Abstract

This study experimentally and numerically examines the correlated color temperature (CCT) stability issue for hybrid warm white high-voltage light-emitting diodes (HV-LEDs) by using a current compensation method. This method could efficiently maintain the CCT stability factor at approximately 1.0 and yield greater color uniformity with Δu'v' values ranging from 0.017 to 0.003 in CIE 1976 chromaticity coordinates. The simulation results show that the red chip intensity drop is the primary cause of CCT instability in the hybrid warm white system when the temperature increases. Therefore, Furthermore, results indicate that the relative lumen drop improves from 21% to 15% by using a current compensation method.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012

2011

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A930–A936 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and Droop Improvement in GaN-Based High-Voltage Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, R. Seshadri, “Efficient and Color-Tunable Oxyfluoride Solid Solution Phosphors for Solid-State White Lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Robust thermal performance of Sr(2)Si(5)N(8):Eu(2+): An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 241106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Lee, D. H. Lee, Y. M. Song, Y. T. Lee, J. S. Yu, “Thermal measurements and analysis of AlGaInP/GaInP MQW red LEDs with different chip sizes and substrate thicknesses,” Solid-State Electron. 56(1), 79–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, Y. T. Lee, “Optical Properties of Staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Structures with Ga- and N-Faces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(7), 072101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes with Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT Uniformity of Phosphor Converted White LEDs: Effects of Phosphor Materials and Packaging Structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, N. Tansu, “Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 113110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, “Study of the Excitation Power Dependent Internal Quantum Efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Im, N. N. Fellows, S. P. DenBaars, R. Seshadri, “La1-x-0.025Ce0.025Sr2+xAl1-xSixO5 solid solutions as tunable yellow phosphors for solid state white lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(9), 1325–1330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Won, H. S. Jang, K. W. Cho, Y. S. Song, D. Y. Jeon, H. K. Kwon, “Effect of phosphor geometry on the luminous efficiency of high-power white light-emitting diodes with excellent color rendering property,” Opt. Lett. 34(1), 1–3 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, “Studies of Phosphor Concentration and Thickness for Phosphor-Based White Light-Emitting-Diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(21), 3556–3559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, W. C. Ke, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, R. S. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable orange-yellow Sr(3)(Al(2)O(5))Cl(2): Eu(2+) phosphor for potential application in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs With Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. S. Jang, D. Y. Jeon, “Yellow-emitting Sr3SiO5: Ce3+,Li+ phosphor for white-light-emitting diodes and yellow-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041906 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness INGAN/ALGAN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

D. P. Bour, D. W. Treat, R. L. Thornton, R. S. Geels, D. F. Welch, “Drift leakage current in AlGAInP quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(5), 1337–1343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, Y. T. Lee, “Optical Properties of Staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Structures with Ga- and N-Faces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(7), 072101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arif, R. A.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bagkar, N. C.

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, W. C. Ke, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, R. S. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable orange-yellow Sr(3)(Al(2)O(5))Cl(2): Eu(2+) phosphor for potential application in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biser, J. M.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bour, D. P.

D. P. Bour, D. W. Treat, R. L. Thornton, R. S. Geels, D. F. Welch, “Drift leakage current in AlGAInP quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(5), 1337–1343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brinkley, S.

W. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, R. Seshadri, “Efficient and Color-Tunable Oxyfluoride Solid Solution Phosphors for Solid-State White Lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Brinkley, S. E.

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Robust thermal performance of Sr(2)Si(5)N(8):Eu(2+): An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 241106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. M.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C. Y.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. P.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

Chen, G. L.

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and Droop Improvement in GaN-Based High-Voltage Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. C.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A930–A936 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K. J.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A930–A936 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y. J.

Chi, G. C.

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and Droop Improvement in GaN-Based High-Voltage Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. H.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, “Study of the Excitation Power Dependent Internal Quantum Efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chmelka, B. F.

W. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, R. Seshadri, “Efficient and Color-Tunable Oxyfluoride Solid Solution Phosphors for Solid-State White Lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, K. W.

