Abstract

A critical step to achieving higher efficiency solar cells is the broad band harvesting of solar photons. Although considerable progress has recently been achieved in improving the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells, these cells still do not absorb upto ~50% of the solar spectrum. We have designed and developed an organic solar cell architecture that can boost the absorption of photons by 40% and the photo-current by 50% for organic P3HT-PCBM absorber layers of typical device thicknesses. Our solar cell architecture is based on all layers of the solar cell being patterned in a conformal two-dimensionally periodic photonic crystal architecture. This results in very strong diffraction of photons- that increases the photon path length in the absorber layer, and plasmonic light concentration near the patterned organic-metal cathode interface. The absorption approaches the Lambertian limit. The simulations utilize a rigorous scattering matrix approach and provide bounds of the fundamental limits of nano-photonic light absorption in periodically textured organic solar cells. This solar cell architecture has the potential to increase the power conversion efficiency to 10% for single band gap organic solar cells utilizing long-wavelength absorbers.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre´, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
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  8. S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, D. Duche´, F. Flory, J.-J. Simon, J. Le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, “Intrinsic absorption of plasmonic structures for organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. 95, S57–S64 (2011).
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  29. Nearly ideal loss-free metal can be achieved by increasing the imaginary part of the refractive index n2 in the metal by a large factor (200) that prevents the electromagnetic fields from penetrating within the metal.
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2013 (1)

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446–1455 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (5)

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. You, X. Li, F.-X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, J. H. W. Kwong, G. Li, W. C. H. Choy, Y. Yang, “Surface plasmon and scattering-enhanced low bandgap polymer solar cell by a metal grating back electrode,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 2(10), 1203–1207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Meier, C. Birkenstock, C. M. Palumbiny, P. Müller-Buschbaum, “Efficiency-improved organic solar cells based on plasticizer assisted soft embossed PEDOT:PSS layers,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(43), 15088–15098 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Q. Le, A. Abass, B. Maes, P. Bienstman, A. Alù, “Comparing plasmonic and dielectric gratings for absorption enhancement in thin-film organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 20(S1), A39–A50 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Biswas, C. Xu, “Photonic and Plasmonic Crystal based Enhancement of Solar Cells- Theory of Overcoming the Lambertian Limit,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(17), 2289–2294 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (8)

K. S. Nalwa, J. M. Park, K.-M. Ho, S. Chaudhary, “On realizing higher efficiency polymer solar cells using a textured substrate platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 112–116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F.-J. Haug, K. Söderström, A. Naqavi, C. Ballif, “Resonances and absorption enhancement in thin film silicon solar cells with periodic interface texture,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084516 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Biswas, C. Xu, “Nano-crystalline solar cell architecture with absorption beyond the classical 4n2 limit,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A664–A672 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, R. Zhu, Z. Hong, Y. He, A. Kumar, Y. Li, Y. Yang, “A robust inter-connecting layer for achieving high performance tandem polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(30), 3465–3470 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, D. Duche´, F. Flory, J.-J. Simon, J. Le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, “Intrinsic absorption of plasmonic structures for organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. 95, S57–S64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Bhattacharya, N. Chakravarty, S. Pattnaik, W. D. Slafer, R. Biswas, V. Dalal, “A Novel photonic-plasmonic structure for enhancing Light Absorption in Thin Film Solar Cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Xie, W. C. H. Choy, C. C. D. Wang, W. Sha, D. Fung, “Improving the efficiency of polymer solar cells by incorporating gold nanoparticles into all polymer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 153304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Schiff, “Thermodynamic limit to photonic-plasmonic light-trapping in thin films on metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(10), 104501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

K. S. Nalwa, S. Chaudhary, “Design of light-trapping microscale-textured surfaces for efficient organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5168–5178 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, P. Peumans, “Optimal light trapping in ultra-thin photonic crystal crystalline silicon solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(6), 5691–5706 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Han, G. Chen, “Toward the Lambertian limit of light trapping in thin nanostructured silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4692–4696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre´, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou, R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

A. J. Moule, K. Meerholz, “Interference method for the determination of the complex refractive index of thin polymer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

T. Tiedje, E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, B. Brooks, “Limiting efficiency of silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. ED-31, 711–716 (1984).

1982 (1)

Abass, A.

Agrawal, M.

Alù, A.

Ballif, C.

F.-J. Haug, K. Söderström, A. Naqavi, C. Ballif, “Resonances and absorption enhancement in thin film silicon solar cells with periodic interface texture,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084516 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beaupre´, S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre´, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, J.

