Abstract

The surface of thin-film solar cells can be tailored with photonic nanostructures to allow light trapping in the absorbing medium. This in turn increases the optical thickness of the film and thus enhances their absorption. Such a coherent light trapping is generally accomplished with deterministic photonic architectures. Here, we experimentally explore the use of a different nanostructure, a disordered one, for this purpose. We show that the disorder-induced modes in the film allow improvements in the absorption over a broad range of frequencies and impinging angles.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (9)

P. Spinelli, M. Verschuuren, A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on sub-wavelength surface mie resonators,” Nature Commun. 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 100, 053113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell light trapping beyond the ray optic limit,” Nano Lett. 12, 214–218 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Bozzola, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, “Photonic light-trapping versus lambertian limits in thin film silicon solar cells with 1d and 2d periodic patterns,” Opt. Express 20, A224–A244 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, J. Zhou, T. F. Krauss, “Engineering gratings for light trapping in photovoltaics: The supercell concept,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 041404 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” App. Phys. Lett. 100, 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Kowalczewski, M. Liscidini, L. C. Andreani, “Engineering gaussian disorder at rough interfaces for light trapping in thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Lett. 37, 4868–4870 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nature Mater. 11, 1017–1022 (2012).

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Thermodynamic upper bound on broadband light coupling with photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 173901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

F. Riboli, P. Barthelemy, S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, A. D. Rossi, S. Combrie, D. S. Wiersma, “Anderson localization of near-visible light in two dimensions,” Opt. Lett. 36, 127–129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. van Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-si:h solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11, 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 95(Supp. 1), S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

S. E. Han, G. Chen, “Optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanohole arrays for solar photovoltaics,” Nano Lett. 10, 1012–1015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nature Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” PNAS 107, 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rockstuhl, S. Fahr, K. Bittkau, T. Beckers, R. Carius, F.-J. Haug, T. Sderstrm, C. Ballif, F. Lederer, “Comparison and optimization of randomly textured surfaces in thin-film solar cells,” Opt. Express 18, A335–A341 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the fdtd method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (6)

C. Vanneste, P. Sebbah, “Complexity of two-dimensional quasimodes at the transition from weak scattering to anderson localization,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 041802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K. Kempa, M. J. Naughton, Z. F. Ren, A. Herczynski, T. Kirkpatrick, J. Rybczynski, Y. Gao, “Hot electron effect in nanoscopically thin photovoltaic junctions,” App. Phys. Lett. 95, 233121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. E. Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 17, 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Brown, J. Wu, “Third generation photovoltaics,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 3, 394–405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nature Photon. 3, 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, “Fabrication and processing of polymer solar cells: a review of printing and coating techniques,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 93, 394–412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. M. Zahler, K. Tanabe, C. Ladous, T. Pinnington, F. D. Newman, H. A. Atwater, “High efficiency InGaAs solar cells on si by InP layer transfer,” App. Phys. Lett. 91, 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Granqvist, “Transparent conductors as solar energy materials: A panoramic review,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 91, 1529–1598 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

R. D. Schaller, M. Sykora, J. M. Pietryga, V. I. Klimov, “Seven excitons at a cost of one: redefining the limits for conversion efficiency of photons into charge carriers,” Nano Lett. 6, 424–429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

V. M. Andreev, V. A. Grilikhes, V. P. Khvostikov, O. A. Khvostikova, V. D. Rumyantsev, N. A. Sadchikov, M. Z. Shvarts, “Concentrator PV modules and solar cells for TPV systems,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 84, 317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, C.-T. Chan, D. Turner, “Localization of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional disordered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 8340–8348 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abramov, A.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 95(Supp. 1), S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, M.

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 100, 053113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Andreani, L. C.

Andreev, V. M.

V. M. Andreev, V. A. Grilikhes, V. P. Khvostikov, O. A. Khvostikova, V. D. Rumyantsev, N. A. Sadchikov, M. Z. Shvarts, “Concentrator PV modules and solar cells for TPV systems,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 84, 317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell light trapping beyond the ray optic limit,” Nano Lett. 12, 214–218 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. van Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-si:h solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11, 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nature Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Zahler, K. Tanabe, C. Ladous, T. Pinnington, F. D. Newman, H. A. Atwater, “High efficiency InGaAs solar cells on si by InP layer transfer,” App. Phys. Lett. 91, 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ballif, C.

Barnard, E. S.

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 100, 053113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Barthelemy, P.

Beckers, T.

