Abstract

The efficiency of today’s most efficient organic solar cells is primarily limited by the ability of the active layer to absorb all the sunlight. While internal quantum efficiencies exceeding 90% are common, the external quantum efficiency rarely exceeds 70%. Light trapping techniques that increase the ability of a given active layer to absorb light are common in inorganic solar cells but have only been applied to organic solar cells with limited success. Here, we analyze the light trapping mechanism for a cell with a V-shape substrate configuration and demonstrate significantly improved photon absorption in an 5.3%-efficient PCDTBT:PC70BM bulk heterojunction polymer solar cell. The measured short circuit current density improves by 29%, in agreement with model predictions, and the power conversion efficiency increases to 7.2%, a 35% improvement over the performance in the absence of a light trap.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. Hou, H.-Y. Chen, S. Zhang, R. I. Chen, Y. Yang, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Synthesis of a Low Band Gap Polymer and Its Application in Highly Efficient Polymer Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15586–15587 (2009).
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  8. K. Tvingstedt, V. Andersson, F. Zhang, O. Inganas, “Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cell doubles efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123514 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  9. V. Andersson, K. Tvingstedt, O. Inganas, “Optical modeling of a folded organic solar cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 094520 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. Andersson, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, “Comparative study of organic thin film tandem solar cells in alternative geometries,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124508 (2008).
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  11. V. Andersson, U. Wuerfel, O. Inganas, “Full day modeling of V-shaped organic solar cell,” Sol. Energy 85(6), 1257–1263 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. P. Peumans, V. Bulovic, S. R. Forrest, “Efficient photon harvesting at high optical intensities in ultrathin organic double-heterostructure photovoltaic diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2650 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Y. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, K. Lee, W. Ma, X. Gong, A. J. Heeger, “New Architecture for High-Efficiency Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Using Solution-Based Titanium Oxide as an Optical Spacer,” Adv. Mater. 18(5), 572–576 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, T. Granlund, T. Nyberg, M. Svensson, M. R. Andersson, J. C. Hummelen, “Trapping Light in Polymer Photodiodes with Soft Embossed Gratings,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 189–195 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes—architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451-452, 619–623 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. Tvingstedt, M. Tormen, L. Businaro, O. Inganas, “Light confinement in thin film organic photovoltaic cells,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 61970C, 61970C-10 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, A. Gombert, “Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 511-512, 628–633 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. Forberich, G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, K. Hingerl, T. Fromherz, C. J. Brabec, “Performance improvement of organic solar cells with moth eye anti-reflection coating,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7167–7170 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K. Tvingstedt, S. Dal Zilio, O. Inganäs, M. Tormen, “Trapping light with micro lenses in thin film organic photovoltaic cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21608–21615 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J.-Y. Lee, P. Peumans, “The origin of enhanced optical absorption in solar cells with metal nanoparticles embedded in the active layer,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10078–10087 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  22. Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. M. A. Green, “Enhanced evanescent mode light trapping in organic solar cells and other low index optoelectronic devices,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(4), 473–477 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. Raman, Z. Yu, S. Fan, “Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19015–19026 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. D.-H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, E. T. Samulski, “Photonic Crystal Geometry for Organic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2742–2746 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. P. Kulkarni, K. M. Noone, K. Munechika, S. R. Guyer, D. S. Ginger, “Plasmon-Enhanced Charge Carrier Generation in Organic Photovoltaic Films Using Silver Nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1501–1505 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, L. J. Guo, “Efficiency Enhancement of Organic Solar Cells Using Transparent Plasmonic Ag Nanowire Electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  29. J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. I.-K. Ding, J. Zhu, W. Cai, S.-J. Moon, N. Cai, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, “Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 1(1), 52–57 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  31. L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  32. G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomis, K. Hingerl, T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  33. L. J. A. Koster, V. D. Mihailetchi, R. Ramaker, P. W. M. Blom, “Light intensity dependence of open-circuit voltage of polymer:fullerene solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 123509 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2011