Choi, B. C.

Choi, Y. S.

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
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S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Robust thermal performance of Sr(2)Si(5)N(8):Eu(2+): An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 241106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
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S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Robust thermal performance of Sr(2)Si(5)N(8):Eu(2+): An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 241106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, R. Seshadri, “Efficient and Color-Tunable Oxyfluoride Solid Solution Phosphors for Solid-State White Lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
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S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Im, N. N. Fellows, S. P. DenBaars, R. Seshadri, “La1-x-0.025Ce0.025Sr2+xAl1-xSixO5 solid solutions as tunable yellow phosphors for solid state white lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(9), 1325–1330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Detchprohm, T.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dierolf, V.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A991–A1007 (2011).
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Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
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Ee, Y.-K.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes with Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Farrell, R. M.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fellows, N. N.

W. Im, N. N. Fellows, S. P. DenBaars, R. Seshadri, “La1-x-0.025Ce0.025Sr2+xAl1-xSixO5 solid solutions as tunable yellow phosphors for solid state white lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(9), 1325–1330 (2009).
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D. P. Bour, D. W. Treat, R. L. Thornton, R. S. Geels, D. F. Welch, “Drift leakage current in AlGAInP quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(5), 1337–1343 (1993).
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W. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, R. Seshadri, “Efficient and Color-Tunable Oxyfluoride Solid Solution Phosphors for Solid-State White Lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gilchrist, J. F.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes with Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, P.

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
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Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT Uniformity of Phosphor Converted White LEDs: Effects of Phosphor Materials and Packaging Structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
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S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Robust thermal performance of Sr(2)Si(5)N(8):Eu(2+): An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 241106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hou, W.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
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Hsu, W. H.

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and Droop Improvement in GaN-Based High-Voltage Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, J.

W. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, R. Seshadri, “Efficient and Color-Tunable Oxyfluoride Solid Solution Phosphors for Solid-State White Lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, S. F.

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, W. C. Ke, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, R. S. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable orange-yellow Sr(3)(Al(2)O(5))Cl(2): Eu(2+) phosphor for potential application in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hung, C. W.

Im, W.

W. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, R. Seshadri, “Efficient and Color-Tunable Oxyfluoride Solid Solution Phosphors for Solid-State White Lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Im, N. N. Fellows, S. P. DenBaars, R. Seshadri, “La1-x-0.025Ce0.025Sr2+xAl1-xSixO5 solid solutions as tunable yellow phosphors for solid state white lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(9), 1325–1330 (2009).
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Jang, H. S.

Jang, K.

Jeon, D. Y.

Jeong, J. H.

Ji, M.

Ke, C. C.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, “Study of the Excitation Power Dependent Internal Quantum Efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ke, W. C.

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, W. C. Ke, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, R. S. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable orange-yellow Sr(3)(Al(2)O(5))Cl(2): Eu(2+) phosphor for potential application in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131114 (2008).
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E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
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Kim, M. H.

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Y.

Ku, P. H.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kumnorkaew, P.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes with Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
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H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A930–A936 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and Droop Improvement in GaN-Based High-Voltage Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, “Study of the Excitation Power Dependent Internal Quantum Efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. T.

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and Droop Improvement in GaN-Based High-Voltage Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kurzman, J.

W. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, R. Seshadri, “Efficient and Color-Tunable Oxyfluoride Solid Solution Phosphors for Solid-State White Lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, H. K.

Lan, Y. P.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. Y.

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and Droop Improvement in GaN-Based High-Voltage Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. H.

H. K. Lee, D. H. Lee, Y. M. Song, Y. T. Lee, J. S. Yu, “Thermal measurements and analysis of AlGaInP/GaInP MQW red LEDs with different chip sizes and substrate thicknesses,” Solid-State Electron. 56(1), 79–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. K.