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the fdtd method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bittkau, K.

Bozzola, A.

Brongersma, M. L.

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 100, 053113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brown, G.

G. Brown, J. Wu, “Third generation photovoltaics,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 3, 394–405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Burresi, M.

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nature Mater. 11, 1017–1022 (2012).

Callahan, D. M.

D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell light trapping beyond the ray optic limit,” Nano Lett. 12, 214–218 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carius, R.

Chan, C.-T.

M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, C.-T. Chan, D. Turner, “Localization of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional disordered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 8340–8348 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

S. E. Han, G. Chen, “Optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanohole arrays for solar photovoltaics,” Nano Lett. 10, 1012–1015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nature Photon. 3, 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Combrie, S.

Daif, O. E.

Drouard, E.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 95(Supp. 1), S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. E. Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 17, 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

El Daif, O.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 95(Supp. 1), S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fahr, S.

Fan, S.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Thermodynamic upper bound on broadband light coupling with photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 173901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” PNAS 107, 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fave, A.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 95(Supp. 1), S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. E. Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 17, 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Favuzzi, P. A.

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” App. Phys. Lett. 100, 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ferry, V. E.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. van Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-si:h solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11, 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, Y.

K. Kempa, M. J. Naughton, Z. F. Ren, A. Herczynski, T. Kirkpatrick, J. Rybczynski, Y. Gao, “Hot electron effect in nanoscopically thin photovoltaic junctions,” App. Phys. Lett. 95, 233121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gomard, G.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 95(Supp. 1), S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C. G.

C. G. Granqvist, “Transparent conductors as solar energy materials: A panoramic review,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 91, 1529–1598 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Grilikhes, V. A.

V. M. Andreev, V. A. Grilikhes, V. P. Khvostikov, O. A. Khvostikova, V. D. Rumyantsev, N. A. Sadchikov, M. Z. Shvarts, “Concentrator PV modules and solar cells for TPV systems,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 84, 317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Han, S. E.

S. E. Han, G. Chen, “Optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanohole arrays for solar photovoltaics,” Nano Lett. 10, 1012–1015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haug, F.-J.

Herczynski, A.

K. Kempa, M. J. Naughton, Z. F. Ren, A. Herczynski, T. Kirkpatrick, J. Rybczynski, Y. Gao, “Hot electron effect in nanoscopically thin photovoltaic junctions,” App. Phys. Lett. 95, 233121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hou, J.

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nature Photon. 3, 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ibanescu, M.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the fdtd method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Intonti, F.

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the fdtd method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, S. G.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the fdtd method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaminski, A.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 95(Supp. 1), S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. E. Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 17, 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawakami, Y.

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” App. Phys. Lett. 100, 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kempa, K.

K. Kempa, M. J. Naughton, Z. F. Ren, A. Herczynski, T. Kirkpatrick, J. Rybczynski, Y. Gao, “Hot electron effect in nanoscopically thin photovoltaic junctions,” App. Phys. Lett. 95, 233121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Khvostikov, V. P.

V. M. Andreev, V. A. Grilikhes, V. P. Khvostikov, O. A. Khvostikova, V. D. Rumyantsev, N. A. Sadchikov, M. Z. Shvarts, “Concentrator PV modules and solar cells for TPV systems,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 84, 317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Khvostikova, O. A.

V. M. Andreev, V. A. Grilikhes, V. P. Khvostikov, O. A. Khvostikova, V. D. Rumyantsev, N. A. Sadchikov, M. Z. Shvarts, “Concentrator PV modules and solar cells for TPV systems,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 84, 317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kirkpatrick, T.

K. Kempa, M. J. Naughton, Z. F. Ren, A. Herczynski, T. Kirkpatrick, J. Rybczynski, Y. Gao, “Hot electron effect in nanoscopically thin photovoltaic junctions,” App. Phys. Lett. 95, 233121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, V. I.

R. D. Schaller, M. Sykora, J. M. Pietryga, V. I. Klimov, “Seven excitons at a cost of one: redefining the limits for conversion efficiency of photons into charge carriers,” Nano Lett. 6, 424–429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kowalczewski, P.

Krauss, T. F.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, J. Zhou, T. F. Krauss, “Engineering gratings for light trapping in photovoltaics: The supercell concept,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 041404 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Krebs, F. C.

F. C. Krebs, “Fabrication and processing of polymer solar cells: a review of printing and coating techniques,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 93, 394–412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ladous, C.

