Abstract

In this paper, total internal reflection-refraction (TIR-R) concentration (U-TIR-R-C) lens module were designed for uniformity using the energy configuration method to eliminate hot spots on the surface of solar cell and increase conversion efficiency. The design of most current solar concentrators emphasizes the high-power concentration of solar energy, however neglects the conversion inefficiency resulting from hot spots generated by uneven distributions of solar energy concentrated on solar cells. The energy configuration method proposed in this study employs the concept of ray tracing to uniformly distribute solar energy to solar cells through a U-TIR-R-C lens module. The U-TIR-R-C lens module adopted in this study possessed a 76-mm diameter, a 41-mm thickness, concentration ratio of 1134 Suns, 82.6% optical efficiency, and 94.7% uniformity. The experiments demonstrated that the U-TIR-R-C lens module reduced the core temperature of the solar cell from 108 °C to 69 °C and the overall temperature difference from 45 °C to 10 °C, and effectively relative increased the conversion efficiency by approximately 3.8%. Therefore, the U-TIR-R-C lens module designed can effectively concentrate a large area of sunlight onto a small solar cell, and the concentrated solar energy can be evenly distributed in the solar cell to achieve uniform irradiance and effectively eliminate hot spots.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. N. L. Panwar, S. C. Kaushik, S. Kothari, “Role of renewable energy sources in environmental protection: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(3), 1513–1524 (2011).
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  2. H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, N. Karam, “III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, A. Akisawa, T. Kashiwagi, “Developments and designs of solar engineering Fresnel lenses”, Proceedings Symposium on Energy Engineering2, pp. 759–765, 2000.
  4. R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, A. Akisawa, T. Kashiwagi, “Shaped nonimaging Fresnel lenses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2(2), 112–116 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. T. Xie, Y. J. Dai, R. Z. Wang, K. Sumathy, “Concentrated solar energy applications using Fresnel lenses: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(6), 2588–2606 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. W. P. Mulligan, A. Terao, S. G. Daroczi, O. Chao Pujol, M. J. Cudzinovic, P. J. Verlinden, R. M. Swanson, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, “A flat-plate concentrator: micro-concentrator design overview,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1495–1497 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Hernandez, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, J. L. Alvarez, V. Diaz, J. Alonso, “Sunlight spectrum on cell through very high concentration optic key points for high gain photovoltaic solar energy concentrators,” Proc. SPIE 5962, 298–306 (2005).
  16. K. Nishioka, Y. Ota, K. Tamura, K. Araki, “Heat reduction of concentrator photovoltaic module using high radiation coating,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 215, 472–475 (2013).
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  17. A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, “Very high efficiency solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 6338, 63380N, 63380N-12 (2006).
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2013 (2)

K. K. Chong, S. L. Lau, T. K. Yew, C. L. Tan, “Design and development in optics of concentrator photovoltaic system,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 19, 598–612 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Nishioka, Y. Ota, K. Tamura, K. Araki, “Heat reduction of concentrator photovoltaic module using high radiation coating,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 215, 472–475 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

P. Zamora, P. Benitez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, J. Vilaplana, Y. L. M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

N. L. Panwar, S. C. Kaushik, S. Kothari, “Role of renewable energy sources in environmental protection: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(3), 1513–1524 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Xie, Y. J. Dai, R. Z. Wang, K. Sumathy, “Concentrated solar energy applications using Fresnel lenses: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(6), 2588–2606 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

M. Hernandez, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, W. Falicoff, Y. Sun, J. Chaves, R. Mohedano, “CPV and illumination systems based on XR-Köhler devices,” Proc. SPIE 7785, 77850A, 77850A-11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, N. Karam, “III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernandez, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Minano, P. Benitez, “Kohler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G, 12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. Cvetkovic, M. Hernandez, P. Benitez et al.., “The XR nonimaging photovoltaic concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 6670, 667005.1–667005.10 (2007).

2006 (1)

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, “Very high efficiency solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 6338, 63380N, 63380N-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

M. Hernandez, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, J. L. Alvarez, V. Diaz, J. Alonso, “Sunlight spectrum on cell through very high concentration optic key points for high gain photovoltaic solar energy concentrators,” Proc. SPIE 5962, 298–306 (2005).

C. Sierra, A. J. Vazquez, “High solar energy concentration with a Fresnel lens,” J. Mater. Sci. 40(6), 1339–1343 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2000 (1)

R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, A. Akisawa, T. Kashiwagi, “Shaped nonimaging Fresnel lenses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2(2), 112–116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Akisawa, A.