V. Andersson, U. Wuerfel, O. Inganas, “Full day modeling of V-shaped organic solar cell,” Sol. Energy 85(6), 1257–1263 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-K. Ding, J. Zhu, W. Cai, S.-J. Moon, N. Cai, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, “Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 1(1), 52–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, “Enhanced evanescent mode light trapping in organic solar cells and other low index optoelectronic devices,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(4), 473–477 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Raman, Z. Yu, S. Fan, “Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19015–19026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J.-Y. Lee, P. Peumans, “The origin of enhanced optical absorption in solar cells with metal nanoparticles embedded in the active layer,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10078–10087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Kulkarni, K. M. Noone, K. Munechika, S. R. Guyer, D. S. Ginger, “Plasmon-Enhanced Charge Carrier Generation in Organic Photovoltaic Films Using Silver Nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1501–1505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, L. J. Guo, “Efficiency Enhancement of Organic Solar Cells Using Transparent Plasmonic Ag Nanowire Electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

D.-H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, E. T. Samulski, “Photonic Crystal Geometry for Organic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2742–2746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hou, H.-Y. Chen, S. Zhang, R. I. Chen, Y. Yang, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Synthesis of a Low Band Gap Polymer and Its Application in Highly Efficient Polymer Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15586–15587 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

V. Andersson, K. Tvingstedt, O. Inganas, “Optical modeling of a folded organic solar cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 094520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Andersson, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, “Comparative study of organic thin film tandem solar cells in alternative geometries,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Forberich, G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, K. Hingerl, T. Fromherz, C. J. Brabec, “Performance improvement of organic solar cells with moth eye anti-reflection coating,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7167–7170 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, S. Dal Zilio, O. Inganäs, M. Tormen, “Trapping light with micro lenses in thin film organic photovoltaic cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21608–21615 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomis, K. Hingerl, T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, V. Andersson, F. Zhang, O. Inganas, “Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cell doubles efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Blouin, A. Michaud, M. Leclerc, “A Low-Bandgap Poly(2,7-Carbazole) Derivative for Use in High-Performance Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2295–2300 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

K. Tvingstedt, M. Tormen, L. Businaro, O. Inganas, “Light confinement in thin film organic photovoltaic cells,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 61970C, 61970C-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, A. Gombert, “Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 511-512, 628–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, K. Lee, W. Ma, X. Gong, A. J. Heeger, “New Architecture for High-Efficiency Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Using Solution-Based Titanium Oxide as an Optical Spacer,” Adv. Mater. 18(5), 572–576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

L. J. A. Koster, V. D. Mihailetchi, R. Ramaker, P. W. M. Blom, “Light intensity dependence of open-circuit voltage of polymer:fullerene solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 123509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes—architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451-452, 619–623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, T. Granlund, T. Nyberg, M. Svensson, M. R. Andersson, J. C. Hummelen, “Trapping Light in Polymer Photodiodes with Soft Embossed Gratings,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 189–195 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, V. Bulovic, S. R. Forrest, “Efficient photon harvesting at high optical intensities in ultrathin organic double-heterostructure photovoltaic diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, M. R.

L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, T. Granlund, T. Nyberg, M. Svensson, M. R. Andersson, J. C. Hummelen, “Trapping Light in Polymer Photodiodes with Soft Embossed Gratings,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 189–195 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Andersson, V.

V. Andersson, U. Wuerfel, O. Inganas, “Full day modeling of V-shaped organic solar cell,” Sol. Energy 85(6), 1257–1263 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Andersson, K. Tvingstedt, O. Inganas, “Optical modeling of a folded organic solar cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 094520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Andersson, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, “Comparative study of organic thin film tandem solar cells in alternative geometries,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, V. Andersson, F. Zhang, O. Inganas, “Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cell doubles efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bazan, G. C.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaupre, S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Blom, P. W. M.

L. J. A. Koster, V. D. Mihailetchi, R. Ramaker, P. W. M. Blom, “Light intensity dependence of open-circuit voltage of polymer:fullerene solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 123509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blouin, N.

N. Blouin, A. Michaud, M. Leclerc, “A Low-Bandgap Poly(2,7-Carbazole) Derivative for Use in High-Performance Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2295–2300 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

K. Forberich, G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, K. Hingerl, T. Fromherz, C. J. Brabec, “Performance improvement of organic solar cells with moth eye anti-reflection coating,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7167–7170 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomis, K. Hingerl, T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

I.-K. Ding, J. Zhu, W. Cai, S.-J. Moon, N. Cai, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, “Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 1(1), 52–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic, V.

P. Peumans, V. Bulovic, S. R. Forrest, “Efficient photon harvesting at high optical intensities in ultrathin organic double-heterostructure photovoltaic diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Businaro, L.

