Abstract

A double-sided polarization-independent plasmonic absorber is proposed and numerically investigated. Distinct from previously studied absorbers, it could absorb light incident from both sides of the surface through an ultrathin three-layer metal-insulator-metal nanostructure. Patterned metal particles are adopted instead of metal films in this absorber. It shows a high absorbance over a wide incident-angle range at near-infrared region. For electromagnetic waves incident from different sides of the structure, the maximum absorption locates at different wavelengths due to asymmetry. The effective medium theory demonstrates that the whole structure exhibits different impedances for both top and bottom incidences. This double-sided-absorption characteristic could lead to potential applications in thermal emitters, sensing, etc.

© 2013 OSA

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  4. M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, “Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in magnetic resonance imaging,” Science291(5505), 849–851 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B79(4), 045131 (2009).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano6(3), 2550–2557 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. M. D. Zoysa, T. Asano, K. Mochizuki, A. Oskooi, T. Inoue, and S. Noda, “Conversion of broadband to narrowband thermal emission through energy recycling,” Nat. Photonics6(8), 535–539 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  26. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Hao, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “Nearly total absorption of light and heat generation by plasmonic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B83(16), 165107 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  28. Z. Li, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, “Determination of the effective constitutive parameters of bianisotropic metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.79(2), 026610 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.71(33 Pt 2B), 036617 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Bianisotropic photonic metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(2), 367–375 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  32. N. L. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-sensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  33. W. D. Li, J. Hu, and S. Y. Chou, “Extraordinary light transmission through opaque thin metal film with subwavelength holes blocked by metal disks,” Opt. Express19(21), 21098–21108 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (9)

J. J. Talghader, A. S. Gawarikar, and R. P. Shea, “Spectral selectivity in infrared thermal detection,” Light Sci Appl1(8), e24 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Cheng, Y. Wang, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, X. Xiong, and X. Wang, “Design, fabrication and measurement of a broadband polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber based on lumped elements,” J. Appl. Phys.111(4), 044902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhu and L. J. Guo, “High performance broadband absorber in the visible band by engineered dispersion and geometry of a metal-dielectric-metal stack,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(24), 241116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Nielsen, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient absorption of visible radiation by gap plasmon resonators,” Opt. Express20(12), 13311–13319 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Alves, B. Kearney, D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, and G. Karunasiri, “Strong terahertz absorption using SiO2/Al based metamaterial structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Su, Y. F. Ke, S. L. Cai, and Q. Y. Yao, “Surface plasmon resonance of layer-by-layer gold nanoparticles induced photoelectric current in environmentally-friendly plasmon-sensitized solar cell,” Light Sci. Appl.1(6), e14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Watts, X. L. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater.24(23), OP98–OP120, OP181 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano6(3), 2550–2557 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Zoysa, T. Asano, K. Mochizuki, A. Oskooi, T. Inoue, and S. Noda, “Conversion of broadband to narrowband thermal emission through energy recycling,” Nat. Photonics6(8), 535–539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (8)

J. Hao, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “Nearly total absorption of light and heat generation by plasmonic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B83(16), 165107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Tittl, P. Mai, R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, “Palladium-based plasmonic perfect absorber in the visible wavelength range and its application to hydrogen sensing,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4366–4369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. D. Li, J. Hu, and S. Y. Chou, “Extraordinary light transmission through opaque thin metal film with subwavelength holes blocked by metal disks,” Opt. Express19(21), 21098–21108 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.109(7), 074510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ma, Q. Chen, J. Grant, S. C. Saha, A. Khalid, and D. R. S. Cumming, “A terahertz polarization insensitive dual band metamaterial absorber,” Opt. Lett.36(6), 945–947 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Li, L. H. Yuan, B. Zhou, X. P. Shen, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Ultrathin multiband gigahertz metamaterial absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(1), 014909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O'Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnetlike metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B82(20), 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(20), 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Bianisotropic photonic metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(2), 367–375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

Z. Li, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, “Determination of the effective constitutive parameters of bianisotropic metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.79(2), 026610 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. L. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-sensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B79(4), 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.71(33 Pt 2B), 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, “Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in magnetic resonance imaging,” Science291(5505), 849–851 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Albrektsen, O.

