Abstract

Since their inception, micro-size light emitting diode (µLED) arrays based on III-nitride semiconductors have emerged as a promising technology for a range of applications. This paper provides an overview on a decade progresses on realizing III-nitride µLED based high voltage single-chip AC/DC-LEDs without power converters to address the key compatibility issue between LEDs and AC power grid infrastructure; and high-resolution solid-state self-emissive microdisplays operating in an active driving scheme to address the need of high brightness, efficiency and robustness of microdisplays. These devices utilize the photonic integration approach by integrating µLED arrays on-chip. Other applications of nitride µLED arrays are also discussed.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]

2011

J. Day, J. Li, D. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2720–2728 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

D. Vettese, “Microdisplays: Liquid crystal on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4, 752 (2010).

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. B. Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 016004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

P. Degenaar, N. Grossman, M. A. Memon, J. Burrone, M. D. Dawson, E. Drakakis, M. A. Neil, K. Nikolic, “Optobionic vision--a new genetically enhanced light on retinal prosthesis,” J. Neural Eng. 6(3), 035007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Rae, K. R. Muir, Z. Gong, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “A CMOS time-resolved fluorescence lifetime analysis micro-system,” Sensors (Basel) 9(11), 9255–9274 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. D. McKendry, B. R. Rae, Z. Gong, K. R. Muir, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “Individually addressable AlInGaN micro-LED arrays with CMOS control and subnanosecond output pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 811–813 (2009) (DOI).

2008

M. D. Dawson, M. A. A. Neil, “Micro-pixellated LEDs for science and instrumentation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 090301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Fan, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride micro-emitter arrays: development and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, M. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, M. Ichikawa, S. Minato, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, T. Mukai, “Improvement of luminous efficiency in white light emitting diodes by reducing a forward-bias voltage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L963–L965 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Yen, W. Y. Yeh, H. C. Kuo, “GaN alternating current light-emitting device,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(6), 2077–2081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. H. Young, C. R. Chen, “Assessment of GaN chips for culturing cerebellar granule neurons,” Biomaterials 27(18), 3361–3367 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, M. A. Khan, “High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. P. Ao, H. Sato, T. Mizobuchi, K. Morioka, S. Kawano, Y. Muramoto, Y. B. Lee, D. Sato, Y. Ohno, S. Sakai, “Monolithic blue LED series arrays for high-voltage AC operation,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 376–379 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Bergh, G. Craford, A. Duggal, R. Haitz, “The promise and challenge of solid-state lighting,” Phys. Today 54(12), 42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, S. J. Pearton, S. N. S. P. Fasol, “G. The blue laser diode: The complete story,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(6), 755–756 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(5), 631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Adivarahan, V.

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, M. A. Khan, “High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ao, J. P.

J. P. Ao, H. Sato, T. Mizobuchi, K. Morioka, S. Kawano, Y. Muramoto, Y. B. Lee, D. Sato, Y. Ohno, S. Sakai, “Monolithic blue LED series arrays for high-voltage AC operation,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 376–379 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bergh, A.

A. Bergh, G. Craford, A. Duggal, R. Haitz, “The promise and challenge of solid-state lighting,” Phys. Today 54(12), 42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bradford, C.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Burrone, J.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. B. Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 016004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Degenaar, N. Grossman, M. A. Memon, J. Burrone, M. D. Dawson, E. Drakakis, M. A. Neil, K. Nikolic, “Optobionic vision--a new genetically enhanced light on retinal prosthesis,” J. Neural Eng. 6(3), 035007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. R.

T. H. Young, C. R. Chen, “Assessment of GaN chips for culturing cerebellar granule neurons,” Biomaterials 27(18), 3361–3367 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cooper, J. M.

Craford, G.

A. Bergh, G. Craford, A. Duggal, R. Haitz, “The promise and challenge of solid-state lighting,” Phys. Today 54(12), 42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2720–2728 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. B. Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 016004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. J. D. McKendry, B. R. Rae, Z. Gong, K. R. Muir, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “Individually addressable AlInGaN micro-LED arrays with CMOS control and subnanosecond output pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 811–813 (2009) (DOI).

