Abstract

The design of optical systems for micro-focusing of extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulses through grazing-incidence toroidal mirrors is presented. Aim of the proposed configuration is to provide a micro-focused image through a high demagnification of the XUV source with the following characteristics: i) almost negligible aberrations; ii) long exit arm to easily accommodate at the output the experimental setups required for the applications of the focused attosecond pulses; iii) possibility to have an intermediate region where the XUV beam is collimated, in order to insert a plane split-mirror for the generation of two XUV pulse replicas to be used in a XUV-pump/XUV-probe setup. We present the analytical and numerical study of two optical configurations characterized by two sections based on the use of toroidal mirrors. The first section provides a demagnified image of the source in an intermediate focus that is free from defocusing but has a large coma aberration. The second section consists of a relay mirror that is mounted in Z-shaped geometry with respect to the previous one, in order to give a stigmatic image with a coma that is opposite to that provided by the first section. An example is provided to demonstrate the capability to achieve spot sizes in the 5-15 μm range with a demagnification higher than 10 in a compact envelope.

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2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (2)

C. Bourassin-Bouchet, S. de Rossi, F. Delmotte, and P. Chavel, “Spatiotemporal distortions of attosecond pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(6), 1395–1403 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli and G. Sansone, “New frontiers in attosecond science,” Prog. Quantum Electron.33(1), 17–59 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Mills, E. T. F. Rogers, J. Grant-Jacob, S. L. Stebbings, M. Praeger, A. M. de Paula, C. A. Froud, R. T. Chapman, T. J. Butcher, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “EUV off-axis focussing using a high harmonic source,” Proc. SPIE7360, 736003, 736003-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

T. Shimizu, T. Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Observation and analysis of an interferometric autocorrelation trace of an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. A75(3), 033817 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2004 (2)

H. Mashiko, A. Suda, and K. Midorikawa, “Focusing coherent soft-x-ray radiation to a micrometer spot size with an intensity of 1014 W/cm2.,” Opt. Lett.29(16), 1927–1929 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Poletto, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, and P. Villoresi, “Instrumentation for analysis and utilization of extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray high-order harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

C. Valentin, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, Th. Lefrou, G. Grillon, F. Augé, G. Mullot, Ph. Balcou, P. Mercère, and Ph. Zeitoun, “Imaging and quality assessment of high-harmonic focal spots,” Opt. Lett.28(12), 1049–1051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

1983 (1)

1982 (1)

1981 (1)

1950 (1)

Agostini, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aspnes, D. E.

Augé, F.

Azzeer, A. M.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

Bennett, G. R.

Bonora, S.

L. Poletto, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, and P. Villoresi, “Instrumentation for analysis and utilization of extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray high-order harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bourassin-Bouchet, C.

Boutet, S.

Breger, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brocklesby, W. S.

B. Mills, E. T. F. Rogers, J. Grant-Jacob, S. L. Stebbings, M. Praeger, A. M. de Paula, C. A. Froud, R. T. Chapman, T. J. Butcher, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “EUV off-axis focussing using a high harmonic source,” Proc. SPIE7360, 736003, 736003-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buchheim, J.

Burgdörfer, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Butcher, T. J.

B. Mills, E. T. F. Rogers, J. Grant-Jacob, S. L. Stebbings, M. Praeger, A. M. de Paula, C. A. Froud, R. T. Chapman, T. J. Butcher, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “EUV off-axis focussing using a high harmonic source,” Proc. SPIE7360, 736003, 736003-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Carré, B.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cavalieri, A. L.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chapman, R. T.

B. Mills, E. T. F. Rogers, J. Grant-Jacob, S. L. Stebbings, M. Praeger, A. M. de Paula, C. A. Froud, R. T. Chapman, T. J. Butcher, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “EUV off-axis focussing using a high harmonic source,” Proc. SPIE7360, 736003, 736003-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chavel, P.

de Bohan, A.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Paula, A. M.

B. Mills, E. T. F. Rogers, J. Grant-Jacob, S. L. Stebbings, M. Praeger, A. M. de Paula, C. A. Froud, R. T. Chapman, T. J. Butcher, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “EUV off-axis focussing using a high harmonic source,” Proc. SPIE7360, 736003, 736003-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Rossi, S.

Delmotte, F.

Dinu, L. C.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Douillet, D.

Ernstorfer, R.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feist, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fiess, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Folta, J. A.

Frasinski, L. J.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frey, J. G.

B. Mills, E. T. F. Rogers, J. Grant-Jacob, S. L. Stebbings, M. Praeger, A. M. de Paula, C. A. Froud, R. T. Chapman, T. J. Butcher, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “EUV off-axis focussing using a high harmonic source,” Proc. SPIE7360, 736003, 736003-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Froud, C. A.

B. Mills, E. T. F. Rogers, J. Grant-Jacob, S. L. Stebbings, M. Praeger, A. M. de Paula, C. A. Froud, R. T. Chapman, T. J. Butcher, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “EUV off-axis focussing using a high harmonic source,” Proc. SPIE7360, 736003, 736003-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Furusawa, K.