Alves, F.

F. Alves, B. Kearney, D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, and G. Karunasiri, “Strong terahertz absorption using SiO2/Al based metamaterial structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

M. D. Zoysa, T. Asano, K. Mochizuki, A. Oskooi, T. Inoue, and S. Noda, “Conversion of broadband to narrowband thermal emission through energy recycling,” Nat. Photonics6(8), 535–539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Averitt, R. D.

Avitzour, Y.

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B79(4), 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aydin, K.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Li, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, “Determination of the effective constitutive parameters of bianisotropic metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.79(2), 026610 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

D. Y. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O'Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnetlike metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B82(20), 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bingham, C. M.

N. L. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-sensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Briggs, R. M.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, S. L.

Y. H. Su, Y. F. Ke, S. L. Cai, and Q. Y. Yao, “Surface plasmon resonance of layer-by-layer gold nanoparticles induced photoelectric current in environmentally-friendly plasmon-sensitized solar cell,” Light Sci. Appl.1(6), e14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Chen, X.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano6(3), 2550–2557 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano6(3), 2550–2557 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.109(7), 074510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Q.

H. Li, L. H. Yuan, B. Zhou, X. P. Shen, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Ultrathin multiband gigahertz metamaterial absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(1), 014909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y. Z.

Y. Z. Cheng, Y. Wang, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, X. Xiong, and X. Wang, “Design, fabrication and measurement of a broadband polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber based on lumped elements,” J. Appl. Phys.111(4), 044902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chou, S. Y.

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Cui, T. J.

H. Li, L. H. Yuan, B. Zhou, X. P. Shen, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Ultrathin multiband gigahertz metamaterial absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(1), 014909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cumming, D. R. S.

Dregely, D.

A. Tittl, P. Mai, R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, “Palladium-based plasmonic perfect absorber in the visible wavelength range and its application to hydrogen sensing,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4366–4369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferry, V. E.

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gawarikar, A. S.

J. J. Talghader, A. S. Gawarikar, and R. P. Shea, “Spectral selectivity in infrared thermal detection,” Light Sci Appl1(8), e24 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

A. Tittl, P. Mai, R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, “Palladium-based plasmonic perfect absorber in the visible wavelength range and its application to hydrogen sensing,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4366–4369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gilderdale, D. J.

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, “Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in magnetic resonance imaging,” Science291(5505), 849–851 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, R. Z.

Y. Z. Cheng, Y. Wang, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, X. Xiong, and X. Wang, “Design, fabrication and measurement of a broadband polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber based on lumped elements,” J. Appl. Phys.111(4), 044902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grant, J.

Grbovic, D.

F. Alves, B. Kearney, D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, and G. Karunasiri, “Strong terahertz absorption using SiO2/Al based metamaterial structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

P. Zhu and L. J. Guo, “High performance broadband absorber in the visible band by engineered dispersion and geometry of a metal-dielectric-metal stack,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(24), 241116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hajnal, J. V.

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, “Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in magnetic resonance imaging,” Science291(5505), 849–851 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hao, J.

J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.109(7), 074510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hao, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “Nearly total absorption of light and heat generation by plasmonic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B83(16), 165107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hentschel, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

Inoue, T.

M. D. Zoysa, T. Asano, K. Mochizuki, A. Oskooi, T. Inoue, and S. Noda, “Conversion of broadband to narrowband thermal emission through energy recycling,” Nat. Photonics6(8), 535–539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N.

N. L. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-sensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jokerst, N. M.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karunasiri, G.

