Abstract

Integration of an array of Ag nanoparticles in solar cells is expected to increase light trapping through field enhancement and plasmonic scattering. Requirement of Ag nanoparticle decoration of cell surfaces or interfaces at the macro-scale, calls for a self-organized fabrication method such as thermal dewetting. Optical properties of a 2D array of Ag nanoparticles are known to be very sensitive to their shape and size. We show that these parameters depend on the type of the substrate used. We observe that the average nanoparticle size decreases with increasing substrate thermal conductivity and nanoparticle size distribution broadens with increasing surface roughness.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (3)

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, M. Zeman, “Application of plasmonic silver island films in thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Opt. 14(2), 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Tan, R. Santbergen, A. H. M. Smets, M. Zeman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved self-assembled silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4070–4076 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Oka, K. Kimura, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, Y. Shigesato, “Thermophysical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, D. Duché, F. Flory, J. J. Simon, J. Le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, “Intrinsic absorption of plasmonic structures for organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S57–S64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, K. R. Catchpole, “Light trapping with plasmonic particles: beyond the dipole model,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25230–25241 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

U. Güler, R. Turan, “Effect of particle properties and light polarization on the plasmonic resonances in metallic nanoparticles,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17322–17338 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, A. Polman, K. R. Catchpole, “Designing periodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for light-trapping applications in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, A. Polman, K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

M. D. Yang, Y. K. Liu, J. L. Shen, C. H. Wu, C. A. Lin, W. H. Chang, H. H. Wang, H. I. Yeh, W. H. Chan, W. J. Parak, “Improvement of conversion efficiency for multi-junction solar cells by incorporation of Au nanoclusters,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15754–15758 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole, A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole, A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Hägglund, M. Zäch, B. Kasemo, “Enhanced charge carrier generation in dye sensitized solar cells by nanoparticle plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

C. M. Fang, G. A. de Wijs, H. T. Hintzen, G. de With, “Phonon spectrum and intrinsic thermal properties of cubic Si3N4 from first-principles calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5175–5180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

H. R. Stuart, D. G. Hall, “Island size effects in nanoparticle-enhanced photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3815–3817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

E. Iwamura, T. Ohnishi, K. Yoshikawa, “A study of hillock formation on Al-Ta alloy films for interconnections of TFT-LCDs,” Thin Solid Films 270(1-2), 450–455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. Y. Chang, R. W. Vook, “Thermally induced hillock formation in Al-Cu films,” J. Mater. Res. 4(05), 1172–1181 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Y. Okada, Y. Tokumaru, “Precise determination of lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon between 300 and 1500 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 56(2), 314–320 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

P. Chaudhari, “Hillock growth in thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(10), 4339–4346 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

C. J. Glassbrenner, G. A. Slack, “Thermal conductivity of silicon and germanium from 3°K to the melting point,” Phys. Rev. 134(4A), A1058–A1069 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

H. R. Shanks, P. D. Maycock, P. H. Sidles, G. C. Danielson, “Thermal conductivity of silicon from 300 to 1400°K,” Phys. Rev. 130(5), 1743–1748 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

N. Oka, K. Kimura, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, Y. Shigesato, “Thermophysical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Beck, F. J.

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, K. R. Catchpole, “Light trapping with plasmonic particles: beyond the dipole model,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25230–25241 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, A. Polman, K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, A. Polman, K. R. Catchpole, “Designing periodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for light-trapping applications in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Catchpole, K. R.

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, K. R. Catchpole, “Light trapping with plasmonic particles: beyond the dipole model,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25230–25241 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, A. Polman, K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, A. Polman, K. R. Catchpole, “Designing periodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for light-trapping applications in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole, A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole, A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chan, W. H.

Chang, C. Y.

C. Y. Chang, R. W. Vook, “Thermally induced hillock formation in Al-Cu films,” J. Mater. Res. 4(05), 1172–1181 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chang, W. H.

Chaudhari, P.

P. Chaudhari, “Hillock growth in thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(10), 4339–4346 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Danielson, G. C.