J. Bhattacharya, N. Chakravarty, S. Pattnaik, W. D. Slafer, R. Biswas, V. Dalal, “A Novel photonic-plasmonic structure for enhancing Light Absorption in Thin Film Solar Cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

K. Q. Le, A. Abass, B. Maes, P. Bienstman, A. Alù, “Comparing plasmonic and dielectric gratings for absorption enhancement in thin-film organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 20(S1), A39–A50 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Birkenstock, C.

R. Meier, C. Birkenstock, C. M. Palumbiny, P. Müller-Buschbaum, “Efficiency-improved organic solar cells based on plasticizer assisted soft embossed PEDOT:PSS layers,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(43), 15088–15098 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biswas, R.

R. Biswas, C. Xu, “Photonic and Plasmonic Crystal based Enhancement of Solar Cells- Theory of Overcoming the Lambertian Limit,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(17), 2289–2294 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Bhattacharya, N. Chakravarty, S. Pattnaik, W. D. Slafer, R. Biswas, V. Dalal, “A Novel photonic-plasmonic structure for enhancing Light Absorption in Thin Film Solar Cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Biswas, C. Xu, “Nano-crystalline solar cell architecture with absorption beyond the classical 4n2 limit,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A664–A672 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou, R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, B.

T. Tiedje, E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, B. Brooks, “Limiting efficiency of silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. ED-31, 711–716 (1984).

Chakravarty, N.

J. Bhattacharya, N. Chakravarty, S. Pattnaik, W. D. Slafer, R. Biswas, V. Dalal, “A Novel photonic-plasmonic structure for enhancing Light Absorption in Thin Film Solar Cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhary, S.

K. S. Nalwa, J. M. Park, K.-M. Ho, S. Chaudhary, “On realizing higher efficiency polymer solar cells using a textured substrate platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 112–116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Nalwa, S. Chaudhary, “Design of light-trapping microscale-textured surfaces for efficient organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5168–5178 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-C.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446–1455 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

S. E. Han, G. Chen, “Toward the Lambertian limit of light trapping in thin nanostructured silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4692–4696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre´, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choy, W. C. H.

J. You, X. Li, F.-X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, J. H. W. Kwong, G. Li, W. C. H. Choy, Y. Yang, “Surface plasmon and scattering-enhanced low bandgap polymer solar cell by a metal grating back electrode,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 2(10), 1203–1207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Xie, W. C. H. Choy, C. C. D. Wang, W. Sha, D. Fung, “Improving the efficiency of polymer solar cells by incorporating gold nanoparticles into all polymer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 153304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Coates, N.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre´, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cody, G. D.

T. Tiedje, E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, B. Brooks, “Limiting efficiency of silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. ED-31, 711–716 (1984).

Dalal, V.

J. Bhattacharya, N. Chakravarty, S. Pattnaik, W. D. Slafer, R. Biswas, V. Dalal, “A Novel photonic-plasmonic structure for enhancing Light Absorption in Thin Film Solar Cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dou, L.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446–1455 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Duche, D.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Duche´, D.

S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, D. Duche´, F. Flory, J.-J. Simon, J. Le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, “Intrinsic absorption of plasmonic structures for organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. 95, S57–S64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Emery, K.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446–1455 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Escoubas, L.

S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, D. Duche´, F. Flory, J.-J. Simon, J. Le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, “Intrinsic absorption of plasmonic structures for organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. 95, S57–S64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flory, F.

S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, D. Duche´, F. Flory, J.-J. Simon, J. Le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, “Intrinsic absorption of plasmonic structures for organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. 95, S57–S64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fung, D.

F. Xie, W. C. H. Choy, C. C. D. Wang, W. Sha, D. Fung, “Improving the efficiency of polymer solar cells by incorporating gold nanoparticles into all polymer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 153304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446–1455 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, S. E.

S. E. Han, G. Chen, “Toward the Lambertian limit of light trapping in thin nanostructured silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4692–4696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haug, F.-J.

F.-J. Haug, K. Söderström, A. Naqavi, C. Ballif, “Resonances and absorption enhancement in thin film silicon solar cells with periodic interface texture,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084516 (2011).
[CrossRef]

He, Y.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, R. Zhu, Z. Hong, Y. He, A. Kumar, Y. Li, Y. Yang, “A robust inter-connecting layer for achieving high performance tandem polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(30), 3465–3470 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heeger, A. J.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre´, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K.-M.

