M.

Hampe, J.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, O.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heni, W.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

Herrera, J.

Hillerkuss, D.

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters24, 61–63 (2012). Correction: ibid., 24, 2198 (2012).

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

Hoh, M.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, D.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huebner, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters24, 61–63 (2012). Correction: ibid., 24, 2198 (2012).

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, R. S.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jen, A.

Jen, A. K.-Y.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jin, D.

D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “EO polymer modulators reliability study,” Proc. SPIE7599, 75990H (2010).

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, M.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Josten, A.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters24, 61–63 (2012). Correction: ibid., 24, 2198 (2012).

Karl, M.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kern, A.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. S. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(10), 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kleinow, P.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koenig, S.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters24, 61–63 (2012). Correction: ibid., 24, 2198 (2012).

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Komorowska, K.

Koos, C.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in Silicon-Organic Hybrid Technology,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters24, 61–63 (2012). Correction: ibid., 24, 2198 (2012).

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korn, D.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in Silicon-Organic Hybrid Technology,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krauss, T. F.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kristensen, M.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, B. P. P.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

Lavrinenko, A. V.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lawson, R.

Lepage, G.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

Leuthold, J.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in Silicon-Organic Hybrid Technology,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters24, 61–63 (2012). Correction: ibid., 24, 2198 (2012).

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Lipson, M.

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ludwig, A.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J. D.

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lutz, J.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mallari, J.

D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “EO polymer modulators reliability study,” Proc. SPIE7599, 75990H (2010).

Manipatruni, S.

Marculescu, A.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Martí, J.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Matheisen, C.

Merget, F.

Meyer, J.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters24, 61–63 (2012). Correction: ibid., 24, 2198 (2012).

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Miller, E.

D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “EO polymer modulators reliability study,” Proc. SPIE7599, 75990H (2010).

Moeller, M.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mohammed, E.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. S. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(10), 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moulin, G.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myslivets, E.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nagel, M.

Narkiss, N.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nebendahl, B.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters24, 61–63 (2012). Correction: ibid., 24, 2198 (2012).

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O’Faolain, L.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oehler, A.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ophir, N.

Ou, H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padmaraju, K.

Palermo, S.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. S. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(10), 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Palmer, R.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in Silicon-Organic Hybrid Technology,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pantouvaki, M.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parmigiani, F.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petropoulos, P.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, A.

J. H. Wülbern, A. Petrov, and M. Eich, “Electro-optical modulator in a polymer-infiltrated silicon slotted photonic crystal waveguide heterostructure resonator,” Opt. Express17(1), 304–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peucheret, C.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Reed, G. T.

Resan, B.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reshotko, M.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. S. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(10), 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ripperda, C.

Roeger, M.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Liao, J.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. S. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(10), 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sablotny, J.

Sanchis, P.

Scheerlinck, S.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schellinger, T.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, A.

Schindler, P. C.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in Silicon-Organic Hybrid Technology,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Schmogrow, R.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters24, 61–63 (2012). Correction: ibid., 24, 2198 (2012).

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schrauwen, J.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sekaric, L.

Selvaraja, S. K.

W. Bogaerts and S. K. Selvaraja, “Compact single-mode silicon hybrid rib/strip waveguide with adiabatic bends,” IEEE Photon. J.3(3), 422–432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

Sprave, M.

Sullivan, P.

Taillaert, D.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. J.

Vallaitis, T.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Van Campenhout, J.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Laere, F.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Verheyen, P.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlasov, Y. A.

Wahlbrink, T.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in Silicon-Organic Hybrid Technology,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waldow, M.

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in Silicon-Organic Hybrid Technology,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

Weingarten, K.

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wieland, J.

Winter, M.

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters24, 61–63 (2012). Correction: ibid., 24, 2198 (2012).

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Witzens, J.

Wülbern, J. H.

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Wülbern, A. Petrov, and M. Eich, “Electro-optical modulator in a polymer-infiltrated silicon slotted photonic crystal waveguide heterostructure resonator,” Opt. Express17(1), 304–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, C.

Xu, Q.

Young, I.

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. S. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(10), 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “EO polymer modulators reliability study,” Proc. SPIE7599, 75990H (2010).

Yu, H.

Zlatanovic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zsigri, B.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. H. Wülbern, J. Hampe, A. Petrov, M. Eich, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, A. Di Falco, T. F. Krauss, and J. Bruns, “Electro-optic modulation in slotted resonant photonic crystal heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(24), 241107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, B. Chen, D. Huang, D. Jin, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. Dinu, “Broadband electro-optic polymer modulators with high electro-optic activity and low poling induced optical loss,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 043507 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats (1)

R. Schmogrow, B. Nebendahl, M. Winter, A. Josten, D. Hillerkuss, S. Koenig, J. Meyer, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Error vector magnitude as a performance measure for advanced modulation formats,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters24, 61–63 (2012). Correction: ibid., 24, 2198 (2012).