R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, A. Akisawa, T. Kashiwagi, “Shaped nonimaging Fresnel lenses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2(2), 112–116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, A. Akisawa, T. Kashiwagi, “Developments and designs of solar engineering Fresnel lenses”, Proceedings Symposium on Energy Engineering2, pp. 759–765, 2000.

Alonso, J.

M. Hernandez, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, J. L. Alvarez, V. Diaz, J. Alonso, “Sunlight spectrum on cell through very high concentration optic key points for high gain photovoltaic solar energy concentrators,” Proc. SPIE 5962, 298–306 (2005).

Alvarez, J. L.

M. Hernandez, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, J. L. Alvarez, V. Diaz, J. Alonso, “Sunlight spectrum on cell through very high concentration optic key points for high gain photovoltaic solar energy concentrators,” Proc. SPIE 5962, 298–306 (2005).

Araki, K.

K. Nishioka, Y. Ota, K. Tamura, K. Araki, “Heat reduction of concentrator photovoltaic module using high radiation coating,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 215, 472–475 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, A.

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, “Very high efficiency solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 6338, 63380N, 63380N-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Benitez, P.

P. Zamora, P. Benitez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, J. Vilaplana, Y. L. M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hernandez, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, W. Falicoff, Y. Sun, J. Chaves, R. Mohedano, “CPV and illumination systems based on XR-Köhler devices,” Proc. SPIE 7785, 77850A, 77850A-11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernandez, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Minano, P. Benitez, “Kohler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G, 12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Cvetkovic, M. Hernandez, P. Benitez et al.., “The XR nonimaging photovoltaic concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 6670, 667005.1–667005.10 (2007).

M. Hernandez, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, J. L. Alvarez, V. Diaz, J. Alonso, “Sunlight spectrum on cell through very high concentration optic key points for high gain photovoltaic solar energy concentrators,” Proc. SPIE 5962, 298–306 (2005).

W. P. Mulligan, A. Terao, S. G. Daroczi, O. Chao Pujol, M. J. Cudzinovic, P. J. Verlinden, R. M. Swanson, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, “A flat-plate concentrator: micro-concentrator design overview,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1495–1497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boisvert, J.

H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, N. Karam, “III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buljan, M.

Chao Pujol, O.

W. P. Mulligan, A. Terao, S. G. Daroczi, O. Chao Pujol, M. J. Cudzinovic, P. J. Verlinden, R. M. Swanson, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, “A flat-plate concentrator: micro-concentrator design overview,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1495–1497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chaves, J.

P. Zamora, P. Benitez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, J. Vilaplana, Y. L. M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hernandez, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, W. Falicoff, Y. Sun, J. Chaves, R. Mohedano, “CPV and illumination systems based on XR-Köhler devices,” Proc. SPIE 7785, 77850A, 77850A-11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chong, K. K.

K. K. Chong, S. L. Lau, T. K. Yew, C. L. Tan, “Design and development in optics of concentrator photovoltaic system,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 19, 598–612 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cotal, H.

H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, N. Karam, “III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cudzinovic, M. J.

W. P. Mulligan, A. Terao, S. G. Daroczi, O. Chao Pujol, M. J. Cudzinovic, P. J. Verlinden, R. M. Swanson, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, “A flat-plate concentrator: micro-concentrator design overview,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1495–1497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cvetkovic, A.

P. Zamora, P. Benitez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, J. Vilaplana, Y. L. M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hernandez, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, W. Falicoff, Y. Sun, J. Chaves, R. Mohedano, “CPV and illumination systems based on XR-Köhler devices,” Proc. SPIE 7785, 77850A, 77850A-11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernandez, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Minano, P. Benitez, “Kohler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G, 12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Cvetkovic, M. Hernandez, P. Benitez et al.., “The XR nonimaging photovoltaic concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 6670, 667005.1–667005.10 (2007).

Dai, Y. J.

W. T. Xie, Y. J. Dai, R. Z. Wang, K. Sumathy, “Concentrated solar energy applications using Fresnel lenses: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(6), 2588–2606 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Daroczi, S. G.

W. P. Mulligan, A. Terao, S. G. Daroczi, O. Chao Pujol, M. J. Cudzinovic, P. J. Verlinden, R. M. Swanson, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, “A flat-plate concentrator: micro-concentrator design overview,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1495–1497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, V.

M. Hernandez, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, J. L. Alvarez, V. Diaz, J. Alonso, “Sunlight spectrum on cell through very high concentration optic key points for high gain photovoltaic solar energy concentrators,” Proc. SPIE 5962, 298–306 (2005).