K. S. Nalwa, J. M. Park, K.-M. Ho, S. Chaudhary, “On realizing higher efficiency polymer solar cells using a textured substrate platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 112–116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, Z.

J. Yang, R. Zhu, Z. Hong, Y. He, A. Kumar, Y. Li, Y. Yang, “A robust inter-connecting layer for achieving high performance tandem polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(30), 3465–3470 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jo, J.

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kato, T.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446–1455 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. Y.

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. S.

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

J. Yang, R. Zhu, Z. Hong, Y. He, A. Kumar, Y. Li, Y. Yang, “A robust inter-connecting layer for achieving high performance tandem polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(30), 3465–3470 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwong, J. H. W.

J. You, X. Li, F.-X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, J. H. W. Kwong, G. Li, W. C. H. Choy, Y. Yang, “Surface plasmon and scattering-enhanced low bandgap polymer solar cell by a metal grating back electrode,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 2(10), 1203–1207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Le, K. Q.

Le Rouzo, J.

S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, D. Duche´, F. Flory, J.-J. Simon, J. Le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, “Intrinsic absorption of plasmonic structures for organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. 95, S57–S64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leclerc, M.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre´, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre´, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446–1455 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. You, X. Li, F.-X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, J. H. W. Kwong, G. Li, W. C. H. Choy, Y. Yang, “Surface plasmon and scattering-enhanced low bandgap polymer solar cell by a metal grating back electrode,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 2(10), 1203–1207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

J. You, X. Li, F.-X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, J. H. W. Kwong, G. Li, W. C. H. Choy, Y. Yang, “Surface plasmon and scattering-enhanced low bandgap polymer solar cell by a metal grating back electrode,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 2(10), 1203–1207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. Yang, R. Zhu, Z. Hong, Y. He, A. Kumar, Y. Li, Y. Yang, “A robust inter-connecting layer for achieving high performance tandem polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(30), 3465–3470 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maes, B.

K. Q. Le, A. Abass, B. Maes, P. Bienstman, A. Alù, “Comparing plasmonic and dielectric gratings for absorption enhancement in thin-film organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 20(S1), A39–A50 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mallick, S. B.

Mathian, G.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

A. J. Moule, K. Meerholz, “Interference method for the determination of the complex refractive index of thin polymer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meier, R.

R. Meier, C. Birkenstock, C. M. Palumbiny, P. Müller-Buschbaum, “Efficiency-improved organic solar cells based on plasticizer assisted soft embossed PEDOT:PSS layers,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(43), 15088–15098 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monestier, F.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moon, J. S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre´, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morfa, A. J.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moriarty, T.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446–1455 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre´, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moule, A. J.

A. J. Moule, K. Meerholz, “Interference method for the determination of the complex refractive index of thin polymer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Müller-Buschbaum, P.

R. Meier, C. Birkenstock, C. M. Palumbiny, P. Müller-Buschbaum, “Efficiency-improved organic solar cells based on plasticizer assisted soft embossed PEDOT:PSS layers,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(43), 15088–15098 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murase, S.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Na, S. I.

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nah, Y. C.

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nalwa, K. S.

K. S. Nalwa, J. M. Park, K.-M. Ho, S. Chaudhary, “On realizing higher efficiency polymer solar cells using a textured substrate platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 112–116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Nalwa, S. Chaudhary, “Design of light-trapping microscale-textured surfaces for efficient organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5168–5178 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Naqavi, A.

F.-J. Haug, K. Söderström, A. Naqavi, C. Ballif, “Resonances and absorption enhancement in thin film silicon solar cells with periodic interface texture,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084516 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ohya, K.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446–1455 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palumbiny, C. M.

R. Meier, C. Birkenstock, C. M. Palumbiny, P. Müller-Buschbaum, “Efficiency-improved organic solar cells based on plasticizer assisted soft embossed PEDOT:PSS layers,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(43), 15088–15098 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J. M.

K. S. Nalwa, J. M. Park, K.-M. Ho, S. Chaudhary, “On realizing higher efficiency polymer solar cells using a textured substrate platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 112–116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. H.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre´, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pattnaik, S.

J. Bhattacharya, N. Chakravarty, S. Pattnaik, W. D. Slafer, R. Biswas, V. Dalal, “A Novel photonic-plasmonic structure for enhancing Light Absorption in Thin Film Solar Cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

Raman, A.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reilly, T. H.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Romero, M. J.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rowlen, K. L.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Roy, A.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre´, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schiff, E. A.

E. A. Schiff, “Thermodynamic limit to photonic-plasmonic light-trapping in thin films on metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(10), 104501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sha, W.