B. R. Rae, K. R. Muir, Z. Gong, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “A CMOS time-resolved fluorescence lifetime analysis micro-system,” Sensors (Basel) 9(11), 9255–9274 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Degenaar, N. Grossman, M. A. Memon, J. Burrone, M. D. Dawson, E. Drakakis, M. A. Neil, K. Nikolic, “Optobionic vision--a new genetically enhanced light on retinal prosthesis,” J. Neural Eng. 6(3), 035007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, M. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Dawson, M. A. A. Neil, “Micro-pixellated LEDs for science and instrumentation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 090301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Day, J.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Degenaar, P.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. B. Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 016004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Degenaar, N. Grossman, M. A. Memon, J. Burrone, M. D. Dawson, E. Drakakis, M. A. Neil, K. Nikolic, “Optobionic vision--a new genetically enhanced light on retinal prosthesis,” J. Neural Eng. 6(3), 035007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, M. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dion, J.

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Drakakis, E.

P. Degenaar, N. Grossman, M. A. Memon, J. Burrone, M. D. Dawson, E. Drakakis, M. A. Neil, K. Nikolic, “Optobionic vision--a new genetically enhanced light on retinal prosthesis,” J. Neural Eng. 6(3), 035007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drakakis, E. M.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. B. Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 016004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, M. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Duggal, A.

A. Bergh, G. Craford, A. Duggal, R. Haitz, “The promise and challenge of solid-state lighting,” Phys. Today 54(12), 42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Z. Y.

Z. Y. Fan, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride micro-emitter arrays: development and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fasol, S. N. S. P.

S. Nakamura, S. J. Pearton, S. N. S. P. Fasol, “G. The blue laser diode: The complete story,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(6), 755–756 (2001).
[CrossRef]

French, P. M. W.

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, M. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Girkin, J. M.

B. R. Rae, K. R. Muir, Z. Gong, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “A CMOS time-resolved fluorescence lifetime analysis micro-system,” Sensors (Basel) 9(11), 9255–9274 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gong, Z.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. B. Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 016004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. J. D. McKendry, B. R. Rae, Z. Gong, K. R. Muir, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “Individually addressable AlInGaN micro-LED arrays with CMOS control and subnanosecond output pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 811–813 (2009) (DOI).

B. R. Rae, K. R. Muir, Z. Gong, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “A CMOS time-resolved fluorescence lifetime analysis micro-system,” Sensors (Basel) 9(11), 9255–9274 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, M. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grossman, N.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. B. Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 016004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Degenaar, N. Grossman, M. A. Memon, J. Burrone, M. D. Dawson, E. Drakakis, M. A. Neil, K. Nikolic, “Optobionic vision--a new genetically enhanced light on retinal prosthesis,” J. Neural Eng. 6(3), 035007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, M. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grubb, M. S.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. B. Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 016004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gu, E.

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2720–2728 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Rae, K. R. Muir, Z. Gong, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “A CMOS time-resolved fluorescence lifetime analysis micro-system,” Sensors (Basel) 9(11), 9255–9274 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. D. McKendry, B. R. Rae, Z. Gong, K. R. Muir, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “Individually addressable AlInGaN micro-LED arrays with CMOS control and subnanosecond output pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 811–813 (2009) (DOI).

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, M. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guilhabert, B.

J. J. D. McKendry, B. R. Rae, Z. Gong, K. R. Muir, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “Individually addressable AlInGaN micro-LED arrays with CMOS control and subnanosecond output pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 811–813 (2009) (DOI).

Haitz, R.

A. Bergh, G. Craford, A. Duggal, R. Haitz, “The promise and challenge of solid-state lighting,” Phys. Today 54(12), 42 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heidari, A.

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Henderson, R. K.

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2720–2728 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Rae, K. R. Muir, Z. Gong, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “A CMOS time-resolved fluorescence lifetime analysis micro-system,” Sensors (Basel) 9(11), 9255–9274 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. D. McKendry, B. R. Rae, Z. Gong, K. R. Muir, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “Individually addressable AlInGaN micro-LED arrays with CMOS control and subnanosecond output pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 811–813 (2009) (DOI).