Dross, O.

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernandez, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Minano, P. Benitez, “Kohler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G, 12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Falicoff, W.

M. Hernandez, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, W. Falicoff, Y. Sun, J. Chaves, R. Mohedano, “CPV and illumination systems based on XR-Köhler devices,” Proc. SPIE 7785, 77850A, 77850A-11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fetzer, C.

H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, N. Karam, “III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hebert, P.

H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, N. Karam, “III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, M.

M. Hernandez, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, W. Falicoff, Y. Sun, J. Chaves, R. Mohedano, “CPV and illumination systems based on XR-Köhler devices,” Proc. SPIE 7785, 77850A, 77850A-11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernandez, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Minano, P. Benitez, “Kohler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G, 12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Cvetkovic, M. Hernandez, P. Benitez et al.., “The XR nonimaging photovoltaic concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 6670, 667005.1–667005.10 (2007).

M. Hernandez, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, J. L. Alvarez, V. Diaz, J. Alonso, “Sunlight spectrum on cell through very high concentration optic key points for high gain photovoltaic solar energy concentrators,” Proc. SPIE 5962, 298–306 (2005).

Hernández, M.

Hernández, Y. L. M.

P. Zamora, P. Benitez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, J. Vilaplana, Y. L. M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Honsberg, C.

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, “Very high efficiency solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 6338, 63380N, 63380N-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Karam, N.

H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, N. Karam, “III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kashiwagi, T.

R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, A. Akisawa, T. Kashiwagi, “Shaped nonimaging Fresnel lenses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2(2), 112–116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, A. Akisawa, T. Kashiwagi, “Developments and designs of solar engineering Fresnel lenses”, Proceedings Symposium on Energy Engineering2, pp. 759–765, 2000.

Kaushik, S. C.

N. L. Panwar, S. C. Kaushik, S. Kothari, “Role of renewable energy sources in environmental protection: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(3), 1513–1524 (2011).
[CrossRef]

King, R.

H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, N. Karam, “III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kinsey, G.

H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, N. Karam, “III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, D.

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, “Very high efficiency solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 6338, 63380N, 63380N-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kothari, S.

N. L. Panwar, S. C. Kaushik, S. Kothari, “Role of renewable energy sources in environmental protection: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(3), 1513–1524 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kreske, K.

Lau, S. L.

K. K. Chong, S. L. Lau, T. K. Yew, C. L. Tan, “Design and development in optics of concentrator photovoltaic system,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 19, 598–612 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leutz, R.

R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, A. Akisawa, T. Kashiwagi, “Shaped nonimaging Fresnel lenses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2(2), 112–116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, A. Akisawa, T. Kashiwagi, “Developments and designs of solar engineering Fresnel lenses”, Proceedings Symposium on Energy Engineering2, pp. 759–765, 2000.

Minano, J. C.

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernandez, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Minano, P. Benitez, “Kohler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G, 12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Hernandez, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, J. L. Alvarez, V. Diaz, J. Alonso, “Sunlight spectrum on cell through very high concentration optic key points for high gain photovoltaic solar energy concentrators,” Proc. SPIE 5962, 298–306 (2005).

W. P. Mulligan, A. Terao, S. G. Daroczi, O. Chao Pujol, M. J. Cudzinovic, P. J. Verlinden, R. M. Swanson, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, “A flat-plate concentrator: micro-concentrator design overview,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1495–1497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miñano, J. C.

P. Zamora, P. Benitez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, J. Vilaplana, Y. L. M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hernandez, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, W. Falicoff, Y. Sun, J. Chaves, R. Mohedano, “CPV and illumination systems based on XR-Köhler devices,” Proc. SPIE 7785, 77850A, 77850A-11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mohedano, R.

P. Zamora, P. Benitez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, J. Vilaplana, Y. L. M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Hernandez, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, W. Falicoff, Y. Sun, J. Chaves, R. Mohedano, “CPV and illumination systems based on XR-Köhler devices,” Proc. SPIE 7785, 77850A, 77850A-11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernandez, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Minano, P. Benitez, “Kohler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G, 12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mulligan, W. P.

W. P. Mulligan, A. Terao, S. G. Daroczi, O. Chao Pujol, M. J. Cudzinovic, P. J. Verlinden, R. M. Swanson, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, “A flat-plate concentrator: micro-concentrator design overview,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1495–1497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nishioka, K.

K. Nishioka, Y. Ota, K. Tamura, K. Araki, “Heat reduction of concentrator photovoltaic module using high radiation coating,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 215, 472–475 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ota, Y.