J. M. Zahler, K. Tanabe, C. Ladous, T. Pinnington, F. D. Newman, H. A. Atwater, “High efficiency InGaAs solar cells on si by InP layer transfer,” App. Phys. Lett. 91, 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, F.

Lemiti, M.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 95(Supp. 1), S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. E. Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 17, 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Letartre, X.

Li, G.

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nature Photon. 3, 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, J. Zhou, T. F. Krauss, “Engineering gratings for light trapping in photovoltaics: The supercell concept,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 041404 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Y.

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nature Photon. 3, 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liscidini, M.

Liu, Y.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, J. Zhou, T. F. Krauss, “Engineering gratings for light trapping in photovoltaics: The supercell concept,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 041404 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mallick, S. B.

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 100, 053113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Martins, E. R.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, J. Zhou, T. F. Krauss, “Engineering gratings for light trapping in photovoltaics: The supercell concept,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 041404 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meng, X.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 95(Supp. 1), S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Munday, J. N.

D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell light trapping beyond the ray optic limit,” Nano Lett. 12, 214–218 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Naughton, M. J.

K. Kempa, M. J. Naughton, Z. F. Ren, A. Herczynski, T. Kirkpatrick, J. Rybczynski, Y. Gao, “Hot electron effect in nanoscopically thin photovoltaic junctions,” App. Phys. Lett. 95, 233121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Newman, F. D.

J. M. Zahler, K. Tanabe, C. Ladous, T. Pinnington, F. D. Newman, H. A. Atwater, “High efficiency InGaAs solar cells on si by InP layer transfer,” App. Phys. Lett. 91, 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” App. Phys. Lett. 100, 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Orobtchouk, R.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 95(Supp. 1), S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Oskooi, A.

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” App. Phys. Lett. 100, 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oskooi, A. F.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the fdtd method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

Peumans, P.

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 100, 053113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pietryga, J. M.

R. D. Schaller, M. Sykora, J. M. Pietryga, V. I. Klimov, “Seven excitons at a cost of one: redefining the limits for conversion efficiency of photons into charge carriers,” Nano Lett. 6, 424–429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinnington, T.

J. M. Zahler, K. Tanabe, C. Ladous, T. Pinnington, F. D. Newman, H. A. Atwater, “High efficiency InGaAs solar cells on si by InP layer transfer,” App. Phys. Lett. 91, 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

P. Spinelli, M. Verschuuren, A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on sub-wavelength surface mie resonators,” Nature Commun. 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. van Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-si:h solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11, 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nature Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raman, A.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Thermodynamic upper bound on broadband light coupling with photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 173901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” PNAS 107, 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, Z. F.

K. Kempa, M. J. Naughton, Z. F. Ren, A. Herczynski, T. Kirkpatrick, J. Rybczynski, Y. Gao, “Hot electron effect in nanoscopically thin photovoltaic junctions,” App. Phys. Lett. 95, 233121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Riboli, F.

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nature Mater. 11, 1017–1022 (2012).

F. Riboli, P. Barthelemy, S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, A. D. Rossi, S. Combrie, D. S. Wiersma, “Anderson localization of near-visible light in two dimensions,” Opt. Lett. 36, 127–129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roca i Cabarrocas, P.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 95(Supp. 1), S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Rockstuhl, C.

Rossi, A. D.

Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the fdtd method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rumyantsev, V. D.

V. M. Andreev, V. A. Grilikhes, V. P. Khvostikov, O. A. Khvostikova, V. D. Rumyantsev, N. A. Sadchikov, M. Z. Shvarts, “Concentrator PV modules and solar cells for TPV systems,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 84, 317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Rybczynski, J.

K. Kempa, M. J. Naughton, Z. F. Ren, A. Herczynski, T. Kirkpatrick, J. Rybczynski, Y. Gao, “Hot electron effect in nanoscopically thin photovoltaic junctions,” App. Phys. Lett. 95, 233121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sadchikov, N. A.

V. M. Andreev, V. A. Grilikhes, V. P. Khvostikov, O. A. Khvostikova, V. D. Rumyantsev, N. A. Sadchikov, M. Z. Shvarts, “Concentrator PV modules and solar cells for TPV systems,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 84, 317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schaller, R. D.

R. D. Schaller, M. Sykora, J. M. Pietryga, V. I. Klimov, “Seven excitons at a cost of one: redefining the limits for conversion efficiency of photons into charge carriers,” Nano Lett. 6, 424–429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schropp, R. E. I.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. van Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-si:h solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11, 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sderstrm, T.