F. Alves, B. Kearney, D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, and G. Karunasiri, “Strong terahertz absorption using SiO2/Al based metamaterial structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ke, Y. F.

Y. H. Su, Y. F. Ke, S. L. Cai, and Q. Y. Yao, “Surface plasmon resonance of layer-by-layer gold nanoparticles induced photoelectric current in environmentally-friendly plasmon-sensitized solar cell,” Light Sci. Appl.1(6), e14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kearney, B.

F. Alves, B. Kearney, D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, and G. Karunasiri, “Strong terahertz absorption using SiO2/Al based metamaterial structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Khalid, A.

Koschny, T.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.71(33 Pt 2B), 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kriegler, C. E.

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Bianisotropic photonic metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(2), 367–375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Landy, N. I.

Landy, N. L.

N. L. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-sensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Larkman, D. J.

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, “Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in magnetic resonance imaging,” Science291(5505), 849–851 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavrik, N. V.

F. Alves, B. Kearney, D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, and G. Karunasiri, “Strong terahertz absorption using SiO2/Al based metamaterial structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

H. Li, L. H. Yuan, B. Zhou, X. P. Shen, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Ultrathin multiband gigahertz metamaterial absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(1), 014909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Li, W. D.

Li, Z.

Z. Li, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, “Determination of the effective constitutive parameters of bianisotropic metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.79(2), 026610 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Linden, S.

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Bianisotropic photonic metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(2), 367–375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, N.

A. Tittl, P. Mai, R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, “Palladium-based plasmonic perfect absorber in the visible wavelength range and its application to hydrogen sensing,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4366–4369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(20), 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, X. L.

C. M. Watts, X. L. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater.24(23), OP98–OP120, OP181 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, Y.

Mai, P.

A. Tittl, P. Mai, R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, “Palladium-based plasmonic perfect absorber in the visible wavelength range and its application to hydrogen sensing,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4366–4369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meng, L.

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mochizuki, K.

M. D. Zoysa, T. Asano, K. Mochizuki, A. Oskooi, T. Inoue, and S. Noda, “Conversion of broadband to narrowband thermal emission through energy recycling,” Nat. Photonics6(8), 535–539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mock, J. J.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nie, Y.

Y. Z. Cheng, Y. Wang, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, X. Xiong, and X. Wang, “Design, fabrication and measurement of a broadband polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber based on lumped elements,” J. Appl. Phys.111(4), 044902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M. G.

Noda, S.

M. D. Zoysa, T. Asano, K. Mochizuki, A. Oskooi, T. Inoue, and S. Noda, “Conversion of broadband to narrowband thermal emission through energy recycling,” Nat. Photonics6(8), 535–539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O'Hara, J. F.

D. Y. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O'Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnetlike metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B82(20), 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oskooi, A.

M. D. Zoysa, T. Asano, K. Mochizuki, A. Oskooi, T. Inoue, and S. Noda, “Conversion of broadband to narrowband thermal emission through energy recycling,” Nat. Photonics6(8), 535–539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ozbay, E.

Z. Li, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, “Determination of the effective constitutive parameters of bianisotropic metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.79(2), 026610 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padilla, W. J.

C. M. Watts, X. L. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater.24(23), OP98–OP120, OP181 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(20), 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-sensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Tao, N. I. Landy, C. M. Bingham, X. Zhang, R. D. Averitt, and W. J. Padilla, “A metamaterial absorber for the terahertz regime: design, fabrication and characterization,” Opt. Express16(10), 7181–7188 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, “Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in magnetic resonance imaging,” Science291(5505), 849–851 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plet, C.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pors, A.

Qiu, M.

L. Meng, D. Zhao, Q. Li, and M. Qiu, “Polarization-sensitive perfect absorbers at near-infrared wavelengths,” Opt. Express21(S1Suppl 1), A111–A122 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano6(3), 2550–2557 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hao, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “Nearly total absorption of light and heat generation by plasmonic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B83(16), 165107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.109(7), 074510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rill, M. S.