K. Tvingstedt, M. Tormen, L. Businaro, O. Inganas, “Light confinement in thin film organic photovoltaic cells,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 61970C, 61970C-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cai, N.

I.-K. Ding, J. Zhu, W. Cai, S.-J. Moon, N. Cai, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, “Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 1(1), 52–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

I.-K. Ding, J. Zhu, W. Cai, S.-J. Moon, N. Cai, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, “Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 1(1), 52–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-C.

J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. Y.

H. Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-Y.

J. Hou, H.-Y. Chen, S. Zhang, R. I. Chen, Y. Yang, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Synthesis of a Low Band Gap Polymer and Its Application in Highly Efficient Polymer Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15586–15587 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, R. I.

J. Hou, H.-Y. Chen, S. Zhang, R. I. Chen, Y. Yang, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Synthesis of a Low Band Gap Polymer and Its Application in Highly Efficient Polymer Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15586–15587 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coates, N.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coates, N. E.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

I.-K. Ding, J. Zhu, W. Cai, S.-J. Moon, N. Cai, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, “Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 1(1), 52–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dal Zilio, S.

Dennler, G.

K. Forberich, G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, K. Hingerl, T. Fromherz, C. J. Brabec, “Performance improvement of organic solar cells with moth eye anti-reflection coating,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7167–7170 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomis, K. Hingerl, T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

DeSimone, J. M.

D.-H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, E. T. Samulski, “Photonic Crystal Geometry for Organic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2742–2746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, I.-K.

I.-K. Ding, J. Zhu, W. Cai, S.-J. Moon, N. Cai, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, “Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 1(1), 52–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Duche, D.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Escoubas, L.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

A. Raman, Z. Yu, S. Fan, “Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19015–19026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Flory, F.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Forberich, K.

K. Forberich, G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, K. Hingerl, T. Fromherz, C. J. Brabec, “Performance improvement of organic solar cells with moth eye anti-reflection coating,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7167–7170 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomis, K. Hingerl, T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

P. Peumans, V. Bulovic, S. R. Forrest, “Efficient photon harvesting at high optical intensities in ultrathin organic double-heterostructure photovoltaic diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fromherz, T.

K. Forberich, G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, K. Hingerl, T. Fromherz, C. J. Brabec, “Performance improvement of organic solar cells with moth eye anti-reflection coating,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7167–7170 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomis, K. Hingerl, T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ginger, D. S.

A. P. Kulkarni, K. M. Noone, K. Munechika, S. R. Guyer, D. S. Ginger, “Plasmon-Enhanced Charge Carrier Generation in Organic Photovoltaic Films Using Silver Nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1501–1505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glatthaar, M.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, A. Gombert, “Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 511-512, 628–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes—architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451-452, 619–623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gombert, A.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, A. Gombert, “Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 511-512, 628–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes—architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451-452, 619–623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gong, X.

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, K. Lee, W. Ma, X. Gong, A. J. Heeger, “New Architecture for High-Efficiency Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Using Solution-Based Titanium Oxide as an Optical Spacer,” Adv. Mater. 18(5), 572–576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Granlund, T.

L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, T. Granlund, T. Nyberg, M. Svensson, M. R. Andersson, J. C. Hummelen, “Trapping Light in Polymer Photodiodes with Soft Embossed Gratings,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 189–195 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grätzel, M.

I.-K. Ding, J. Zhu, W. Cai, S.-J. Moon, N. Cai, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, “Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 1(1), 52–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, “Enhanced evanescent mode light trapping in organic solar cells and other low index optoelectronic devices,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(4), 473–477 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guo, L. J.

M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, L. J. Guo, “Efficiency Enhancement of Organic Solar Cells Using Transparent Plasmonic Ag Nanowire Electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guyer, S. R.

A. P. Kulkarni, K. M. Noone, K. Munechika, S. R. Guyer, D. S. Ginger, “Plasmon-Enhanced Charge Carrier Generation in Organic Photovoltaic Films Using Silver Nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1501–1505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heeger, A. J.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, K. Lee, W. Ma, X. Gong, A. J. Heeger, “New Architecture for High-Efficiency Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Using Solution-Based Titanium Oxide as an Optical Spacer,” Adv. Mater. 18(5), 572–576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hingerl, K.

K. Forberich, G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, K. Hingerl, T. Fromherz, C. J. Brabec, “Performance improvement of organic solar cells with moth eye anti-reflection coating,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7167–7170 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomis, K. Hingerl, T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hinsch, A.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes—architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451-452, 619–623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hong, Z.