Seassal, C.

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 95(Supp. 1), S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Park, E. Drouard, O. E. Daif, X. Letartre, P. Viktorovitch, A. Fave, A. Kaminski, M. Lemiti, C. Seassal, “Absorption enhancement using photonic crystals for silicon thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 17, 14312–14321 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sebbah, P.

C. Vanneste, P. Sebbah, “Complexity of two-dimensional quasimodes at the transition from weak scattering to anderson localization,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 041802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shigeta, H.

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” App. Phys. Lett. 100, 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shvarts, M. Z.

V. M. Andreev, V. A. Grilikhes, V. P. Khvostikov, O. A. Khvostikova, V. D. Rumyantsev, N. A. Sadchikov, M. Z. Shvarts, “Concentrator PV modules and solar cells for TPV systems,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 84, 317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M. M.

M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, C.-T. Chan, D. Turner, “Localization of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional disordered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 8340–8348 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Singh, K. K.

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 100, 053113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Soukoulis, C. M.

M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, C.-T. Chan, D. Turner, “Localization of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional disordered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 8340–8348 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Spinelli, P.

P. Spinelli, M. Verschuuren, A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on sub-wavelength surface mie resonators,” Nature Commun. 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Street, R. A.

R. A. Street, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (Cambridge University Press, 2005).

Sykora, M.

R. D. Schaller, M. Sykora, J. M. Pietryga, V. I. Klimov, “Seven excitons at a cost of one: redefining the limits for conversion efficiency of photons into charge carriers,” Nano Lett. 6, 424–429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanabe, K.

J. M. Zahler, K. Tanabe, C. Ladous, T. Pinnington, F. D. Newman, H. A. Atwater, “High efficiency InGaAs solar cells on si by InP layer transfer,” App. Phys. Lett. 91, 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” App. Phys. Lett. 100, 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Turner, D.

M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, C.-T. Chan, D. Turner, “Localization of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional disordered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 8340–8348 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van Lare, M. C.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. van Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-si:h solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11, 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanneste, C.

C. Vanneste, P. Sebbah, “Complexity of two-dimensional quasimodes at the transition from weak scattering to anderson localization,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 041802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Verschuuren, M.

P. Spinelli, M. Verschuuren, A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on sub-wavelength surface mie resonators,” Nature Commun. 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Verschuuren, M. A.

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. van Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-si:h solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11, 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vignolini, S.

Viktorovitch, P.

Visser, R. J.

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 100, 053113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vynck, K.

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nature Mater. 11, 1017–1022 (2012).

Wangperawong, A.

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 100, 053113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nature Mater. 11, 1017–1022 (2012).

F. Riboli, P. Barthelemy, S. Vignolini, F. Intonti, A. D. Rossi, S. Combrie, D. S. Wiersma, “Anderson localization of near-visible light in two dimensions,” Opt. Lett. 36, 127–129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, J.

G. Brown, J. Wu, “Third generation photovoltaics,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 3, 394–405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nature Photon. 3, 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nature Photon. 3, 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nature Photon. 3, 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nature Photon. 3, 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Thermodynamic upper bound on broadband light coupling with photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 173901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” PNAS 107, 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zahler, J. M.

J. M. Zahler, K. Tanabe, C. Ladous, T. Pinnington, F. D. Newman, H. A. Atwater, “High efficiency InGaAs solar cells on si by InP layer transfer,” App. Phys. Lett. 91, 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nature Photon. 3, 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, J. Zhou, T. F. Krauss, “Engineering gratings for light trapping in photovoltaics: The supercell concept,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 041404 (2012).
[CrossRef]

App. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. M. Zahler, K. Tanabe, C. Ladous, T. Pinnington, F. D. Newman, H. A. Atwater, “High efficiency InGaAs solar cells on si by InP layer transfer,” App. Phys. Lett. 91, 012108 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Mallick, M. Agrawal, A. Wangperawong, E. S. Barnard, K. K. Singh, R. J. Visser, M. L. Brongersma, P. Peumans, “Ultrathin crystalline-silicon solar cells with embedded photonic crystals,” App. Phys. Lett. 100, 053113 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Kempa, M. J. Naughton, Z. F. Ren, A. Herczynski, T. Kirkpatrick, J. Rybczynski, Y. Gao, “Hot electron effect in nanoscopically thin photovoltaic junctions,” App. Phys. Lett. 95, 233121 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Oskooi, P. A. Favuzzi, Y. Tanaka, H. Shigeta, Y. Kawakami, S. Noda, “Partially disordered photonic-crystal thin films for enhanced and robust photovoltaics,” App. Phys. Lett. 100, 181110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “Meep: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the fdtd method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181, 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Laser & Photon. Rev. (1)