F. Xie, W. C. H. Choy, C. C. D. Wang, W. Sha, D. Fung, “Improving the efficiency of polymer solar cells by incorporating gold nanoparticles into all polymer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 153304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sha, W. E. I.

J. You, X. Li, F.-X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, J. H. W. Kwong, G. Li, W. C. H. Choy, Y. Yang, “Surface plasmon and scattering-enhanced low bandgap polymer solar cell by a metal grating back electrode,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 2(10), 1203–1207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J. J.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J.-J.

S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, D. Duche´, F. Flory, J.-J. Simon, J. Le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, “Intrinsic absorption of plasmonic structures for organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. 95, S57–S64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Slafer, W. D.

J. Bhattacharya, N. Chakravarty, S. Pattnaik, W. D. Slafer, R. Biswas, V. Dalal, “A Novel photonic-plasmonic structure for enhancing Light Absorption in Thin Film Solar Cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Söderström, K.

F.-J. Haug, K. Söderström, A. Naqavi, C. Ballif, “Resonances and absorption enhancement in thin film silicon solar cells with periodic interface texture,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084516 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tiedje, T.

T. Tiedje, E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, B. Brooks, “Limiting efficiency of silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. ED-31, 711–716 (1984).

Torchio, P.

S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, D. Duche´, F. Flory, J.-J. Simon, J. Le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, “Intrinsic absorption of plasmonic structures for organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. 95, S57–S64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van de Lagemaat, J.

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vedraine, S.

S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, D. Duche´, F. Flory, J.-J. Simon, J. Le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, “Intrinsic absorption of plasmonic structures for organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. 95, S57–S64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. C. D.

F. Xie, W. C. H. Choy, C. C. D. Wang, W. Sha, D. Fung, “Improving the efficiency of polymer solar cells by incorporating gold nanoparticles into all polymer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 153304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xie, F.

F. Xie, W. C. H. Choy, C. C. D. Wang, W. Sha, D. Fung, “Improving the efficiency of polymer solar cells by incorporating gold nanoparticles into all polymer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 153304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xie, F.-X.

J. You, X. Li, F.-X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, J. H. W. Kwong, G. Li, W. C. H. Choy, Y. Yang, “Surface plasmon and scattering-enhanced low bandgap polymer solar cell by a metal grating back electrode,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 2(10), 1203–1207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

R. Biswas, C. Xu, “Photonic and Plasmonic Crystal based Enhancement of Solar Cells- Theory of Overcoming the Lambertian Limit,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(17), 2289–2294 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Biswas, C. Xu, “Nano-crystalline solar cell architecture with absorption beyond the classical 4n2 limit,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A664–A672 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

T. Tiedje, E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, B. Brooks, “Limiting efficiency of silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. ED-31, 711–716 (1984).

E. Yablonovitch, “Statistical ray optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 72(7), 899–907 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, R. Zhu, Z. Hong, Y. He, A. Kumar, Y. Li, Y. Yang, “A robust inter-connecting layer for achieving high performance tandem polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(30), 3465–3470 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446–1455 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. You, X. Li, F.-X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, J. H. W. Kwong, G. Li, W. C. H. Choy, Y. Yang, “Surface plasmon and scattering-enhanced low bandgap polymer solar cell by a metal grating back electrode,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 2(10), 1203–1207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, R. Zhu, Z. Hong, Y. He, A. Kumar, Y. Li, Y. Yang, “A robust inter-connecting layer for achieving high performance tandem polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(30), 3465–3470 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshimura, K.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446–1455 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

You, J.

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446–1455 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. You, X. Li, F.-X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, J. H. W. Kwong, G. Li, W. C. H. Choy, Y. Yang, “Surface plasmon and scattering-enhanced low bandgap polymer solar cell by a metal grating back electrode,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 2(10), 1203–1207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, D.

D. Zhou, R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, R.

J. Yang, R. Zhu, Z. Hong, Y. He, A. Kumar, Y. Li, Y. Yang, “A robust inter-connecting layer for achieving high performance tandem polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(30), 3465–3470 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Eng. Mater. (1)

J. You, X. Li, F.-X. Xie, W. E. I. Sha, J. H. W. Kwong, G. Li, W. C. H. Choy, Y. Yang, “Surface plasmon and scattering-enhanced low bandgap polymer solar cell by a metal grating back electrode,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 2(10), 1203–1207 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