J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hou, J.

H. Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hou, H.-Y. Chen, S. Zhang, R. I. Chen, Y. Yang, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Synthesis of a Low Band Gap Polymer and Its Application in Highly Efficient Polymer Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15586–15587 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, W.-C.

J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hummelen, J. C.

L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, T. Granlund, T. Nyberg, M. Svensson, M. R. Andersson, J. C. Hummelen, “Trapping Light in Polymer Photodiodes with Soft Embossed Gratings,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 189–195 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inganas, O.

V. Andersson, U. Wuerfel, O. Inganas, “Full day modeling of V-shaped organic solar cell,” Sol. Energy 85(6), 1257–1263 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Andersson, K. Tvingstedt, O. Inganas, “Optical modeling of a folded organic solar cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 094520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Andersson, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, “Comparative study of organic thin film tandem solar cells in alternative geometries,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, V. Andersson, F. Zhang, O. Inganas, “Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cell doubles efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, M. Tormen, L. Businaro, O. Inganas, “Light confinement in thin film organic photovoltaic cells,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 61970C, 61970C-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, T. Granlund, T. Nyberg, M. Svensson, M. R. Andersson, J. C. Hummelen, “Trapping Light in Polymer Photodiodes with Soft Embossed Gratings,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 189–195 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inganäs, O.

Kang, M.-G.

M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, L. J. Guo, “Efficiency Enhancement of Organic Solar Cells Using Transparent Plasmonic Ag Nanowire Electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. Y.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, K. Lee, W. Ma, X. Gong, A. J. Heeger, “New Architecture for High-Efficiency Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Using Solution-Based Titanium Oxide as an Optical Spacer,” Adv. Mater. 18(5), 572–576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, K. Lee, W. Ma, X. Gong, A. J. Heeger, “New Architecture for High-Efficiency Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Using Solution-Based Titanium Oxide as an Optical Spacer,” Adv. Mater. 18(5), 572–576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ko, D.-H.

D.-H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, E. T. Samulski, “Photonic Crystal Geometry for Organic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2742–2746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koster, L. J. A.

L. J. A. Koster, V. D. Mihailetchi, R. Ramaker, P. W. M. Blom, “Light intensity dependence of open-circuit voltage of polymer:fullerene solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 123509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, A. P.

A. P. Kulkarni, K. M. Noone, K. Munechika, S. R. Guyer, D. S. Ginger, “Plasmon-Enhanced Charge Carrier Generation in Organic Photovoltaic Films Using Silver Nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1501–1505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leclerc, M.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Blouin, A. Michaud, M. Leclerc, “A Low-Bandgap Poly(2,7-Carbazole) Derivative for Use in High-Performance Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2295–2300 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. H.

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, K. Lee, W. Ma, X. Gong, A. J. Heeger, “New Architecture for High-Efficiency Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Using Solution-Based Titanium Oxide as an Optical Spacer,” Adv. Mater. 18(5), 572–576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Lee, P. Peumans, “The origin of enhanced optical absorption in solar cells with metal nanoparticles embedded in the active layer,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10078–10087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, K. Lee, W. Ma, X. Gong, A. J. Heeger, “New Architecture for High-Efficiency Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Using Solution-Based Titanium Oxide as an Optical Spacer,” Adv. Mater. 18(5), 572–576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lewer, P.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, A. Gombert, “Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 511-512, 628–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

H. Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hou, H.-Y. Chen, S. Zhang, R. I. Chen, Y. Yang, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Synthesis of a Low Band Gap Polymer and Its Application in Highly Efficient Polymer Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15586–15587 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Y.

H. Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, R.

D.-H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, E. T. Samulski, “Photonic Crystal Geometry for Organic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2742–2746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, X.

M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, L. J. Guo, “Efficiency Enhancement of Organic Solar Cells Using Transparent Plasmonic Ag Nanowire Electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, W.

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, K. Lee, W. Ma, X. Gong, A. J. Heeger, “New Architecture for High-Efficiency Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Using Solution-Based Titanium Oxide as an Optical Spacer,” Adv. Mater. 18(5), 572–576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, W. L.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mathian, G.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, M. D.

I.-K. Ding, J. Zhu, W. Cai, S.-J. Moon, N. Cai, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, “Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 1(1), 52–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S.-B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Michaud, A.