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

I. Young, E. Mohammed, J. S. Liao, A. Kern, S. Palermo, B. Block, M. Reshotko, and P. D. Chang, “Optical technology for energy efficient I/O in high performance computing,” IEEE Commun. Mag.48(10), 184–191 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

W. Bogaerts and S. K. Selvaraja, “Compact single-mode silicon hybrid rib/strip waveguide with adiabatic bends,” IEEE Photon. J.3(3), 422–432 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

F. Van Laere, T. Claes, J. Schrauwen, S. Scheerlinck, W. Bogaerts, D. Taillaert, L. O’Faolain, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Compact focusing grating couplers for silicon-on-insulator integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(23), 1919–1921 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, M. Dreschmann, M. Huebner, M. Winter, J. Meyer, B. Nebendahl, C. Koos, J. Becker, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Real-time software-defined multiformat transmitter generating 64QAM at 28 GBd,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.22(21), 1601–1603 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Journal (2)

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, R. Schmogrow, W. Heni, S. Koenig, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Verheyen, G. Lepage, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, P. Absil, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Silicon-organic hybrid MZI modulator generating OOK, BPSK and 8-ASK signals for up to 84 Gbit/s,” IEEE Photonics Journal5, 6600907–6600907 (2013).

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, W. Heni, P. C. Schindler, J. Bolten, M. Karl, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low-loss silicon strip-to-slot mode converters,” IEEE Photonics Journal5(1), 2200409 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technology Letters (1)

R. Palmer, L. Alloatti, D. Korn, P. C. Schindler, M. Baier, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Waldow, R. Dinu, W. Freude, C. Koos, and J. Leuthold, “Low power Mach-Zehnder modulator in Silicon-Organic Hybrid Technology,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. Hillerkuss, R. Schmogrow, T. Schellinger, M. Jordan, M. Winter, G. Huber, T. Vallaitis, R. Bonk, P. Kleinow, F. Frey, M. Roeger, S. Koenig, A. Ludwig, A. Marculescu, J. Li, M. Hoh, M. Dreschmann, J. Meyer, S. B. Ezra, N. Narkiss, B. Nebendahl, F. Parmigiani, P. Petropoulos, B. Resan, A. Oehler, K. Weingarten, T. Ellermeyer, J. Lutz, M. Moeller, M. Huebner, J. Becker, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “26 Tbit s-1 line-rate super-channel transmission utilizing all-optical fast Fourier transform processing,” Nat. Photonics5(6), 364–371 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (12)

B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, M. Hochberg, G. Wang, R. Lawson, Y. Liao, P. Sullivan, L. Dalton, A. Jen, and A. Scherer, “Optical modulation and detection in slotted Silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express13(14), 5216–5226 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-M. Brosi, C. Koos, L. C. Andreani, M. Waldow, J. Leuthold, and W. Freude, “High-speed low-voltage electro-optic modulator with a polymer-infiltrated silicon photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express16(6), 4177–4191 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Wülbern, A. Petrov, and M. Eich, “Electro-optical modulator in a polymer-infiltrated silicon slotted photonic crystal waveguide heterostructure resonator,” Opt. Express17(1), 304–313 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, L. Chen, and Y. K. Chen, “High-speed low-voltage single-drive push-pull silicon Mach-Zehnder modulators,” Opt. Express20(6), 6163–6169 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Alloatti, D. Korn, R. Palmer, D. Hillerkuss, J. Li, A. Barklund, R. Dinu, J. Wieland, M. Fournier, J. Fedeli, H. Yu, W. Bogaerts, P. Dumon, R. Baets, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “42.7 Gbit/s electro-optic modulator in silicon technology,” Opt. Express19(12), 11841–11851 (2011).
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P. Dong, C. Xie, L. Chen, L. L. Buhl, and Y.-K. Chen, “112-Gb/s monolithic PDM-QPSK modulator in silicon,” Opt. Express20(26), B624–B629 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Green, M. J. Rooks, L. Sekaric, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Ultra-compact, low RF power, 10 Gb/s silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express15(25), 17106–17113 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yu, M. Pantouvaki, J. Van Campenhout, D. Korn, K. Komorowska, P. Dumon, Y. Li, P. Verheyen, P. Absil, L. Alloatti, D. Hillerkuss, J. Leuthold, R. Baets, and W. Bogaerts, “Performance tradeoff between lateral and interdigitated doping patterns for high speed carrier-depletion based silicon modulators,” Opt. Express20(12), 12926–12938 (2012).
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A. Brimont, D. J. Thomson, P. Sanchis, J. Herrera, F. Y. Gardes, J. M. Fedeli, G. T. Reed, and J. Martí, “High speed silicon electro-optical modulators enhanced via slow light propagation,” Opt. Express19(21), 20876–20885 (2011).
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K. Padmaraju, N. Ophir, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, S. Manipatruni, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Error-free transmission of microring-modulated BPSK,” Opt. Express20(8), 8681–8688 (2012).
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J. Witzens, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Design of transmission line driven slot waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometers and application to analog optical links,” Opt. Express18(16), 16902–16928 (2010).
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Opt. Lett. (2)

Polymers (1)

L. Dalton and S. Benight, “Theory-guided design of organic electro-optic materials and devices,” Polymers3(4), 1325–1351 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. Jin, H. Chen, A. Barklund, J. Mallari, G. Yu, E. Miller, and R. Dinu, “EO polymer modulators reliability study,” Proc. SPIE7599, 75990H (2010).

