Abstract

In this work solar cell anti-reflection coatings tuned to give a specific hue under solar illumination are investigated. We demonstrate that it is possible to form patterned coatings with large color contrast and high transmittance. We use colorimetric and thin film optics models to explore the relationship between the color and performance of bilayer anti-reflection coatings on Si, and predict the photocurrent generation from an example Si solar cell. The colorimetric predictions were verified by measuring a series of coatings deposited on Si substrates. Finally, a patterned Si sample was produced using a simple, low-cost photolithography procedure to selectively etch only the top layer of a bilayer coating to demonstrate a high-performance anti-reflection coating with strong color contrast.

© 2013 OSA

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References

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  1. J. Zhao, M. A. Green, “Optimized antireflection coatings for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 38(8), 1925–1934 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (IOP, 2001).
  3. P. Eiffert and G. J. Kiss, Building-integrated photovoltaic designs for commercial and institutional structures: A sourcebook for architects (NREL, 2000).
  4. K. M. Trautz, P. P. Jenkins, R. J. Walters, D. Scheiman, R. Hoheisel, R. Tatavarti, R. Chan, H. Miyamoto, J. G. J. Adams, V. C. Elarde, J. Grimsley, “Mobile solar power,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(1), 535–541 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Henrie, S. Kellis, S. Schultz, A. Hawkins, “Electronic color charts for dielectric films on silicon,” Opt. Express 12(7), 1464–1469 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. Malacara, Color Vision and Colorimetry, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2011).
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  12. J. Zhao, A. Wang, M. A. Green, F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient ``honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1991–1993 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Preucil, “Color Hue and Ink Transfer - Their Relation to Perfect Reproduction,” TAGA Proceedings, 102–110 (1953).

2013

K. M. Trautz, P. P. Jenkins, R. J. Walters, D. Scheiman, R. Hoheisel, R. Tatavarti, R. Chan, H. Miyamoto, J. G. J. Adams, V. C. Elarde, J. Grimsley, “Mobile solar power,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(1), 535–541 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

1998

J. Zhao, A. Wang, M. A. Green, F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient ``honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1991–1993 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. Zhao, M. A. Green, “Optimized antireflection coatings for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 38(8), 1925–1934 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1964

W. A. Pliskin, E. E. Conrad, “Nondestructive determination of thickness and refractive index of transparent films,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 8(1), 43–51 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1934

Adams, J. G. J.

K. M. Trautz, P. P. Jenkins, R. J. Walters, D. Scheiman, R. Hoheisel, R. Tatavarti, R. Chan, H. Miyamoto, J. G. J. Adams, V. C. Elarde, J. Grimsley, “Mobile solar power,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(1), 535–541 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bell, C.

Blanchard, R.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blodgett, K. B.

Capasso, F.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, R.

K. M. Trautz, P. P. Jenkins, R. J. Walters, D. Scheiman, R. Hoheisel, R. Tatavarti, R. Chan, H. Miyamoto, J. G. J. Adams, V. C. Elarde, J. Grimsley, “Mobile solar power,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(1), 535–541 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Conrad, E. E.

W. A. Pliskin, E. E. Conrad, “Nondestructive determination of thickness and refractive index of transparent films,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 8(1), 43–51 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Elarde, V. C.

K. M. Trautz, P. P. Jenkins, R. J. Walters, D. Scheiman, R. Hoheisel, R. Tatavarti, R. Chan, H. Miyamoto, J. G. J. Adams, V. C. Elarde, J. Grimsley, “Mobile solar power,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(1), 535–541 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ferrazza, F.

J. Zhao, A. Wang, M. A. Green, F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient ``honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1991–1993 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Genevet, P.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, M. A.

J. Zhao, A. Wang, M. A. Green, F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient ``honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1991–1993 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhao, M. A. Green, “Optimized antireflection coatings for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 38(8), 1925–1934 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grimsley, J.

K. M. Trautz, P. P. Jenkins, R. J. Walters, D. Scheiman, R. Hoheisel, R. Tatavarti, R. Chan, H. Miyamoto, J. G. J. Adams, V. C. Elarde, J. Grimsley, “Mobile solar power,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(1), 535–541 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, A.

Henrie, J.

Hoheisel, R.

K. M. Trautz, P. P. Jenkins, R. J. Walters, D. Scheiman, R. Hoheisel, R. Tatavarti, R. Chan, H. Miyamoto, J. G. J. Adams, V. C. Elarde, J. Grimsley, “Mobile solar power,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(1), 535–541 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jenkins, P. P.

K. M. Trautz, P. P. Jenkins, R. J. Walters, D. Scheiman, R. Hoheisel, R. Tatavarti, R. Chan, H. Miyamoto, J. G. J. Adams, V. C. Elarde, J. Grimsley, “Mobile solar power,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(1), 535–541 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kats, M. A.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kellis, S.

Kvavle, J.

Miyamoto, H.

K. M. Trautz, P. P. Jenkins, R. J. Walters, D. Scheiman, R. Hoheisel, R. Tatavarti, R. Chan, H. Miyamoto, J. G. J. Adams, V. C. Elarde, J. Grimsley, “Mobile solar power,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(1), 535–541 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pliskin, W. A.

W. A. Pliskin, E. E. Conrad, “Nondestructive determination of thickness and refractive index of transparent films,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 8(1), 43–51 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Scheiman, D.