Hwang, S.

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ichikawa, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, M. Ichikawa, S. Minato, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, T. Mukai, “Improvement of luminous efficiency in white light emitting diodes by reducing a forward-bias voltage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L963–L965 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M.

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Fan, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride micro-emitter arrays: development and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(5), 631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S. X.

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(5), 631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, S.

J. P. Ao, H. Sato, T. Mizobuchi, K. Morioka, S. Kawano, Y. Muramoto, Y. B. Lee, D. Sato, Y. Ohno, S. Sakai, “Monolithic blue LED series arrays for high-voltage AC operation,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 376–379 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kennedy, G. T.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. B. Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 016004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, M. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Khan, A.

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. A.

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, M. A. Khan, “High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

H. Yen, W. Y. Yeh, H. C. Kuo, “GaN alternating current light-emitting device,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(6), 2077–2081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lachab, M.

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. B.

J. P. Ao, H. Sato, T. Mizobuchi, K. Morioka, S. Kawano, Y. Muramoto, Y. B. Lee, D. Sato, Y. Ohno, S. Sakai, “Monolithic blue LED series arrays for high-voltage AC operation,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 376–379 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(5), 631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. Z.

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(5), 631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lie, D.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

J. Day, J. Li, D. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Y. Fan, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride micro-emitter arrays: development and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(5), 631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mandavilli, V.

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, M. A. Khan, “High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Maruska, H. P.

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, M. A. Khan, “High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Massoubre, D.

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2720–2728 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. D. McKendry, B. R. Rae, Z. Gong, K. R. Muir, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “Individually addressable AlInGaN micro-LED arrays with CMOS control and subnanosecond output pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 811–813 (2009) (DOI).

McGovern, B.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. B. Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 016004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McKendry, J.

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2720–2728 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Rae, K. R. Muir, Z. Gong, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “A CMOS time-resolved fluorescence lifetime analysis micro-system,” Sensors (Basel) 9(11), 9255–9274 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McKendry, J. J. D.

J. J. D. McKendry, B. R. Rae, Z. Gong, K. R. Muir, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “Individually addressable AlInGaN micro-LED arrays with CMOS control and subnanosecond output pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 811–813 (2009) (DOI).

Memon, M. A.

P. Degenaar, N. Grossman, M. A. Memon, J. Burrone, M. D. Dawson, E. Drakakis, M. A. Neil, K. Nikolic, “Optobionic vision--a new genetically enhanced light on retinal prosthesis,” J. Neural Eng. 6(3), 035007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minato, S.

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, M. Ichikawa, S. Minato, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, T. Mukai, “Improvement of luminous efficiency in white light emitting diodes by reducing a forward-bias voltage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L963–L965 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mizobuchi, T.

J. P. Ao, H. Sato, T. Mizobuchi, K. Morioka, S. Kawano, Y. Muramoto, Y. B. Lee, D. Sato, Y. Ohno, S. Sakai, “Monolithic blue LED series arrays for high-voltage AC operation,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 376–379 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morioka, K.

J. P. Ao, H. Sato, T. Mizobuchi, K. Morioka, S. Kawano, Y. Muramoto, Y. B. Lee, D. Sato, Y. Ohno, S. Sakai, “Monolithic blue LED series arrays for high-voltage AC operation,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 376–379 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Muir, K. R.

B. R. Rae, K. R. Muir, Z. Gong, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “A CMOS time-resolved fluorescence lifetime analysis micro-system,” Sensors (Basel) 9(11), 9255–9274 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. D. McKendry, B. R. Rae, Z. Gong, K. R. Muir, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “Individually addressable AlInGaN micro-LED arrays with CMOS control and subnanosecond output pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 811–813 (2009) (DOI).

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, M. Ichikawa, S. Minato, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, T. Mukai, “Improvement of luminous efficiency in white light emitting diodes by reducing a forward-bias voltage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L963–L965 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Muramoto, Y.