K. Nishioka, Y. Ota, K. Tamura, K. Araki, “Heat reduction of concentrator photovoltaic module using high radiation coating,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 215, 472–475 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Panwar, N. L.

N. L. Panwar, S. C. Kaushik, S. Kothari, “Role of renewable energy sources in environmental protection: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(3), 1513–1524 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sierra, C.

C. Sierra, A. J. Vazquez, “High solar energy concentration with a Fresnel lens,” J. Mater. Sci. 40(6), 1339–1343 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sumathy, K.

W. T. Xie, Y. J. Dai, R. Z. Wang, K. Sumathy, “Concentrated solar energy applications using Fresnel lenses: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(6), 2588–2606 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

M. Hernandez, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, W. Falicoff, Y. Sun, J. Chaves, R. Mohedano, “CPV and illumination systems based on XR-Köhler devices,” Proc. SPIE 7785, 77850A, 77850A-11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, A.

R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, A. Akisawa, T. Kashiwagi, “Shaped nonimaging Fresnel lenses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2(2), 112–116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, A. Akisawa, T. Kashiwagi, “Developments and designs of solar engineering Fresnel lenses”, Proceedings Symposium on Energy Engineering2, pp. 759–765, 2000.

Swanson, R. M.

W. P. Mulligan, A. Terao, S. G. Daroczi, O. Chao Pujol, M. J. Cudzinovic, P. J. Verlinden, R. M. Swanson, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, “A flat-plate concentrator: micro-concentrator design overview,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1495–1497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tamura, K.

K. Nishioka, Y. Ota, K. Tamura, K. Araki, “Heat reduction of concentrator photovoltaic module using high radiation coating,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 215, 472–475 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tan, C. L.

K. K. Chong, S. L. Lau, T. K. Yew, C. L. Tan, “Design and development in optics of concentrator photovoltaic system,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 19, 598–612 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Terao, A.

W. P. Mulligan, A. Terao, S. G. Daroczi, O. Chao Pujol, M. J. Cudzinovic, P. J. Verlinden, R. M. Swanson, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, “A flat-plate concentrator: micro-concentrator design overview,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1495–1497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vazquez, A. J.

C. Sierra, A. J. Vazquez, “High solar energy concentration with a Fresnel lens,” J. Mater. Sci. 40(6), 1339–1343 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Verlinden, P. J.

W. P. Mulligan, A. Terao, S. G. Daroczi, O. Chao Pujol, M. J. Cudzinovic, P. J. Verlinden, R. M. Swanson, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, “A flat-plate concentrator: micro-concentrator design overview,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1495–1497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vilaplana, J.

P. Zamora, P. Benitez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, J. Vilaplana, Y. L. M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. Z.

W. T. Xie, Y. J. Dai, R. Z. Wang, K. Sumathy, “Concentrated solar energy applications using Fresnel lenses: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(6), 2588–2606 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xie, W. T.

W. T. Xie, Y. J. Dai, R. Z. Wang, K. Sumathy, “Concentrated solar energy applications using Fresnel lenses: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(6), 2588–2606 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yew, T. K.

K. K. Chong, S. L. Lau, T. K. Yew, C. L. Tan, “Design and development in optics of concentrator photovoltaic system,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 19, 598–612 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, H.

H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, N. Karam, “III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zamora, P.

P. Zamora, P. Benitez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, J. Vilaplana, Y. L. M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, P. Zamora, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, M. Buljan, J. Chaves, M. Hernández, “High performance Fresnel-based photovoltaic concentrator,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A25–A40 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

H. Cotal, C. Fetzer, J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, R. King, P. Hebert, H. Yoon, N. Karam, “III–V multijunction solar cells for concentrating photovoltaics,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2(2), 174–192 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

C. Sierra, A. J. Vazquez, “High solar energy concentration with a Fresnel lens,” J. Mater. Sci. 40(6), 1339–1343 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, A. Akisawa, T. Kashiwagi, “Shaped nonimaging Fresnel lenses,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 2(2), 112–116 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Photon. Energy (1)

P. Zamora, P. Benitez, R. Mohedano, A. Cvetkovic, J. Vilaplana, Y. L. M. Hernández, J. Chaves, J. C. Miñano, “Experimental characterization of Fresnel-Köhler concentrators,” J. Photon. Energy 2(1), 021806 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Proc. SPIE (5)

M. Hernandez, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, J. L. Alvarez, V. Diaz, J. Alonso, “Sunlight spectrum on cell through very high concentration optic key points for high gain photovoltaic solar energy concentrators,” Proc. SPIE 5962, 298–306 (2005).