Other (1)

J. Proakis and M. Salehi, Digital Communications, 3rd Ed. (McGraw-Hill Education 1995). Section 4–3-1.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

IQ modulator based on the SOH concept. (a) Topview of the IQ modulator with nested Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZM), displaying optical waveguides (WG) in blue and electrical lines in orange. (b) Cross section of an SOH MZM, showing two silicon striploaded slot WGs, which act as phase shifters. They are filled and covered with a nonlinear cladding (not shown for clarity). The coplanar RF transmission line (GSG, ground-signal-ground) is impedance matched to the driving signal generator. The RF voltage at the S-electrode creates oppositely directed electric slot fields (red arrows). During the fabrication process, the χ(2)-nonlinearity is created by applying a poling voltage between both RF ground (G) electrodes at an elevated temperature. This aligns (poles) the active cladding molecules in a direction indicated by green arrows. In combination with the poled cladding, the modulating RF voltage leads to opposite phase shifts in both interferometer arms. (c) Color-coded dominant x-component |Ex| of the optical electrical field in the slot WG cross section. (d) Modulating electrical RF field. Both fields are strongly confined to the slot, resulting in high modulation efficiency.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Detailed cross section of MZM as implemented, showing two phase modulators with striploaded slot WGs, filled with nonlinear cladding; not to scale. Rails are connected to ground-signal-ground electrodes by tungsten vias, a silicide layer and the Si striploads. This electrode arrangement allows crossings of optical WGs and electrical transmission lines. Furthermore, it corresponds to the first part of standard metal stacks as known from CMOS technology.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electro-optic frequency response S21 of our MZM (including the RF probes). The modulator is driven with a small-signal sinusoidal at the quadrature operating point. The modulated light output power is detected with a photodiode. The raw frequency response is recorded with a vector network analyzer (VNA). When switching off the optical carrier, a noise floor from the optical detector is seen. The blue curves result from a moving average applied to the measured data (red dots). The inset shows a blow up of the averaged frequency response in the low-frequency region. The receiver’s equalizer (red curve) compensates the overall frequency response (magenta curve). The gray vertical line at 0.9 GHz marks the beginning of the frequency range which is of interest for data transmission (PRBS length 231-1). This frequency was chosen for normalizing the response function. The horizontal grey lines mark the −3 dB and −6 dB deviations from this reference point. The uncompensated −3 dB limiting frequency is 6.8 GHz, the −6 dB limit is 21 GHz.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup with photonic integrated circuit (PIC) under test. In blue: Schematic SOI chip configuration with nested MZMs using MMIs, and with grating couplers (GC) to couple light at 1545 nm with cleaved standard single mode fibers (SSMF). In orange: Electric coplanar waveguides in ground-signal-ground (GSG) configuration contacted with RF probes to operate MZMs in push-pull mode. In red: Off-chip electrical components to supply the PRBS signal (electrical arbitrary waveform generator, AWG, electrical amplifier), bias-Ts (DC sources not shown) and termination. In black: Off-chip fiber based devices for characterization, including a tunable laser source (TLS), a polarization controller (PC), filters, erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), variable attenuator (VOA) and ASE source for OSNR tests.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

QPSK generation at 56 Gbit/s with an IQ SOH modulator without using signal pre-emphasis, and detected without equalization. (a) Constellation and (b) in-phase and (c) quadrature-phase eye diagram. The BER is 4.5 × 10−4, and the EVM is 24.9% and thus well below the FEC error correction limit.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

QPSK generation at 56 Gbit/s with an IQ SOH modulator; detected using equalization with 19-taps as in [10]. Error free operation is measured and displayed in (a) constellation and (b, c) eye diagrams. The BER is shown in (d) in dependence of the OSNR at 25 GBd and 28 GBd. Measurements of the EVM are translated to BER and depicted.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Generation of 16QAM on a single channel and polarization at 112 Gbit/s with an IQ SOH modulator using pre-emphasis. (a) Constellation and (b, c) eye diagrams as observed when employing an 8-tap (1 tap per symbol) pre-emphasis at the transmitter, and no equalization at the receiver. The BER is 1.2 × 10−3, and the EVM is 10.3%.

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