G. Brown, J. Wu, “Third generation photovoltaics,” Laser & Photon. Rev. 3, 394–405 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (4)

D. M. Callahan, J. N. Munday, H. A. Atwater, “Solar cell light trapping beyond the ray optic limit,” Nano Lett. 12, 214–218 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Han, G. Chen, “Optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanohole arrays for solar photovoltaics,” Nano Lett. 10, 1012–1015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. E. Ferry, M. A. Verschuuren, M. C. van Lare, R. E. I. Schropp, H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Optimized spatial correlations for broadband light trapping nanopatterns in high efficiency ultrathin film a-si:h solar cells,” Nano Lett. 11, 4239–4245 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Schaller, M. Sykora, J. M. Pietryga, V. I. Klimov, “Seven excitons at a cost of one: redefining the limits for conversion efficiency of photons into charge carriers,” Nano Lett. 6, 424–429 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Commun. (1)

P. Spinelli, M. Verschuuren, A. Polman, “Broadband omnidirectional antireflection coating based on sub-wavelength surface mie resonators,” Nature Commun. 3, 692 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mater. (2)

H. A. Atwater, A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nature Mater. 9, 205–213 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Vynck, M. Burresi, F. Riboli, D. S. Wiersma, “Photon management in two-dimensional disordered media,” Nature Mater. 11, 1017–1022 (2012).

Nature Photon. (1)

H. Chen, J. Hou, S. Zhang, Y. Liang, G. Yang, Y. Yang, L. Yu, Y. Wu, G. Li, “Polymer solar cells with enhanced open-circuit voltage and efficiency,” Nature Photon. 3, 649–653 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. Vanneste, P. Sebbah, “Complexity of two-dimensional quasimodes at the transition from weak scattering to anderson localization,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 041802 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. M. Sigalas, C. M. Soukoulis, C.-T. Chan, D. Turner, “Localization of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional disordered systems,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 8340–8348 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. R. Martins, J. Li, Y. Liu, J. Zhou, T. F. Krauss, “Engineering gratings for light trapping in photovoltaics: The supercell concept,” Phys. Rev. B 86, 041404 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Thermodynamic upper bound on broadband light coupling with photonic structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 173901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

PNAS (1)

Z. Yu, A. Raman, S. Fan, “Fundamental limit of nanophotonic light trapping in solar cells,” PNAS 107, 17491–17496 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells (4)

X. Meng, G. Gomard, O. El Daif, E. Drouard, R. Orobtchouk, A. Kaminski, A. Fave, M. Lemiti, A. Abramov, P. Roca i Cabarrocas, C. Seassal, “Absorbing photonic crystals for silicon thin-film solar cells: Design, fabrication and experimental investigation,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 95(Supp. 1), S32–S38 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Granqvist, “Transparent conductors as solar energy materials: A panoramic review,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 91, 1529–1598 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Krebs, “Fabrication and processing of polymer solar cells: a review of printing and coating techniques,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 93, 394–412 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Andreev, V. A. Grilikhes, V. P. Khvostikov, O. A. Khvostikova, V. D. Rumyantsev, N. A. Sadchikov, M. Z. Shvarts, “Concentrator PV modules and solar cells for TPV systems,” Sol. Energ. Mat. Sol. Cells 84, 317 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

R. A. Street, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (Cambridge University Press, 2005).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the optical setups employed to measure the calibrated absorption of the specimens. In the insets, an electron micrograph of the sample and a 3D sketch of it.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) and (b) Measured and calculated absorption for the bare slab and the full-etched random pad. (c) and (d) Measured and calculated absorption for the bare slab and the shallow-etched random pad. In green the ideal absorption in absence of surface reflection (double-pass absorption)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Total (R, open squares), diffused (Rd, open circles) and directly backscattered reflection (Ro, open triangles) for the full-etched sample. The first is measured a 4 degrees incidence and the second at 0 degree incidence. The latter has been retrieved as difference between the previous two. (b) and (c) Measured absorption enhancement F for s- and p-polarization, respectively, for the full-etched sample in log-scale. (d) Integrated (over the probed spectral range) absorption enhancement iF for s- and p-polarization as a function of angle of incidence.

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