Abstract

A new method of creating a source model of a phosphor-converted white LED is demonstrated. It is based on a simple phosphor model, of which some key parameters have been obtained from measuring the near-field chromatic and luminance characteristics of a complete LED. The accuracy of the model is verified by measurements and simulations on an LED with a ball lens as primary optic.

© 2013 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Sommer, F. Reil, J. R. Krenn, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, H. Hoschopf, F. P. Wenzl, “The impact of light scattering on the radiant flux of phosphor-converted high power white light-emitting diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(15), 2285–2291 (2011).
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2011

2010

2009

N. T. Tran, J. P. You, F. G. Shi, “Effect of phosphor particle size on luminous efficacy of phosphor-converted white LED,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(22), 5145–5150 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo; “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9(1), 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

2005

H. Wu, X. Zhang, C. Guo, J. Xu, M. Wu, Q. Su, “Three-band white light from InGaN-based blue LED chip precoated with green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1160–1162 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2002

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 64(4), 417–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bhat, J. C.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. C.

Y. C. Lo, C. C. Chen, H. Y. Chou, K. Y. Yang, C. C. Sun, “Design of a bike headlamp based on a power white-light-emitting diode,” Opt. Eng. 50(8), 080503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Sun, C. Y. Chen, H. Y. He, C. C. Chen, W. T. Chien, T. X. Lee, T. H. Yang, “Precise optical modeling for silicate-based white LEDs,” Opt. Express 16(24), 20060–20066 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, F.

Chen, S. F.

Chien, W. T.

Chou, H. Y.

Y. C. Lo, C. C. Chen, H. Y. Chou, K. Y. Yang, C. C. Sun, “Design of a bike headlamp based on a power white-light-emitting diode,” Opt. Eng. 50(8), 080503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Collins, D.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fletcher, R. M.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C.

H. Wu, X. Zhang, C. Guo, J. Xu, M. Wu, Q. Su, “Three-band white light from InGaN-based blue LED chip precoated with green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1160–1162 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, P.

He, H. Y.

Hirosaki, N.

Holcomb, M. O.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hoschopf, H.

Hsiao, H. C.

Hu, N. C.

Huang, S. M.

Hung, C. H.

Kimura, N.

Krenn, J. R.

Lee, T. X.

Lee, Y. L.

Liu, S.

S. Wang, K. Wang, F. Chen, S. Liu, “Design of primary optics for LED chip array in road lighting application,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A716–A724 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo; “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9(1), 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo; “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9(1), 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y. C.

Y. C. Lo, C. C. Chen, H. Y. Chou, K. Y. Yang, C. C. Sun, “Design of a bike headlamp based on a power white-light-emitting diode,” Opt. Eng. 50(8), 080503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ludowise, M. J.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo; “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9(1), 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, S. H.

Martin, P. S.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, I.

Ohashi, M.

Omichi, K.

Pachler, P.

Reil, F.

Rudaz, S. L.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sakuma, K.

Schlotter, P.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 64(4), 417–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, R.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 64(4), 417–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, J.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 64(4), 417–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shi, F. G.

Sommer, C.

Steigerwald, D. A.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Su, Q.

H. Wu, X. Zhang, C. Guo, J. Xu, M. Wu, Q. Su, “Three-band white light from InGaN-based blue LED chip precoated with green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1160–1162 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suehiro, T.

Sun, C. C.

Tanaka, D.

Tien, C. H.

Tran, N. T.

Tsao, J. Y.

J. Y. Tsao, “Solid-state lighting: lamps, chips, and materials for tomorrow,” IEEE Circuits & Devices 20(3), 28–37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, K.

S. Wang, K. Wang, F. Chen, S. Liu, “Design of primary optics for LED chip array in road lighting application,” Opt. Express 19(S4Suppl 4), A716–A724 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo; “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9(1), 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

Wenzl, F. P.

Wu, C. C.

Wu, H.

H. Wu, X. Zhang, C. Guo, J. Xu, M. Wu, Q. Su, “Three-band white light from InGaN-based blue LED chip precoated with green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1160–1162 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

H. Wu, X. Zhang, C. Guo, J. Xu, M. Wu, Q. Su, “Three-band white light from InGaN-based blue LED chip precoated with green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1160–1162 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xie, R.-J.

Xu, J.

H. Wu, X. Zhang, C. Guo, J. Xu, M. Wu, Q. Su, “Three-band white light from InGaN-based blue LED chip precoated with green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1160–1162 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

Yang, K. Y.

Y. C. Lo, C. C. Chen, H. Y. Chou, K. Y. Yang, C. C. Sun, “Design of a bike headlamp based on a power white-light-emitting diode,” Opt. Eng. 50(8), 080503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, T. H.

You, J. P.

Zhang, X.

H. Wu, X. Zhang, C. Guo, J. Xu, M. Wu, Q. Su, “Three-band white light from InGaN-based blue LED chip precoated with green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1160–1162 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

P. Schlotter, R. Schmidt, J. Schneider, “Luminescence conversion of blue light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 64(4), 417–418 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Circuits & Devices

J. Y. Tsao, “Solid-state lighting: lamps, chips, and materials for tomorrow,” IEEE Circuits & Devices 20(3), 28–37 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 310–320 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

H. Wu, X. Zhang, C. Guo, J. Xu, M. Wu, Q. Su, “Three-band white light from InGaN-based blue LED chip precoated with green/red phosphors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(6), 1160–1162 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo; “Optical analysis of phosphor’s location for high-power light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 9(1), 65–73 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Eng.

Y. C. Lo, C. C. Chen, H. Y. Chou, K. Y. Yang, C. C. Sun, “Design of a bike headlamp based on a power white-light-emitting diode,” Opt. Eng. 50(8), 080503 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Other

Radiant Zemax Company, http://www.radiantzemax.com/en/products/source-imaging-goniometer/

Radiant Zemax Company, http://www.radiantzemax.com/en/prosource/

A. Zukauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Caska, Introduction to Solid-state Lighting (John Wiley & Sons, 2002).

Philips Lumileds Lighting Company, http://www.philipslumileds.com/products/luxeon-C

LightTools from Synopsys, http://www.opticalres.com/lt/ltprodds_f.html

Intermatix Company, http://www.intematix.com/

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The working principle behind white LEDs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The appearance and structure of the LED used in the study. (a) Actual picture. (b) Optical model. (c) Schematic cross section diagram.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Excitation and emission spectra of phosphor.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The angular distribution of the scattered light for various phosphor particle radii.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Near-field, mid-field and far-field.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Flow chart for white LED modeling.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SIG measurement. (a) Schematic diagram. (b) Actual apparatus.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured and simulated far-field parameters. (a) Averaged spectrum. (b) Intensity distribution. (c) Color coordinate u’. (d) Color coordinate v’.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

The measured and simulated near-field. (a) Luminance along central line. (b) Luminance along dots line. (c) Color coordinate u’ along central line. (d) Color coordinate u’ along dots line. (e) color coordinate v’ along central line. (f) Color coordinate v’ along dots line.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) The LED immersed in a dome. (b) The corresponding optical model. (c) The measured and simulated far-field averaged spectrum. (d) Intensity distribution. (e) Color coordinate u’. (f) Color coordinate v’.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) The LED with a sphere lens. (b) The corresponding optical model. (c) The measured and simulated far-field intensity distribution. (d) Color coordinate u’. (e) Color coordinate v’. (f) Averaged spectrum.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Phosphor radii and densities used to reconstruct the Luxeon C spectrum

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