H. K. Lee, D. H. Lee, Y. M. Song, Y. T. Lee, J. S. Yu, “Thermal measurements and analysis of AlGaInP/GaInP MQW red LEDs with different chip sizes and substrate thicknesses,” Solid-State Electron. 56(1), 79–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. S.

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, “Study of the Excitation Power Dependent Internal Quantum Efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. T.

H. K. Lee, D. H. Lee, Y. M. Song, Y. T. Lee, J. S. Yu, “Thermal measurements and analysis of AlGaInP/GaInP MQW red LEDs with different chip sizes and substrate thicknesses,” Solid-State Electron. 56(1), 79–84 (2011).
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S. H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, Y. T. Lee, “Optical Properties of Staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Structures with Ga- and N-Faces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(7), 072101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leising, G.

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

Li, J. C.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. H.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes with Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. C.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A930–A936 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, W. C. Ke, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, R. S. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable orange-yellow Sr(3)(Al(2)O(5))Cl(2): Eu(2+) phosphor for potential application in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, D. W.

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and Droop Improvement in GaN-Based High-Voltage Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, G. B.

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, P. C.

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, “Study of the Excitation Power Dependent Internal Quantum Efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R. S.

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, W. C. Ke, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, R. S. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable orange-yellow Sr(3)(Al(2)O(5))Cl(2): Eu(2+) phosphor for potential application in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs With Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs With Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. C.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and Droop Improvement in GaN-Based High-Voltage Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, “Study of the Excitation Power Dependent Internal Quantum Efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luo, X.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs With Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matioli, E.

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Meyaard, D. S.

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailovsky, A.

W. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, R. Seshadri, “Efficient and Color-Tunable Oxyfluoride Solid Solution Phosphors for Solid-State White Lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Moon, B. K.

Mukai, T.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness INGAN/ALGAN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Robust thermal performance of Sr(2)Si(5)N(8):Eu(2+): An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 241106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness INGAN/ALGAN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ntwaeaborwa, O. M.

Pachler, P.

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, Y. T. Lee, “Optical Properties of Staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Structures with Ga- and N-Faces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(7), 072101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. H.

S. H. Park, D. Ahn, J. Park, Y. T. Lee, “Optical Properties of Staggered InGaN/InGaN/GaN Quantum-Well Structures with Ga- and N-Faces,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 50(7), 072101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pfaff, N.

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Robust thermal performance of Sr(2)Si(5)N(8):Eu(2+): An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 241106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pimputkar, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Poplawsky, J. D.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rangel, E.

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308(5726), 1274–1278 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schweighart, M.

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, M.

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness INGAN/ALGAN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Seshadri, R.

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Robust thermal performance of Sr(2)Si(5)N(8):Eu(2+): An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 241106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, R. Seshadri, “Efficient and Color-Tunable Oxyfluoride Solid Solution Phosphors for Solid-State White Lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Im, N. N. Fellows, S. P. DenBaars, R. Seshadri, “La1-x-0.025Ce0.025Sr2+xAl1-xSixO5 solid solutions as tunable yellow phosphors for solid state white lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. 19(9), 1325–1330 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shaat, S. K. K.

Shan, Q.

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sher, C. W.

Shi, F. G.

Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT Uniformity of Phosphor Converted White LEDs: Effects of Phosphor Materials and Packaging Structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, “Studies of Phosphor Concentration and Thickness for Phosphor-Based White Light-Emitting-Diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(21), 3556–3559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M. H.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shim, H.

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shuai, Y.

Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT Uniformity of Phosphor Converted White LEDs: Effects of Phosphor Materials and Packaging Structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sommer, C.

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, R.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes with Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. M.

H. K. Lee, D. H. Lee, Y. M. Song, Y. T. Lee, J. S. Yu, “Thermal measurements and analysis of AlGaInP/GaInP MQW red LEDs with different chip sizes and substrate thicknesses,” Solid-State Electron. 56(1), 79–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. S.

Speck, J. S.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–181 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Swart, H. C.

Tamura, N.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Y. S.