N. Blouin, A. Michaud, M. Leclerc, “A Low-Bandgap Poly(2,7-Carbazole) Derivative for Use in High-Performance Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2295–2300 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mihailetchi, V. D.

L. J. A. Koster, V. D. Mihailetchi, R. Ramaker, P. W. M. Blom, “Light intensity dependence of open-circuit voltage of polymer:fullerene solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 123509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Min, C.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Monestier, F.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moon, J. S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Moon, S.-J.

I.-K. Ding, J. Zhu, W. Cai, S.-J. Moon, N. Cai, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, “Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 1(1), 52–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Muller, C.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, A. Gombert, “Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 511-512, 628–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Munechika, K.

A. P. Kulkarni, K. M. Noone, K. Munechika, S. R. Guyer, D. S. Ginger, “Plasmon-Enhanced Charge Carrier Generation in Organic Photovoltaic Films Using Silver Nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1501–1505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Niggemann, M.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, A. Gombert, “Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 511-512, 628–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes—architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451-452, 619–623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noone, K. M.

A. P. Kulkarni, K. M. Noone, K. Munechika, S. R. Guyer, D. S. Ginger, “Plasmon-Enhanced Charge Carrier Generation in Organic Photovoltaic Films Using Silver Nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1501–1505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nyberg, T.

L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, T. Granlund, T. Nyberg, M. Svensson, M. R. Andersson, J. C. Hummelen, “Trapping Light in Polymer Photodiodes with Soft Embossed Gratings,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 189–195 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. J.

M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, L. J. Guo, “Efficiency Enhancement of Organic Solar Cells Using Transparent Plasmonic Ag Nanowire Electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, S. H.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peet, J.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persson, N.-K.

V. Andersson, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, “Comparative study of organic thin film tandem solar cells in alternative geometries,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pettersson, L. A. A.

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Peumans, P.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Lee, P. Peumans, “The origin of enhanced optical absorption in solar cells with metal nanoparticles embedded in the active layer,” Opt. Express 18(10), 10078–10087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, V. Bulovic, S. R. Forrest, “Efficient photon harvesting at high optical intensities in ultrathin organic double-heterostructure photovoltaic diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ramaker, R.

L. J. A. Koster, V. D. Mihailetchi, R. Ramaker, P. W. M. Blom, “Light intensity dependence of open-circuit voltage of polymer:fullerene solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 123509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Raman, A.

A. Raman, Z. Yu, S. Fan, “Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19015–19026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rim, S.-B.

S.-B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roman, L. S.

L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, T. Granlund, T. Nyberg, M. Svensson, M. R. Andersson, J. C. Hummelen, “Trapping Light in Polymer Photodiodes with Soft Embossed Gratings,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 189–195 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Roy, A.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Samulski, E. T.

D.-H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, E. T. Samulski, “Photonic Crystal Geometry for Organic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2742–2746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scharber, M. C.

K. Forberich, G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, K. Hingerl, T. Fromherz, C. J. Brabec, “Performance improvement of organic solar cells with moth eye anti-reflection coating,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7167–7170 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomis, K. Hingerl, T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scully, S. R.

S.-B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Simon, J.-J.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Svensson, M.

L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, T. Granlund, T. Nyberg, M. Svensson, M. R. Andersson, J. C. Hummelen, “Trapping Light in Polymer Photodiodes with Soft Embossed Gratings,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 189–195 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tan, H. R.

J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomis, I.

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomis, K. Hingerl, T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torchio, P.

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tormen, M.

K. Tvingstedt, S. Dal Zilio, O. Inganäs, M. Tormen, “Trapping light with micro lenses in thin film organic photovoltaic cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21608–21615 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Tvingstedt, M. Tormen, L. Businaro, O. Inganas, “Light confinement in thin film organic photovoltaic cells,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 61970C, 61970C-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tumbleston, J. R.

D.-H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, E. T. Samulski, “Photonic Crystal Geometry for Organic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2742–2746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tvingstedt, K.

K. Tvingstedt, S. Dal Zilio, O. Inganäs, M. Tormen, “Trapping light with micro lenses in thin film organic photovoltaic cells,” Opt. Express 16(26), 21608–21615 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Andersson, K. Tvingstedt, O. Inganas, “Optical modeling of a folded organic solar cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 094520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, V. Andersson, F. Zhang, O. Inganas, “Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cell doubles efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, M. Tormen, L. Businaro, O. Inganas, “Light confinement in thin film organic photovoltaic cells,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 61970C, 61970C-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Veronis, G.