A. Cvetkovic, M. Hernandez, P. Benitez et al.., “The XR nonimaging photovoltaic concentrator,” Proc. SPIE 6670, 667005.1–667005.10 (2007).

O. Dross, R. Mohedano, M. Hernandez, A. Cvetkovic, J. C. Minano, P. Benitez, “Kohler integrators embedded into illumination optics add functionality,” Proc. SPIE 7103, 71030G, 12 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Hernandez, A. Cvetkovic, P. Benitez, J. C. Miñano, W. Falicoff, Y. Sun, J. Chaves, R. Mohedano, “CPV and illumination systems based on XR-Köhler devices,” Proc. SPIE 7785, 77850A, 77850A-11 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Barnett, D. Kirkpatrick, C. Honsberg, “Very high efficiency solar cells,” Proc. SPIE 6338, 63380N, 63380N-12 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. (3)

W. T. Xie, Y. J. Dai, R. Z. Wang, K. Sumathy, “Concentrated solar energy applications using Fresnel lenses: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(6), 2588–2606 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. L. Panwar, S. C. Kaushik, S. Kothari, “Role of renewable energy sources in environmental protection: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15(3), 1513–1524 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. K. Chong, S. L. Lau, T. K. Yew, C. L. Tan, “Design and development in optics of concentrator photovoltaic system,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 19, 598–612 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Tech. (1)

K. Nishioka, Y. Ota, K. Tamura, K. Araki, “Heat reduction of concentrator photovoltaic module using high radiation coating,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 215, 472–475 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

W. P. Mulligan, A. Terao, S. G. Daroczi, O. Chao Pujol, M. J. Cudzinovic, P. J. Verlinden, R. M. Swanson, P. Benitez, J. C. Minano, “A flat-plate concentrator: micro-concentrator design overview,” Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1495–1497 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Luque and V. Andreev, Concentrator Photovoltaics (Berlin: Springer, 2007), Chap.10.

R. Leutz, A. Suzuki, A. Akisawa, T. Kashiwagi, “Developments and designs of solar engineering Fresnel lenses”, Proceedings Symposium on Energy Engineering2, pp. 759–765, 2000.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Design diagram of U-TIR-R-C lens module and (b) T-TIR-R-C lens module

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The diagram of ray tracing paths for U-TIR-R-C lens module

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The reflective surface profile of the first ray and (b) the reflective profile of the other ray. T1 represents the reflective surface of the POE and T2 represents the reflective surface of the SOE

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The uniform total internal reflection-refraction (TIR-R) concentration (U-TIR-R-C) lenses: (a) 3D solid models of the U-TIR-R-C lens module and (b) prototype of the U-TIR-R-C lens module

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The ray tracing diagram for the U-TIR-R-C lens module; (b) a 2D irradiance distribution graph of the solar cell; (c) a 3D irradiance distribution graph of the solar cell; and (d) the 3D irradiance distribution graph of the solar cell when the sunlight was shifted 0.5°

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Relationship between the angle of incidence and optical transmission efficiency for the U-TIR-R-C lens module

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) The illumination pattern of the traditional TIR-R-C (T-TIR-R-C) lens, (b) The illumination pattern of the proposed U-TIR-R-C lens module

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Construction of sun tracker for an HCPV module with two types of TIR-R concentration lenses

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The temperature distribution on the solar cell surface with U-TIR-R lens and T-TIR-R lens

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) I/V curve and (b) P/V curve of solar cells containing U-TIR-R lens module and T-TIR-R lens module

Tables (1)

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Table1 PMMA material on the wavelength of the optical transmission efficiency

Equations (7)

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θ 2 = tan 1 ( y 2 y 1 x 2 x 1 )
θ 3 = tan 1 ( y 3 y 2 x 3 x 2 )
β 1 = 1 2 cos 1 ( S 0 S 1 ¯ 2 + S 1 S 2 ¯ 2 S 2 S 0 ¯ 2 2× S 0 S 1 ¯ × S 1 S 2 ¯ )
β 2 = 1 2 cos 1 ( S 1 S 2 ¯ 2 + S 2 S 3 ¯ 2 S 1 S 3 ¯ 2 2× S 1 S 2 ¯ × S 2 S 3 ¯ )
λ 1 = θ 1 +90° β 1
λ 2 = β 2 +90° θ 2
Uniformity=(1 MaximumfluxMinmumflux 2×Averageflux )×100%

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