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, W. C. Ke, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, R. S. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable orange-yellow Sr(3)(Al(2)O(5))Cl(2): Eu(2+) phosphor for potential application in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, Y.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

X. H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. F. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light Extraction Efficiency and Radiation Patterns of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes with Colloidal Microlens Arrays With Various Aspect Ratios,” IEEE Photonics J. 3(3), 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, N. Tansu, “Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 113110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tasch, S.

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thornton, R. L.

D. P. Bour, D. W. Treat, R. L. Thornton, R. S. Geels, D. F. Welch, “Drift leakage current in AlGAInP quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(5), 1337–1343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tran, N. T.

Y. Shuai, Y. He, N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, “Angular CCT Uniformity of Phosphor Converted White LEDs: Effects of Phosphor Materials and Packaging Structures,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(3), 137–139 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. T. Tran, F. G. Shi, “Studies of Phosphor Concentration and Thickness for Phosphor-Based White Light-Emitting-Diodes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 26(21), 3556–3559 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Treat, D. W.

D. P. Bour, D. W. Treat, R. L. Thornton, R. S. Geels, D. F. Welch, “Drift leakage current in AlGAInP quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(5), 1337–1343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, H. H.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsai, M. A.

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and Droop Improvement in GaN-Based High-Voltage Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vinci, R. P.

Y. K. Ee, J. M. Biser, W. Cao, H. M. Chan, R. P. Vinci, N. Tansu, “Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy of III-Nitride Light-Emitting Diodes on Nanopatterned AGOG Sapphire Substrate by Abbreviated Growth Mode,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1066–1072 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, B.

Wang, C. H.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and Droop Improvement in GaN-Based High-Voltage Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A930–A936 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, K.

Z. Liu, S. Liu, K. Wang, X. Luo, “Optical Analysis of Color Distribution in White LEDs With Various Packaging Methods,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(24), 2027–2029 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wang, D. W. Lin, C. Y. Lee, M. A. Tsai, G. L. Chen, H. T. Kuo, W. H. Hsu, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, G. C. Chi, “Efficiency and Droop Improvement in GaN-Based High-Voltage Light-Emitting Diodes,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(8), 1098–1100 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Lee, C. H. Chiu, C. C. Ke, P. C. Lin, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, “Study of the Excitation Power Dependent Internal Quantum Efficiency in InGaN/GaN LEDs Grown on Patterned Sapphire Substrate,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1137–1143 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weisbuch, C.

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Welch, D. F.

D. P. Bour, D. W. Treat, R. L. Thornton, R. S. Geels, D. F. Welch, “Drift leakage current in AlGAInP quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29(5), 1337–1343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wenzl, F. P.

C. Sommer, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, F. P. Wenzl, “A detailed study on the requirements for angular homogeneity of phosphor converted high power white LED light sources,” Opt. Mater. 31(6), 837–848 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Sommer, F. P. Wenzl, P. Hartmann, P. Pachler, M. Schweighart, S. Tasch, G. Leising, “Tailoring of the color conversion elements in phosphor-converted high-power LEDs by optical simulations,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 739–741 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, C.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Won, Y. H.

Wu, F.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L.

Xu, J.

Yang, H. C.

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. K.

Yeh, C. C.

H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. C. Lin, C. C. Yeh, H. H. Tsai, M. H. Shih, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, “A novel randomly textured phosphor structure for highly efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 188 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. C. Kuo, C. W. Hung, H. C. Chen, K. J. Chen, C. H. Wang, C. W. Sher, C. C. Yeh, C. C. Lin, C. H. Chen, Y. J. Cheng, “Patterned structure of remote phosphor for phosphor-converted white LEDs,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A930–A936 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yi, S. S.

You, S.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Young, E. C.

R. M. Farrell, E. C. Young, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, J. S. Speck, “Materials and growth issues for high-performance nonpolar and semipolar light-emitting devices,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27(2), 024001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. S.