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Bianisotropic photonic metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(2), 367–375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saha, S. C.

Sajuyigbe, S.

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shchegolkov, D. Y.

D. Y. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O'Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnetlike metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B82(20), 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shea, R. P.

J. J. Talghader, A. S. Gawarikar, and R. P. Shea, “Spectral selectivity in infrared thermal detection,” Light Sci Appl1(8), e24 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shen, X. P.

H. Li, L. H. Yuan, B. Zhou, X. P. Shen, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Ultrathin multiband gigahertz metamaterial absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(1), 014909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shvets, G.

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B79(4), 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simakov, E. I.

D. Y. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O'Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnetlike metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B82(20), 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. R.

N. L. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-sensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. I. Landy, S. Sajuyigbe, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Perfect metamaterial absorber,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(20), 207402 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.71(33 Pt 2B), 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soukoulis, C. M.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.71(33 Pt 2B), 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, A. F.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(20), 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Starr, T.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Liu, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, and W. J. Padilla, “Infrared spatial and frequency selective metamaterial with near-unity absorbance,” Phys. Rev. Lett.104(20), 207403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Staude, I.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, Y. H.

Y. H. Su, Y. F. Ke, S. L. Cai, and Q. Y. Yao, “Surface plasmon resonance of layer-by-layer gold nanoparticles induced photoelectric current in environmentally-friendly plasmon-sensitized solar cell,” Light Sci. Appl.1(6), e14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Talghader, J. J.

J. J. Talghader, A. S. Gawarikar, and R. P. Shea, “Spectral selectivity in infrared thermal detection,” Light Sci Appl1(8), e24 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tao, H.

Taubert, R.

A. Tittl, P. Mai, R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, “Palladium-based plasmonic perfect absorber in the visible wavelength range and its application to hydrogen sensing,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4366–4369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thiel, M.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tittl, A.

A. Tittl, P. Mai, R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, “Palladium-based plasmonic perfect absorber in the visible wavelength range and its application to hydrogen sensing,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4366–4369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tyler, T.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 045901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. L. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-sensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Urzhumov, Y. A.

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B79(4), 045131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vier, D. C.

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.71(33 Pt 2B), 036617 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Freymann, G.

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.109(7), 074510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Y. Z. Cheng, Y. Wang, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, X. Xiong, and X. Wang, “Design, fabrication and measurement of a broadband polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber based on lumped elements,” J. Appl. Phys.111(4), 044902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. Z. Cheng, Y. Wang, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, X. Xiong, and X. Wang, “Design, fabrication and measurement of a broadband polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber based on lumped elements,” J. Appl. Phys.111(4), 044902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Watts, C. M.

C. M. Watts, X. L. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater.24(23), OP98–OP120, OP181 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wegener, M.

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Bianisotropic photonic metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(2), 367–375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, T.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiltshire, M. C. K.

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, “Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in magnetic resonance imaging,” Science291(5505), 849–851 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiong, X.

Y. Z. Cheng, Y. Wang, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, X. Xiong, and X. Wang, “Design, fabrication and measurement of a broadband polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber based on lumped elements,” J. Appl. Phys.111(4), 044902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano6(3), 2550–2557 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.109(7), 074510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Q. Y.

Y. H. Su, Y. F. Ke, S. L. Cai, and Q. Y. Yao, “Surface plasmon resonance of layer-by-layer gold nanoparticles induced photoelectric current in environmentally-friendly plasmon-sensitized solar cell,” Light Sci. Appl.1(6), e14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Young, I. R.

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, “Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in magnetic resonance imaging,” Science291(5505), 849–851 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, L. H.

H. Li, L. H. Yuan, B. Zhou, X. P. Shen, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Ultrathin multiband gigahertz metamaterial absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(1), 014909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zhao, D.