H. R. Shanks, P. D. Maycock, P. H. Sidles, G. C. Danielson, “Thermal conductivity of silicon from 300 to 1400°K,” Phys. Rev. 130(5), 1743–1748 (1963).
[CrossRef]

de Wijs, G. A.

C. M. Fang, G. A. de Wijs, H. T. Hintzen, G. de With, “Phonon spectrum and intrinsic thermal properties of cubic Si3N4 from first-principles calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5175–5180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de With, G.

C. M. Fang, G. A. de Wijs, H. T. Hintzen, G. de With, “Phonon spectrum and intrinsic thermal properties of cubic Si3N4 from first-principles calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5175–5180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duché, D.

S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, D. Duché, F. Flory, J. J. Simon, J. Le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, “Intrinsic absorption of plasmonic structures for organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S57–S64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Escoubas, L.

S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, D. Duché, F. Flory, J. J. Simon, J. Le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, “Intrinsic absorption of plasmonic structures for organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S57–S64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fang, C. M.

C. M. Fang, G. A. de Wijs, H. T. Hintzen, G. de With, “Phonon spectrum and intrinsic thermal properties of cubic Si3N4 from first-principles calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5175–5180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flory, F.

S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, D. Duché, F. Flory, J. J. Simon, J. Le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, “Intrinsic absorption of plasmonic structures for organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S57–S64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Glassbrenner, C. J.

C. J. Glassbrenner, G. A. Slack, “Thermal conductivity of silicon and germanium from 3°K to the melting point,” Phys. Rev. 134(4A), A1058–A1069 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Güler, U.

Hägglund, C.

C. Hägglund, M. Zäch, B. Kasemo, “Enhanced charge carrier generation in dye sensitized solar cells by nanoparticle plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D. G.

H. R. Stuart, D. G. Hall, “Island size effects in nanoparticle-enhanced photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3815–3817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hintzen, H. T.

C. M. Fang, G. A. de Wijs, H. T. Hintzen, G. de With, “Phonon spectrum and intrinsic thermal properties of cubic Si3N4 from first-principles calculations,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(9), 5175–5180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iwamura, E.

E. Iwamura, T. Ohnishi, K. Yoshikawa, “A study of hillock formation on Al-Ta alloy films for interconnections of TFT-LCDs,” Thin Solid Films 270(1-2), 450–455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kasemo, B.

C. Hägglund, M. Zäch, B. Kasemo, “Enhanced charge carrier generation in dye sensitized solar cells by nanoparticle plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 013113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, K.

N. Oka, K. Kimura, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, Y. Shigesato, “Thermophysical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Le Rouzo, J.

S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, D. Duché, F. Flory, J. J. Simon, J. Le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, “Intrinsic absorption of plasmonic structures for organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S57–S64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liang, R.

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, M. Zeman, “Application of plasmonic silver island films in thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Opt. 14(2), 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. A.

Liu, Y. K.

Maycock, P. D.

H. R. Shanks, P. D. Maycock, P. H. Sidles, G. C. Danielson, “Thermal conductivity of silicon from 300 to 1400°K,” Phys. Rev. 130(5), 1743–1748 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Mokkapati, S.

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, K. R. Catchpole, “Light trapping with plasmonic particles: beyond the dipole model,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25230–25241 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, A. Polman, K. R. Catchpole, “Designing periodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for light-trapping applications in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Munday, J. N.

V. E. Ferry, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Design considerations for plasmonic photovoltaics,” Adv. Mater. 22(43), 4794–4808 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohnishi, T.

E. Iwamura, T. Ohnishi, K. Yoshikawa, “A study of hillock formation on Al-Ta alloy films for interconnections of TFT-LCDs,” Thin Solid Films 270(1-2), 450–455 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oka, N.

N. Oka, K. Kimura, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, Y. Shigesato, “Thermophysical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Okada, Y.

Y. Okada, Y. Tokumaru, “Precise determination of lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon between 300 and 1500 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 56(2), 314–320 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Parak, W. J.

Polman, A.