K. M. Trautz, P. P. Jenkins, R. J. Walters, D. Scheiman, R. Hoheisel, R. Tatavarti, R. Chan, H. Miyamoto, J. G. J. Adams, V. C. Elarde, J. Grimsley, “Mobile solar power,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(1), 535–541 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

Tatavarti, R.

K. M. Trautz, P. P. Jenkins, R. J. Walters, D. Scheiman, R. Hoheisel, R. Tatavarti, R. Chan, H. Miyamoto, J. G. J. Adams, V. C. Elarde, J. Grimsley, “Mobile solar power,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(1), 535–541 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Trautz, K. M.

K. M. Trautz, P. P. Jenkins, R. J. Walters, D. Scheiman, R. Hoheisel, R. Tatavarti, R. Chan, H. Miyamoto, J. G. J. Adams, V. C. Elarde, J. Grimsley, “Mobile solar power,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(1), 535–541 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Walters, R. J.

K. M. Trautz, P. P. Jenkins, R. J. Walters, D. Scheiman, R. Hoheisel, R. Tatavarti, R. Chan, H. Miyamoto, J. G. J. Adams, V. C. Elarde, J. Grimsley, “Mobile solar power,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(1), 535–541 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

J. Zhao, A. Wang, M. A. Green, F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient ``honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1991–1993 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. Zhao, A. Wang, M. A. Green, F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient ``honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1991–1993 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhao, M. A. Green, “Optimized antireflection coatings for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 38(8), 1925–1934 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. Zhao, A. Wang, M. A. Green, F. Ferrazza, “19.8% efficient ``honeycomb” textured multicrystalline and 24.4% monocrystalline silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(14), 1991–1993 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IBM J. Res. Develop.

W. A. Pliskin, E. E. Conrad, “Nondestructive determination of thickness and refractive index of transparent films,” IBM J. Res. Develop. 8(1), 43–51 (1964).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Photovolt.

K. M. Trautz, P. P. Jenkins, R. J. Walters, D. Scheiman, R. Hoheisel, R. Tatavarti, R. Chan, H. Miyamoto, J. G. J. Adams, V. C. Elarde, J. Grimsley, “Mobile solar power,” IEEE J. Photovolt. 3(1), 535–541 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

J. Zhao, M. A. Green, “Optimized antireflection coatings for high-efficiency silicon solar cells,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 38(8), 1925–1934 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Nat. Mater.

M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, P. Genevet, F. Capasso, “Nanometre optical coatings based on strong interference effects in highly absorbing media,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 20–24 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Other

D. Malacara, Color Vision and Colorimetry, 2nd ed. (SPIE, 2011).

O. S. Heavens, Optical Properties of Thin Solid Films (Butterworths, 1955).

H. A. Macleod, Thin Film Optical Filters, 3rd ed. (IOP, 2001).

P. Eiffert and G. J. Kiss, Building-integrated photovoltaic designs for commercial and institutional structures: A sourcebook for architects (NREL, 2000).

F. Preucil, “Color Hue and Ink Transfer - Their Relation to Perfect Reproduction,” TAGA Proceedings, 102–110 (1953).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The normalized CIE D65 illuminant spectrum and Oriel AM1.5 solar simulator spectrum. The solar simulator spectrum was dispersed using a translucent plastic sheet. CIE 1931 color-matching functions are also shown on the right-hand axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The calculated short circuit current under the ASTM AM1.5G spectrum for a bilayer anti-reflection coated Silicon solar cell with different thicknesses of SiOx and SiNx. The internal quantum efficiency of the solar cell was deduced from the data in reference [12]. The dots indicate the thicknesses of sample coatings deposited on pieces of crystalline Si wafers. (b) The modeled sRGB color observed for each coating thickness under the D65 standard illuminant. For clarity, the Jsc contours from Fig. 2(a) are superimposed. (c) The Jsc and sRGB color observed for a Si solar cell coated with a single layer of SiOx or SiNx.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The calculated and measured reflectivity at normal incidence for samples 1-6. The calculated sRGB color of each coating is also shown, along with the reflected power density, Pref, under the ASTM AM1.5G spectrum as a percentage of the incident power density.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photographs of samples 1-6 at two different angles of incidence. The samples were illuminated using diffuse light from an Oriel AM1.5G solar simulator. The model prediction for the coating color under the D65 illuminant spectrum is also shown for each sample.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The hue angle as a function of the angle of incidence for samples 1-6. Note the hue angle variation is not a smooth function, as the sRGB values from which it is calculated are rounded integer numbers. (b) The sRGB color for each sample as a function of incident angle.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) A patterned crystalline Si wafer with a bilayer SiOx/SiNx AR coating, patterned using a photolithography and reactive ion etch technique. The inset shows the emblem of the Naval Research Laboratory for comparison. (b) The laser printed mask, printed on a flexible, transparent film.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

X= x ¯ ( λ ) P( λ )dλ
Y= y ¯ ( λ ) P( λ )dλ
Z= z ¯ ( λ ) P( λ )dλ
P( λ )=R( λ ) D 65 ( λ )
( R linear G linear B linear )=( 3.240479 1.53150 0.498535 0.969256 1.875992 0.041556 0.055648 0.204043 1.057311 )( X Y Z )
R sRGB ={ 255×12.92 R linear , R linear 0.0031308 255×( 1.055 R linear 1/2.4 0.055 ), R linear >0.0031308
EQE( λ )=( 1R( λ ) )IQE( λ )

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