T. Shimizu, T. Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Observation and analysis of an interferometric autocorrelation trace of an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. A75(3), 033817 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gagnon, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garifo, L.

Goulielmakis, E.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grant-Jacob, J.

B. Mills, E. T. F. Rogers, J. Grant-Jacob, S. L. Stebbings, M. Praeger, A. M. de Paula, C. A. Froud, R. T. Chapman, T. J. Butcher, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “EUV off-axis focussing using a high harmonic source,” Proc. SPIE7360, 736003, 736003-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grillon, G.

Haber, H.

Hasegawa, H.

T. Shimizu, T. Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Observation and analysis of an interferometric autocorrelation trace of an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. A75(3), 033817 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karpowicz, N.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazamias, S.

Kienberger, R.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kleineberg, U.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Komninos, Y.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Korbman, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kovacev, M.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krausz, F.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krzywinski, J.

Lefrou, Th.

Mairesse, Y.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malvezzi, A. M.

Mashiko, H.

Mercère, P.

Mercouris, Th.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merdji, H.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Midorikawa, K.

Mills, B.

B. Mills, E. T. F. Rogers, J. Grant-Jacob, S. L. Stebbings, M. Praeger, A. M. de Paula, C. A. Froud, R. T. Chapman, T. J. Butcher, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “EUV off-axis focussing using a high harmonic source,” Proc. SPIE7360, 736003, 736003-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Monchicourt, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Montanez, P. A.

Muller, H. G.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullot, G.

Nabekawa, Y.

T. Shimizu, T. Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Observation and analysis of an interferometric autocorrelation trace of an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. A75(3), 033817 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nagele, S.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neppl, S.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolaides, C. A.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolosi, P.

Nisoli, M.

G. Sansone, L. Poletto, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy attosecond light sources,” Nat. Photonics5(11), 655–663 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli and G. Sansone, “New frontiers in attosecond science,” Prog. Quantum Electron.33(1), 17–59 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Okino, T.

T. Shimizu, T. Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Observation and analysis of an interferometric autocorrelation trace of an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. A75(3), 033817 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pascolini, M.

L. Poletto, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, and P. Villoresi, “Instrumentation for analysis and utilization of extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray high-order harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pazourek, R.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poletto, L.

G. Sansone, L. Poletto, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy attosecond light sources,” Nat. Photonics5(11), 655–663 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, and P. Villoresi, “Instrumentation for analysis and utilization of extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray high-order harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Poletto, P. Nicolosi, and G. Tondello, “Optical design of a stigmatic extreme-ultraviolet spectroscopic system for emission and absorption studies of laser-produced plasmas,” Appl. Opt.41(1), 172–181 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Praeger, M.

B. Mills, E. T. F. Rogers, J. Grant-Jacob, S. L. Stebbings, M. Praeger, A. M. de Paula, C. A. Froud, R. T. Chapman, T. J. Butcher, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “EUV off-axis focussing using a high harmonic source,” Proc. SPIE7360, 736003, 736003-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rogers, E. T. F.

B. Mills, E. T. F. Rogers, J. Grant-Jacob, S. L. Stebbings, M. Praeger, A. M. de Paula, C. A. Froud, R. T. Chapman, T. J. Butcher, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “EUV off-axis focussing using a high harmonic source,” Proc. SPIE7360, 736003, 736003-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Salières, P.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sansone, G.

G. Sansone, L. Poletto, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy attosecond light sources,” Nat. Photonics5(11), 655–663 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Nisoli and G. Sansone, “New frontiers in attosecond science,” Prog. Quantum Electron.33(1), 17–59 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, M.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, T.

T. Shimizu, T. Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Observation and analysis of an interferometric autocorrelation trace of an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. A75(3), 033817 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Siewert, F.

Signorato, R.

Stebbings, S. L.

B. Mills, E. T. F. Rogers, J. Grant-Jacob, S. L. Stebbings, M. Praeger, A. M. de Paula, C. A. Froud, R. T. Chapman, T. J. Butcher, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “EUV off-axis focussing using a high harmonic source,” Proc. SPIE7360, 736003, 736003-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, M.

Suda, A.

Taïeb, R.

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tondello, G.

Valentin, C.

Villoresi, P.

L. Poletto, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, and P. Villoresi, “Instrumentation for analysis and utilization of extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray high-order harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. J.

Yakovlev, V. S.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanouchi, K.

T. Shimizu, T. Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Observation and analysis of an interferometric autocorrelation trace of an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. A75(3), 033817 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeitoun, Ph.