J. Yang, R. Zhu, Z. Hong, Y. He, A. Kumar, Y. Li, Y. Yang, “A robust inter-connecting layer for achieving high performance tandem polymer solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 23(30), 3465–3470 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Nalwa, J. M. Park, K.-M. Ho, S. Chaudhary, “On realizing higher efficiency polymer solar cells using a textured substrate platform,” Adv. Mater. 23(1), 112–116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

A. J. Morfa, K. L. Rowlen, T. H. Reilly, M. J. Romero, J. van de Lagemaat, “Plasmon-enhanced solar energy conversion in organic bulk heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013504 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Kim, S. I. Na, J. Jo, D. Y. Kim, Y. C. Nah, “Plasmon enhanced performance of organic solar cells using electrodeposited Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(7), 073307 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Xie, W. C. H. Choy, C. C. D. Wang, W. Sha, D. Fung, “Improving the efficiency of polymer solar cells by incorporating gold nanoparticles into all polymer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 153304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Bhattacharya, N. Chakravarty, S. Pattnaik, W. D. Slafer, R. Biswas, V. Dalal, “A Novel photonic-plasmonic structure for enhancing Light Absorption in Thin Film Solar Cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(13), 131114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Moule, K. Meerholz, “Interference method for the determination of the complex refractive index of thin polymer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061901 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

T. Tiedje, E. Yablonovitch, G. D. Cody, B. Brooks, “Limiting efficiency of silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. ED-31, 711–716 (1984).

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

E. A. Schiff, “Thermodynamic limit to photonic-plasmonic light-trapping in thin films on metals,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(10), 104501 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Shen, P. Bienstman, B. Maes, “Plasmonic absorption enhancement in organic solar cells with thin active layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhou, R. Biswas, “Photonic crystal enhanced light-trapping in thin film solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 093102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F.-J. Haug, K. Söderström, A. Naqavi, C. Ballif, “Resonances and absorption enhancement in thin film silicon solar cells with periodic interface texture,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(8), 084516 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

R. Biswas, C. Xu, “Photonic and Plasmonic Crystal based Enhancement of Solar Cells- Theory of Overcoming the Lambertian Limit,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(17), 2289–2294 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

S. E. Han, G. Chen, “Toward the Lambertian limit of light trapping in thin nanostructured silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4692–4696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat Commun (1)

J. You, L. Dou, K. Yoshimura, T. Kato, K. Ohya, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, C.-C. Chen, J. Gao, G. Li, Y. Yang, “A polymer tandem solar cell with 10.6% power conversion efficiency,” Nat Commun 4, 1446–1455 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

L. Dou, J. You, J. Yang, C.-C. Chen, Y. He, S. Murase, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Tandem polymer solar cells featuring a spectrally matched low-bandgap polymer,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 180–185 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre´, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. Meier, C. Birkenstock, C. M. Palumbiny, P. Müller-Buschbaum, “Efficiency-improved organic solar cells based on plasticizer assisted soft embossed PEDOT:PSS layers,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(43), 15088–15098 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. (1)

S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, D. Duche´, F. Flory, J.-J. Simon, J. Le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, “Intrinsic absorption of plasmonic structures for organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. 95, S57–S64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J. J. Simon, F. Flory, G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

Nearly ideal loss-free metal can be achieved by increasing the imaginary part of the refractive index n2 in the metal by a large factor (200) that prevents the electromagnetic fields from penetrating within the metal.

T. Soga, Nanostructured Materials for Solar Energy Conversion (Elsevier Science, 2006).

E. D. Palik, The Electronic Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1999).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) Flat cell and b) conformal solar cell architecture.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a) Simulated photocurrent as a function of the pitch a and height d2 of the periodic corrugation b) Enhancement factor of the absorption and the photo-current as a function of the pitch, with a corrugation height of 90 nm, relative to a flat 190 nm cell. c) Jsc and enhancement when the height d4 of the metal corrugation differs from the ITO corrugation (for the optimal d2 = 90 nm) and 600/800 nm pitch.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Wavelength-dependent absorption for the periodic textured cell, flat cell and the Lambertian limit. All cells have the same absorber volume. b) Simulated photo-current as a function of the absorber layer thickness compared to the same limits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electric field intensity |E|2 in the cross section of the organic solar cell at λ = 620 nm.

Equations (3)

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< A w >= λ 2 λ 1 A(λ) dI dλ dλ ,
J sc max = e hc λ 2 λ 2 λA(λ) dI dλ dλ.
λ(i,j,m)=2πn(λ)/[ i 2 +(1/3) (2ji) 2 ) (2π/a) 2 + (mπ/d) 2 ] 1/2 ,

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