J. P. Ao, H. Sato, T. Mizobuchi, K. Morioka, S. Kawano, Y. Muramoto, Y. B. Lee, D. Sato, Y. Ohno, S. Sakai, “Monolithic blue LED series arrays for high-voltage AC operation,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 376–379 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Nakamura, S. J. Pearton, S. N. S. P. Fasol, “G. The blue laser diode: The complete story,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(6), 755–756 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakarmi, M. L.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nam, K. B.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, M. Ichikawa, S. Minato, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, T. Mukai, “Improvement of luminous efficiency in white light emitting diodes by reducing a forward-bias voltage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L963–L965 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nazir, H.

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Neale, S. L.

Neil, M. A.

P. Degenaar, N. Grossman, M. A. Memon, J. Burrone, M. D. Dawson, E. Drakakis, M. A. Neil, K. Nikolic, “Optobionic vision--a new genetically enhanced light on retinal prosthesis,” J. Neural Eng. 6(3), 035007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, M. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Neil, M. A. A.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. B. Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 016004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Dawson, M. A. A. Neil, “Micro-pixellated LEDs for science and instrumentation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 090301 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nikolic, K.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. B. Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 016004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Degenaar, N. Grossman, M. A. Memon, J. Burrone, M. D. Dawson, E. Drakakis, M. A. Neil, K. Nikolic, “Optobionic vision--a new genetically enhanced light on retinal prosthesis,” J. Neural Eng. 6(3), 035007 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, M. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

J. P. Ao, H. Sato, T. Mizobuchi, K. Morioka, S. Kawano, Y. Muramoto, Y. B. Lee, D. Sato, Y. Ohno, S. Sakai, “Monolithic blue LED series arrays for high-voltage AC operation,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 376–379 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Palmini, R. B.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. B. Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 016004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

S. Nakamura, S. J. Pearton, S. N. S. P. Fasol, “G. The blue laser diode: The complete story,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12(6), 755–756 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Poher, V.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. B. Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 016004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, M. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rae, B. R.

A. Zarowna-Dabrowska, S. L. Neale, D. Massoubre, J. McKendry, B. R. Rae, R. K. Henderson, M. J. Rose, H. Yin, J. M. Cooper, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, “Miniaturized optoelectronic tweezers controlled by GaN micro-pixel light emitting diode arrays,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2720–2728 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. R. Rae, K. R. Muir, Z. Gong, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “A CMOS time-resolved fluorescence lifetime analysis micro-system,” Sensors (Basel) 9(11), 9255–9274 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. D. McKendry, B. R. Rae, Z. Gong, K. R. Muir, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “Individually addressable AlInGaN micro-LED arrays with CMOS control and subnanosecond output pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 811–813 (2009) (DOI).

Renshaw, D.

J. J. D. McKendry, B. R. Rae, Z. Gong, K. R. Muir, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “Individually addressable AlInGaN micro-LED arrays with CMOS control and subnanosecond output pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 811–813 (2009) (DOI).

B. R. Rae, K. R. Muir, Z. Gong, J. McKendry, J. M. Girkin, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “A CMOS time-resolved fluorescence lifetime analysis micro-system,” Sensors (Basel) 9(11), 9255–9274 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rose, M. J.

Sakai, S.

J. P. Ao, H. Sato, T. Mizobuchi, K. Morioka, S. Kawano, Y. Muramoto, Y. B. Lee, D. Sato, Y. Ohno, S. Sakai, “Monolithic blue LED series arrays for high-voltage AC operation,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 376–379 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sakamoto, T.

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, M. Ichikawa, S. Minato, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, T. Mukai, “Improvement of luminous efficiency in white light emitting diodes by reducing a forward-bias voltage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L963–L965 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sano, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, M. Ichikawa, S. Minato, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, T. Mukai, “Improvement of luminous efficiency in white light emitting diodes by reducing a forward-bias voltage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L963–L965 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sato, D.

J. P. Ao, H. Sato, T. Mizobuchi, K. Morioka, S. Kawano, Y. Muramoto, Y. B. Lee, D. Sato, Y. Ohno, S. Sakai, “Monolithic blue LED series arrays for high-voltage AC operation,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 376–379 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sato, H.