Appl. Opt. (7)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

G. Sansone, L. Poletto, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy attosecond light sources,” Nat. Photonics5(11), 655–663 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. Shimizu, T. Okino, K. Furusawa, H. Hasegawa, Y. Nabekawa, K. Yamanouchi, and K. Midorikawa, “Observation and analysis of an interferometric autocorrelation trace of an attosecond pulse train,” Phys. Rev. A75(3), 033817 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. Mills, E. T. F. Rogers, J. Grant-Jacob, S. L. Stebbings, M. Praeger, A. M. de Paula, C. A. Froud, R. T. Chapman, T. J. Butcher, W. S. Brocklesby, and J. G. Frey, “EUV off-axis focussing using a high harmonic source,” Proc. SPIE7360, 736003, 736003-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Nisoli and G. Sansone, “New frontiers in attosecond science,” Prog. Quantum Electron.33(1), 17–59 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

L. Poletto, S. Bonora, M. Pascolini, and P. Villoresi, “Instrumentation for analysis and utilization of extreme-ultraviolet and soft x-ray high-order harmonics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.75(11), 4413 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in Photoemission,” Science328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Mairesse, A. de Bohan, L. J. Frasinski, H. Merdji, L. C. Dinu, P. Monchicourt, P. Breger, M. Kovacev, R. Taïeb, B. Carré, H. G. Muller, P. Agostini, and P. Salières, “Attosecond synchronization of high-harmonic soft x-rays,” Science302(5650), 1540–1543 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

P. Jaeglè, Coherent Sources of XUV Radiation (Springer, 2006).

W. J. Smith, Modern Lens Design (McGraw Hill, 2005).

L. Eybert, M. Wulff, W. Reichenbach, A. Plech, F. Schotte, E. Gagliardini, L. Zhang, O. Hignette, A. Rommeveaux, and A. Freund, “The toroidal mirror for single-pulse experiments on ID09B,” SPIE Proc. 4782, 246–257 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configurations for micro-focusing with toroidal mirrors: a) two mirrors, intermediate focus between MIR1 and MIR2, section 1 consists of MIR1 and section 2 of MIR2; b) three mirrors, parallel beam between Mir1 and MIR2, intermediate focus between MIR2 and MIR3, section 1 consists of MIR1 and MIR2 and section 2 of MIR3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical layout of a toroidal mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical layout of the beamline for XUV-pump/XUV-probe attosecond measurements: a) beamline; b-c) view of the split-mirror, the two delayed replicas are indicated in red and blue. An example of realization of the splitting mirror is discussed by Shimitzu et al [14].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Aberrations at the output of the beamline as a function of the demagnification of section 2, as calculated by the ray-tracing optimization procedure around the analytical solution given by Eq. (12). To calculate the aberrations, a point-like source having the same divergence of the actual source is placed at the input of the beamline. The aberrations are then defined as (σtan2 + σsag2)1/2, where σtan and σsag are the standard deviations of the output spot respectively along the tangential and sagittal directions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spot size in the intermediate focus (a) and at the output (b) of the XUV-XUV beamline.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spot profile in the intermediate focus (i.e. at the output of the section 1): a) tangential; b) sagittal. The coma aberration is clearly evident particularly in the tangential direction.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spot profile in the output plane (i.e. at the output of the section 2): a) tangential; b) sagittal. The coma aberration is almost totally canceled in both directions.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Temporal dispersion of the optical paths at the output of the beamline due to the residual aberrations. The dispersion in the intermediate focus is 700 as FWHM.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Aberrations (a) and temporal dispersion (b) as a function of the slope errors of the three mirrors of the beamline discussed in the text.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Aberrations (a) and temporal dispersion (b) as a function of the slope errors of the three Cartesian mirrors of the beamline with the same geometric characteristics of that discussed in the text.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Design parameters of the XUV-XUV attosecond beamline analyzed in the text

Tables Icon

Table 2 Optical parameters of the XUV-XUV attosecond beamline as determined by the optimization

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F =p+q+ F 20 y 2 + F 02 z 2 + F 30 y 3 + F 12 y z 2 + O( y 4 , z 4 ).      
F 20 = 1 2 cos 2 α( 1 p + 1 q 2 Rcosα ).
F 02 = 1 2 ( 1 p + 1 q 2cosα ρ ).
F 30 = 1 2 sinαcosα[ 1 p ( cosα p 1 R ) 1 q ( cosα q 1 R ) ].
F 12 = 1 2 sinα[ 1 p ( 1 p cosα ρ ) 1 q ( 1 q cosα ρ ) ].
1 p + 1 q = 2 Rcosα = 2cosα ρ .
Δ tan = q cosα F y | y= L tan ,z= L sag , Δ sag = q F y | y= L tan ,z= L sag .
Δ C tan =3 q cosα F 30 L tan 2 = 3 4 p D 2 M 2 1 M tanα .
Δ C sag =2q F 12 L tan L sag = 1 2 p D 2 M 2 1 M tanα= 2 3 Δ C tan .
Δ C tan,1 = 3 4 p 1 D 2 M 1 2 1 M 1 tanα , Δ C sag,1 = 2 3 Δ C tan,1 .
Δ C tan,2 = 3 4 q 2 D 2 M 1 2 ( M 2 2 1 )tanα, Δ C sag,2 = 2 3 Δ C tan,2 .
M 2 = 1+ p 1 q 2 M 1 2 1 M 1 3 1+ p 1 q 2 M 1 .

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