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, J.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, A. Gombert, “Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 511-512, 628–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

I.-K. Ding, J. Zhu, W. Cai, S.-J. Moon, N. Cai, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, “Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 1(1), 52–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Williams, S.

D.-H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, E. T. Samulski, “Photonic Crystal Geometry for Organic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2742–2746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittwer, V.

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes—architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451-452, 619–623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

H. Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hou, H.-Y. Chen, S. Zhang, R. I. Chen, Y. Yang, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Synthesis of a Low Band Gap Polymer and Its Application in Highly Efficient Polymer Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15586–15587 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wuerfel, U.

V. Andersson, U. Wuerfel, O. Inganas, “Full day modeling of V-shaped organic solar cell,” Sol. Energy 85(6), 1257–1263 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xu, T.

M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, L. J. Guo, “Efficiency Enhancement of Organic Solar Cells Using Transparent Plasmonic Ag Nanowire Electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, G.

H. Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hou, H.-Y. Chen, S. Zhang, R. I. Chen, Y. Yang, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Synthesis of a Low Band Gap Polymer and Its Application in Highly Efficient Polymer Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15586–15587 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

You, J.

J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, L.

H. Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

A. Raman, Z. Yu, S. Fan, “Dielectric nanostructures for broadband light trapping in organic solar cells,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19015–19026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zakeeruddin, S. M.

I.-K. Ding, J. Zhu, W. Cai, S.-J. Moon, N. Cai, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, “Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 1(1), 52–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

K. Tvingstedt, V. Andersson, F. Zhang, O. Inganas, “Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cell doubles efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

D.-H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, E. T. Samulski, “Photonic Crystal Geometry for Organic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2742–2746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S.

J. Hou, H.-Y. Chen, S. Zhang, R. I. Chen, Y. Yang, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Synthesis of a Low Band Gap Polymer and Its Application in Highly Efficient Polymer Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15586–15587 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. W.

J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, S.

S.-B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

I.-K. Ding, J. Zhu, W. Cai, S.-J. Moon, N. Cai, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, “Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 1(1), 52–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano

J. Yang, J. You, C.-C. Chen, W.-C. Hsu, H. R. Tan, X. W. Zhang, Z. Hong, Y. Yang, “Plasmonic Polymer Tandem Solar Cell,” ACS Nano 5(8), 6210–6217 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Eng. Mater.

I.-K. Ding, J. Zhu, W. Cai, S.-J. Moon, N. Cai, P. Wang, S. M. Zakeeruddin, M. Grätzel, M. L. Brongersma, Y. Cui, M. D. McGehee, “Plasmonic Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells,” Adv. Eng. Mater. 1(1), 52–57 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

M.-G. Kang, T. Xu, H. J. Park, X. Luo, L. J. Guo, “Efficiency Enhancement of Organic Solar Cells Using Transparent Plasmonic Ag Nanowire Electrodes,” Adv. Mater. 22(39), 4378–4383 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Blouin, A. Michaud, M. Leclerc, “A Low-Bandgap Poly(2,7-Carbazole) Derivative for Use in High-Performance Solar Cells,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2295–2300 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, S. H. Kim, H. H. Lee, K. Lee, W. Ma, X. Gong, A. J. Heeger, “New Architecture for High-Efficiency Polymer Photovoltaic Cells Using Solution-Based Titanium Oxide as an Optical Spacer,” Adv. Mater. 18(5), 572–576 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, T. Granlund, T. Nyberg, M. Svensson, M. R. Andersson, J. C. Hummelen, “Trapping Light in Polymer Photodiodes with Soft Embossed Gratings,” Adv. Mater. 12(3), 189–195 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S.-B. Rim, S. Zhao, S. R. Scully, M. D. McGehee, P. Peumans, “An effective light trapping configuration for thin-film solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(24), 243501 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. Tvingstedt, V. Andersson, F. Zhang, O. Inganas, “Folded reflective tandem polymer solar cell doubles efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 123514 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Peumans, V. Bulovic, S. R. Forrest, “Efficient photon harvesting at high optical intensities in ultrathin organic double-heterostructure photovoltaic diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(19), 2650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. J. A. Koster, V. D. Mihailetchi, R. Ramaker, P. W. M. Blom, “Light intensity dependence of open-circuit voltage of polymer:fullerene solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 123509 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Min, J. Li, G. Veronis, J.-Y. Lee, S. Fan, P. Peumans, “Enhancement of optical absorption in thin-film organic solar cells through the excitation of plasmonic modes in metallic gratings,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133302 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

J. Hou, H.-Y. Chen, S. Zhang, R. I. Chen, Y. Yang, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Synthesis of a Low Band Gap Polymer and Its Application in Highly Efficient Polymer Solar Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(43), 15586–15587 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys.