Zhou, B.

H. Li, L. H. Yuan, B. Zhou, X. P. Shen, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Ultrathin multiband gigahertz metamaterial absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(1), 014909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

J. Hao, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “Nearly total absorption of light and heat generation by plasmonic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B83(16), 165107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, P.

P. Zhu and L. J. Guo, “High performance broadband absorber in the visible band by engineered dispersion and geometry of a metal-dielectric-metal stack,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(24), 241116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zoysa, M. D.

M. D. Zoysa, T. Asano, K. Mochizuki, A. Oskooi, T. Inoue, and S. Noda, “Conversion of broadband to narrowband thermal emission through energy recycling,” Nat. Photonics6(8), 535–539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

X. Chen, Y. Chen, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Nanosecond photothermal effects in plasmonic nanostructures,” ACS Nano6(3), 2550–2557 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

C. M. Watts, X. L. Liu, and W. J. Padilla, “Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers,” Adv. Mater.24(23), OP98–OP120, OP181 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

F. Alves, B. Kearney, D. Grbovic, N. V. Lavrik, and G. Karunasiri, “Strong terahertz absorption using SiO2/Al based metamaterial structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(11), 111104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Hao, J. Wang, X. Liu, W. J. Padilla, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “High performance optical absorber based on a plasmonic metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(25), 251104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhu and L. J. Guo, “High performance broadband absorber in the visible band by engineered dispersion and geometry of a metal-dielectric-metal stack,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(24), 241116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. E. Kriegler, M. S. Rill, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Bianisotropic photonic metamaterials,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(2), 367–375 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

J. Wang, Y. Chen, J. Hao, M. Yan, and M. Qiu, “Shape-dependent absorption characteristics of three-layered metamaterial absorbers at near-infrared,” J. Appl. Phys.109(7), 074510 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Z. Cheng, Y. Wang, Y. Nie, R. Z. Gong, X. Xiong, and X. Wang, “Design, fabrication and measurement of a broadband polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber based on lumped elements,” J. Appl. Phys.111(4), 044902 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, L. H. Yuan, B. Zhou, X. P. Shen, Q. Cheng, and T. J. Cui, “Ultrathin multiband gigahertz metamaterial absorbers,” J. Appl. Phys.110(1), 014909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Light Sci Appl (1)

J. J. Talghader, A. S. Gawarikar, and R. P. Shea, “Spectral selectivity in infrared thermal detection,” Light Sci Appl1(8), e24 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Light Sci. Appl. (1)

Y. H. Su, Y. F. Ke, S. L. Cai, and Q. Y. Yao, “Surface plasmon resonance of layer-by-layer gold nanoparticles induced photoelectric current in environmentally-friendly plasmon-sensitized solar cell,” Light Sci. Appl.1(6), e14 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

A. Tittl, P. Mai, R. Taubert, D. Dregely, N. Liu, and H. Giessen, “Palladium-based plasmonic perfect absorber in the visible wavelength range and its application to hydrogen sensing,” Nano Lett.11(10), 4366–4369 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett.10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat Commun (1)

K. Aydin, V. E. Ferry, R. M. Briggs, and H. A. Atwater, “Broadband polarization-independent resonant light absorption using ultrathin plasmonic super absorbers,” Nat Commun2, 517 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

M. S. Rill, C. Plet, M. Thiel, I. Staude, G. von Freymann, S. Linden, and M. Wegener, “Photonic metamaterials by direct laser writing and silver chemical vapour deposition,” Nat. Mater.7(7), 543–546 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. D. Zoysa, T. Asano, K. Mochizuki, A. Oskooi, T. Inoue, and S. Noda, “Conversion of broadband to narrowband thermal emission through energy recycling,” Nat. Photonics6(8), 535–539 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (5)