F. J. Beck, S. Mokkapati, A. Polman, K. R. Catchpole, “Asymmetry in photocurrent enhancement by plasmonic nanoparticle arrays located on the front or on the rear of solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(3), 033113 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. J. Beck, A. Polman, K. R. Catchpole, “Tunable light trapping for solar cells using localized surface plasmons,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 114310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Mokkapati, F. J. Beck, A. Polman, K. R. Catchpole, “Designing periodic arrays of metal nanoparticles for light-trapping applications in solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(5), 053115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. R. Catchpole, A. Polman, “Plasmonic solar cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21793–21800 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Catchpole, A. Polman, “Design principles for particle plasmon enhanced solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(19), 191113 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Santbergen, R.

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, M. Zeman, “Application of plasmonic silver island films in thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Opt. 14(2), 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Tan, R. Santbergen, A. H. M. Smets, M. Zeman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved self-assembled silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4070–4076 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shanks, H. R.

H. R. Shanks, P. D. Maycock, P. H. Sidles, G. C. Danielson, “Thermal conductivity of silicon from 300 to 1400°K,” Phys. Rev. 130(5), 1743–1748 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Shen, J. L.

Shigesato, Y.

N. Oka, K. Kimura, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, Y. Shigesato, “Thermophysical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sidles, P. H.

H. R. Shanks, P. D. Maycock, P. H. Sidles, G. C. Danielson, “Thermal conductivity of silicon from 300 to 1400°K,” Phys. Rev. 130(5), 1743–1748 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J. J.

S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, D. Duché, F. Flory, J. J. Simon, J. Le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, “Intrinsic absorption of plasmonic structures for organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S57–S64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Slack, G. A.

C. J. Glassbrenner, G. A. Slack, “Thermal conductivity of silicon and germanium from 3°K to the melting point,” Phys. Rev. 134(4A), A1058–A1069 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Smets, A. H. M.

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, M. Zeman, “Application of plasmonic silver island films in thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Opt. 14(2), 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Tan, R. Santbergen, A. H. M. Smets, M. Zeman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved self-assembled silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4070–4076 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stuart, H. R.

H. R. Stuart, D. G. Hall, “Island size effects in nanoparticle-enhanced photodetectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(26), 3815–3817 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taketoshi, N.

N. Oka, K. Kimura, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, Y. Shigesato, “Thermophysical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H.

H. Tan, R. Santbergen, A. H. M. Smets, M. Zeman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved self-assembled silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4070–4076 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Temple, T. L.

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, M. Zeman, “Application of plasmonic silver island films in thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Opt. 14(2), 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tokumaru, Y.

Y. Okada, Y. Tokumaru, “Precise determination of lattice parameter and thermal expansion coefficient of silicon between 300 and 1500 K,” J. Appl. Phys. 56(2), 314–320 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Torchio, P.

S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, D. Duché, F. Flory, J. J. Simon, J. Le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, “Intrinsic absorption of plasmonic structures for organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S57–S64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Turan, R.

van Swaaij, R. A. C. M. M.

R. Santbergen, T. L. Temple, R. Liang, A. H. M. Smets, R. A. C. M. M. van Swaaij, M. Zeman, “Application of plasmonic silver island films in thin-film silicon solar cells,” J. Opt. 14(2), 024010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vedraine, S.

S. Vedraine, P. Torchio, D. Duché, F. Flory, J. J. Simon, J. Le Rouzo, L. Escoubas, “Intrinsic absorption of plasmonic structures for organic solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95, S57–S64 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vook, R. W.

C. Y. Chang, R. W. Vook, “Thermally induced hillock formation in Al-Cu films,” J. Mater. Res. 4(05), 1172–1181 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. H.

Wu, C. H.

Yagi, T.

N. Oka, K. Kimura, T. Yagi, N. Taketoshi, T. Baba, Y. Shigesato, “Thermophysical and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 093701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M. D.

Yeh, H. I.

Yoshikawa, K.

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H. Tan, R. Santbergen, A. H. M. Smets, M. Zeman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved self-assembled silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4070–4076 (2012).
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[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

H. Tan, R. Santbergen, A. H. M. Smets, M. Zeman, “Plasmonic light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells with improved self-assembled silver nanoparticles,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 4070–4076 (2012).
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