V. Andersson, K. Tvingstedt, O. Inganas, “Optical modeling of a folded organic solar cell,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(9), 094520 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Andersson, N.-K. Persson, O. Inganas, “Comparative study of organic thin film tandem solar cells in alternative geometries,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(12), 124508 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. A. A. Pettersson, L. S. Roman, O. Inganas, “Modeling photocurrent action spectra of photovoltaic devices based on organic thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(1), 487 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Dennler, K. Forberich, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, I. Tomis, K. Hingerl, T. Fromherz, “Angle dependence of external and internal quantum efficiencies in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(5), 054516 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

A. P. Kulkarni, K. M. Noone, K. Munechika, S. R. Guyer, D. S. Ginger, “Plasmon-Enhanced Charge Carrier Generation in Organic Photovoltaic Films Using Silver Nanoprisms,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1501–1505 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-H. Ko, J. R. Tumbleston, L. Zhang, S. Williams, J. M. DeSimone, R. Lopez, E. T. Samulski, “Photonic Crystal Geometry for Organic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2742–2746 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupre, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nat. Photonics 3(11), 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107(41), 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE

K. Tvingstedt, M. Tormen, L. Businaro, O. Inganas, “Light confinement in thin film organic photovoltaic cells,” Proc. SPIE 6197, 61970C, 61970C-10 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.

M. A. Green, “Enhanced evanescent mode light trapping in organic solar cells and other low index optoelectronic devices,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 19(4), 473–477 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy

V. Andersson, U. Wuerfel, O. Inganas, “Full day modeling of V-shaped organic solar cell,” Sol. Energy 85(6), 1257–1263 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells

D. Duche, P. Torchio, L. Escoubas, F. Monestier, J.-J. Simon, F. Flory, G. Mathian, “Improving light absorption in organic solar cells by plasmonic contribution,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(8), 1377–1382 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, P. Lewer, C. Muller, J. Wagner, A. Gombert, “Functional microprism substrate for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 511-512, 628–633 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Forberich, G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, K. Hingerl, T. Fromherz, C. J. Brabec, “Performance improvement of organic solar cells with moth eye anti-reflection coating,” Thin Solid Films 516(20), 7167–7170 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Niggemann, M. Glatthaar, A. Gombert, A. Hinsch, V. Wittwer, “Diffraction gratings and buried nano-electrodes—architectures for organic solar cells,” Thin Solid Films 451-452, 619–623 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

D. Thorp, P. Campbell, and S. R. Wenham, “Absorption enhancement in conformally textured thin-film Silicon solar cells,” in Proceedings of the 25th IEEE Photovoltaic (PV) Specialists Conference (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1996), pp. 705–708.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of V-shaped geometric light trap for an organic solar cell for specified folding angles (planar / 60 degrees / 30 degrees) The rays schematically show the benefits of folding the solar cell structure on the number of bounces incident sunlight makes and thus the light absorption in the cell. Jsc is defined as the photocurrent generated inside the V-trap divided by aperature size (0.15 cm2). (b) Photon absorption in the active layer for a specified folding angle (planar / 60 degrees / 30 degrees) We note that the geometric distance of the cell (x axis) is normalized to the projected distance (aperature distance) of a V-trap. (c) Fabrication steps for V-shaped PCDTBT:PC70BM OPV used on the presented experiments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption quantum efficiency for a specified folding angle. (a) Planar (b) 60 degrees (c) 30 degrees.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Short circuit current as a function of a V-folding angle. Blue line indicates theoretical results and red dots show the experimental result.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Open circuit voltage (Red dot) and Fill factor (blue dot) measured separately at each side, and total short circuit current (green line) as a function of the folding angle for the V-shape configuration. (b) Power conversion efficiency as a function of a folding angle of the V-shape configuration.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of the incident angle of the illumination (θi) on the short circuit current density (Jsc). Blue line shows the current generation at 30 degrees of the V-shaped cell and the red line shows the same for a planar cell.

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