D. Y. Shchegolkov, A. K. Azad, J. F. O'Hara, and E. I. Simakov, “Perfect subwavelength fishnetlike metamaterial-based film terahertz absorbers,” Phys. Rev. B82(20), 205117 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Hao, L. Zhou, and M. Qiu, “Nearly total absorption of light and heat generation by plasmonic metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. B83(16), 165107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Landy, C. M. Bingham, T. Tyler, N. Jokerst, D. R. Smith, and W. J. Padilla, “Design, theory, and measurement of a polarization-sensitive absorber for terahertz imaging,” Phys. Rev. B79(12), 125104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Avitzour, Y. A. Urzhumov, and G. Shvets, “Wide-angle infrared absorber based on a negative-index plasmonic metamaterial,” Phys. Rev. B79(4), 045131 (2009).
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Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (2)

D. R. Smith, D. C. Vier, T. Koschny, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Electromagnetic parameter retrieval from inhomogeneous metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.71(33 Pt 2B), 036617 (2005).
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Z. Li, K. Aydin, and E. Ozbay, “Determination of the effective constitutive parameters of bianisotropic metamaterials from reflection and transmission coefficients,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.79(2), 026610 (2009).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.107(4), 045901 (2011).
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Science (1)

M. C. K. Wiltshire, J. B. Pendry, I. R. Young, D. J. Larkman, D. J. Gilderdale, and J. V. Hajnal, “Microstructured magnetic materials for RF flux guides in magnetic resonance imaging,” Science291(5505), 849–851 (2001).
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Other (1)

S. V. Gaponenko, Introduction to Nanophotonics (Cambridge University, 2010), Chap. 6.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the double-sided MIM nanostructure, the cube in red represents a unit cell. (b) Bottom view of a unit cell. w1 (w2) denotes the width of the top (bottom) square metallic particle, respectively. The periods along both x and y axes are described by p. (c) Side view of a unit cell. d represents half distance of the air gap between two adjacent top metallic particles. h1, h2, h3 denote the thickness of each layer, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Relative permittivities of gold adopted in simulations. (a) real parts; (b) imaginary parts. The dots indicate the experimental data by Johnson and Christy. The curves are fitted by cubic spline interpolation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated absorption spectra under TE polarization (E//y) with different metallic nanoparticle geometries. (a) top normal incidence; (b) bottom normal incidence. G1 refers to w1 = 280 nm, w2 = 130 nm; G2 refers to w1 = 140 nm, w2 = 270 nm. Resonant wavelength shifts as the width of nanoparticle changes. (c) w2 = 130 nm, w1 varies; (d) w1 = 280 nm, w2 varies. Blue squares and red circles indicate top and bottom incident cases, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Absorbances as functions of wavelengths and incident angles. Schematic drawing of (a) TE polarization (d) TM polarization for both top and bottom incidences. (b) TE, top incidence (c) TE, bottom incidence; (e) TM, top incidence (f) TM, bottom incidence. For the bottom incident cases, the incident angles correspond to the refractive angles in quartz at quartz/air interface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Three-dimensional perspective of a unit cell with a cross-section (green) at the bottom Al2O3/Au interface for top view and two cross-sections for side view, a purple plane denotes the middle section and a red plane is 35 nm to right, respectively. (b) Magnetic field maps on two different cross-sections in red (first row) and green (second row). First column and second column indicate maps at the main peak wavelengths from the top and bottom incidences, respectively. Third column indicates maps at the secondary peak wavelength from bottom incidence for comparison. (c) Electric field maps on two different cross-sections in purple (first row) and red (second row) at the peak wavelengths. Graphs in (b) and (c) are plotted in logarithmic scale, and red color corresponds to higher amplitude.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Retrieved equivalent parameters for impedances of (a) top normal incidence, (b) bottom normal incidence, and (c) refractive index. The vertical dashed lines depict the wavelengths where resonant modes are excited. Simulated spectra of reflectance (R) and transmittance (T) for (d) top normal incidence and (e) bottom normal incidence.

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