J. P. Ao, H. Sato, T. Mizobuchi, K. Morioka, S. Kawano, Y. Muramoto, Y. B. Lee, D. Sato, Y. Ohno, S. Sakai, “Monolithic blue LED series arrays for high-voltage AC operation,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 376–379 (2002).
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H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303 (2001).
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V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, M. A. Khan, “High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1838 (2004).
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V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, M. A. Khan, “High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1838 (2004).
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Sun, W. H.

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, M. A. Khan, “High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1838 (2004).
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D. Vettese, “Microdisplays: Liquid crystal on silicon,” Nat. Photonics 4, 752 (2010).

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V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, M. A. Khan, “High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, M. Ichikawa, S. Minato, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, T. Mukai, “Improvement of luminous efficiency in white light emitting diodes by reducing a forward-bias voltage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L963–L965 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. W.

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, M. A. Khan, “High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, W. Y.

H. Yen, W. Y. Yeh, H. C. Kuo, “GaN alternating current light-emitting device,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(6), 2077–2081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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H. Yen, W. Y. Yeh, H. C. Kuo, “GaN alternating current light-emitting device,” Phys. Status Solidi 204(6), 2077–2081 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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T. H. Young, C. R. Chen, “Assessment of GaN chips for culturing cerebellar granule neurons,” Biomaterials 27(18), 3361–3367 (2006).
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S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
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V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, M. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).
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Appl. Phys. Express

S. Hwang, M. Islam, B. Zhang, M. Lachab, J. Dion, A. Heidari, H. Nazir, V. Adivarahan, A. Khan, “A hybrid micro-pixel based deep ultraviolet light-emitting diode lamp,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(1), 012102 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. B. Nam, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “Unique optical properties of AlGaN alloys and related ultraviolet emitters,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5264 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. Adivarahan, S. Wu, W. H. Sun, V. Mandavilli, M. S. Shatalov, G. Simin, J. W. Yang, H. P. Maruska, M. A. Khan, “High-power deep ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on a micro-pixel design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1838 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Shakya, J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride blue microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(9), 1303 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(5), 631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “InGaN/GaN quantum well interconnected microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(20), 3236 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Day, J. Li, D. Lie, C. Bradford, J. Y. Lin, H. X. Jiang, “III-Nitride full-scale high-resolution microdisplays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(3), 031116 (2011).
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Biomaterials

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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. J. D. McKendry, B. R. Rae, Z. Gong, K. R. Muir, B. Guilhabert, D. Massoubre, E. Gu, D. Renshaw, M. D. Dawson, R. K. Henderson, “Individually addressable AlInGaN micro-LED arrays with CMOS control and subnanosecond output pulses,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(12), 811–813 (2009) (DOI).

J. Neural Eng.

N. Grossman, V. Poher, M. S. Grubb, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, B. McGovern, R. B. Palmini, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, M. A. A. Neil, M. D. Dawson, J. Burrone, P. Degenaar, “Multi-site optical excitation using ChR2 and micro-LED array,” J. Neural Eng. 7(1), 016004 (2010).
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P. Degenaar, N. Grossman, M. A. Memon, J. Burrone, M. D. Dawson, E. Drakakis, M. A. Neil, K. Nikolic, “Optobionic vision--a new genetically enhanced light on retinal prosthesis,” J. Neural Eng. 6(3), 035007 (2009).
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J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

V. Poher, N. Grossman, G. T. Kennedy, K. Nikolic, H. X. Zhang, Z. Gong, E. M. Drakakis, E. Gu, M. D. Dawson, P. M. W. French, P. Degenaar, M. A. Neil, “Micro-LED arrays: a tool for two-dimensional neuron stimulation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094014 (2008).
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M. D. Dawson, M. A. A. Neil, “Micro-pixellated LEDs for science and instrumentation,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 090301 (2008).
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Z. Y. Fan, H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, “III-nitride micro-emitter arrays: development and applications,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 41(9), 094001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Y. Narukawa, M. Sano, M. Ichikawa, S. Minato, T. Sakamoto, T. Yamada, T. Mukai, “Improvement of luminous efficiency in white light emitting diodes by reducing a forward-bias voltage,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46(40), L963–L965 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