H. K. Lee, D. H. Lee, Y. M. Song, Y. T. Lee, J. S. Yu, “Thermal measurements and analysis of AlGaInP/GaInP MQW red LEDs with different chip sizes and substrate thicknesses,” Solid-State Electron. 56(1), 79–84 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhang, Z.

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Robust thermal performance of Sr(2)Si(5)N(8):Eu(2+): An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 241106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, H.

H. Zhao, G. Liu, J. Zhang, J. D. Poplawsky, V. Dierolf, N. Tansu, “Approaches for high internal quantum efficiency green InGaN light-emitting diodes with large overlap quantum wells,” Opt. Express 19(S4), A991–A1007 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhao, G. Liu, R. A. Arif, N. Tansu, “Current injection efficiency induced efficiency-droop in InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 54(10), 1119–1124 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhao, N. Tansu, “Optical gain characteristics of staggered InGaN quantum wells lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(11), 113110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

W. Im, N. George, J. Kurzman, S. Brinkley, A. Mikhailovsky, J. Hu, B. F. Chmelka, S. P. DenBaars, R. Seshadri, “Efficient and Color-Tunable Oxyfluoride Solid Solution Phosphors for Solid-State White Lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 23(20), 2300–2305 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. E. Brinkley, N. Pfaff, K. A. Denault, Z. Zhang, H. T. Hintzen, R. Seshadri, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, “Robust thermal performance of Sr(2)Si(5)N(8):Eu(2+): An efficient red emitting phosphor for light emitting diode based white lighting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(24), 241106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Tang, S. F. Hu, W. C. Ke, C. C. Lin, N. C. Bagkar, R. S. Liu, “Near-ultraviolet excitable orange-yellow Sr(3)(Al(2)O(5))Cl(2): Eu(2+) phosphor for potential application in light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 131114 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakamura, T. Mukai, M. Senoh, “Candela-class high-brightness INGAN/ALGAN double-heterostructure blue-light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64(13), 1687–1689 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Wang, S. P. Chang, P. H. Ku, J. C. Li, Y. P. Lan, C. C. Lin, H. C. Yang, H. C. Kuo, T. C. Lu, S. C. Wang, C. Y. Chang, “Hole transport improvement in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes by graded-composition multiple quantum barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(17), 171106 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. Rangel, E. Matioli, Y. S. Choi, C. Weisbuch, J. S. Speck, E. L. Hu, “Directionality control through selective excitation of low-order guided modes in thin-film InGaN photonic crystal light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Meyaard, G. B. Lin, Q. Shan, J. Cho, E. F. Schubert, H. Shim, M. H. Kim, C. Sone, “Asymmetry of carrier transport leading to efficiency droop in GaInN based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(25), 251115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, S. You, M. Zhu, L. Zhao, W. Hou, T. Detchprohm, Y. Taniguchi, N. Tamura, S. Tanaka, C. Wetzel, “Defect-reduced green GaInN/GaN light-emitting diode on nanopatterned sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(15), 151102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temperature-dependent emission spectra of the hybrid warm white HV-LEDs. The inset shows the sample for the hybrid warm white HV-LEDs.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The simulation spectra with different peak wavelengths of red chip. The inset shows the simulation results on CCT with different peak wavelength of red chip (b) The simulation spectrums with different red chip intensity. The inset shows the simulation result on CCT with different red chip intensity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The CCT Stability Factor of with and without current compensation at different ambient temperature

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The relative lumen drop (b) luminous efficiency with and without current compensation at different ambient temperature

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) CIE 1976 chromaticity indices versus various ambient temperatures with and without current compensation (b) Delta Δ u ' v ' of the two samples at various ambient temperatures.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Peak wavelength and intensity drop at each temperature

Tables Icon

Table 2 The compensated current in red chip at different ambient temperatures

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

u ' = 4 x / ( 2 x + 12 y + 3 )
v ' = 9 y / ( 2 x + 12 y + 3 )
Δ u ' v ' = ( Δ u ' ) 2 + ( Δ v ' ) 2

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