J. P. Ao, H. Sato, T. Mizobuchi, K. Morioka, S. Kawano, Y. Muramoto, Y. B. Lee, D. Sato, Y. Ohno, S. Sakai, “Monolithic blue LED series arrays for high-voltage AC operation,” Phys. Status Solidi 194(2), 376–379 (2002).
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H. X. Jiang, S. X. Jin, J. Li, and J. Y. Lin, “Micro-size LED and detector arrays for mini-displays, hyperbright light emitting diodes, lighting, and UV detector and imaging sensor applications,” US patent 6,410,940.

H. X. Jiang, J. Y. Lin, and S. X. Jin, “Light emitting diodes for high AC voltage operating and general lighting,” US Patents 6,957,899; 7,210,819; 7,213,942.

Z. Y. Fan, H. X. Jiang, and J. Y. Lin, “Heterogeneous integrated high voltage DC/AC light emitter,” US Patent 7,221,044.

Z. Y. Fan, H. X. Jiang, and J. Y. Lin, “Micro-LED based high voltage AC/DC indicator lamp,” US Patent 7,535,028.

Z. Y. Fan, “Light emitting diode lamp,” US Patent 7,525,248.

Z. Y. Fan, J. Li, H. X. Jiang, and J. Y. Lin, “AC/DC light emitting diodes with integrated protection mechanism,” US Patent 7,714,348.

Z. Y. Fan, H. X. Jiang, and J. Y. Lin, “Light emitting diode lamp capable of high AC/DC voltage operation,” US Patent 8,272,757.

P. Lamarre, A. Hairston, S. Tobin, K. K. Wong, M. F. Taylor, A. K. Sood, M. B. Reine, M. J. Schurman, I. T. Ferguson, R. Singh, and C. R. Eddy, Jr., “AlGaN p-i-n photodiode arrays for solar-blind applications,” Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. 639, G10.9.1–G10.9.6 (2000).
[CrossRef]

http://www.seoulsemicon.com/en/html/company/press_view.asp?Idx=227 .

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic layer structure diagram and (b) SEM image of InGaN/GaN quantum well micro-size LEDs (μLEDs) (after Ref. [2]).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic conceptual circuit diagrams on how to build a high voltage (a) AC and (b) DC LED device (after Refs. [6] & [7]).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The cross sectional view of (a) a single low voltage DC LED; (b) high voltage AC/DC LED achieved via monolithic integration of plurality of µLEDs by connecting the p-contact of one µLED to the n-contact of its neighboring µLED; (c) heterogeneous integrated high voltage AC/DC LED achieved via flip-chip bonding with the interconnection between each individual µLED on the submount (after Ref. [7]).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photos of one of our (a) high voltage indicator AC-LEDs with chip size of about 0.3 mm x 0.3 mm and (b) high voltage power AC-LEDs with chip size of about 1 mm x 1mm directly plugged in the 120 VAC power outlets without power converters.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Illustration of flip-chip bonding between µLED matrix array and CMOS driver IC via indium bumps to form a highly integrated microdisplay in one package. (b) Optical microscopy image of a full scale (640 x 480 pixels) InGaN µLED array. (c) The zoom-in image of a flip-chip bonded package with µLED pixels and indium bumps viewed from the transparent sapphire side (after Ref. 14).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Demonstration of an III-nitride self-emissive µdisplay. (a) A fully assembled InGaN µdisplay operating at a driving current of about 1 μA per pixel. (b) A grayscale projected image of a leopard from a green VGA InGaN microdisplay (having 640 x 480 pixel with a pixel size of 12 µm and a pitch distance of 15 µm) operating at a driving current of 1 μA per pixel. (c) L-I characteristic of a green μLED pixel. (d) I-V characteristic of a green μLED pixel (after Ref. 14).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Feature of III-nitride μLED based μ displays (after Ref. [14])

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