Abstract

The development of backside reflectors (BSRs) is crucial for the efficiency of future low cost thin-film silicon solar cells. In this work, the scattering efficiency of bare aluminum BSRs with different pore sizes and ordering of surface microstructures are investigated. The BSRs were fabricated by utilizing the process of self-ordering anodic oxidation on aluminum foils resulting in regions with an approximately hexagonally periodic surface microstructure. It was found that the total and diffuse light scattering reflectance spectra showed opposite tendencies when increasing the pore size of the microstructures. When the pore size was increased to 700 nm, more than 68% of the incident light with wavelengths from 250 nm to 800 nm was reflected by scattering. For a similar geometry, except that it had less ordering, this number was increased to around 80%. This large fraction of reflected light observed in the form of scattering is promising for the use of the considered geometries as BSRs in thin-film silicon solar cells.

© 2012 OSA

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2012 (3)

Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat Commun 3, 664 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yue, B. Yan, L. Sivec, Y. Zhou, J. Yang, S. Guha, “Effect of impurities on performance of hydrogenated nanocrystalline solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 104, 109–112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, J. Escarré, C. Pahud, R. Biron, C. Ballif, “Highly reflective nanotextured sputtered silver back reflector for flexible high-efficiency n-i-p thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3585–3591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Liu, C. H. Chen, S. Y. Chen, Y. T. Yen, W. C. Kuo, Y. K. Liao, J. Y. Juang, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lai, L. J. Chen, Y. L. Chueh, “Large scale single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high efficiency solar cell,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4443–4448 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

S. E. Han, G. Chen, “Toward the Lambertian limit of light trapping in thin nanostructured silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4692–4696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. C. Garnett, P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(3), 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Boccard, P. Cuony, C. Battaglia, M. Despeisse, C. Ballif, “Unlinking absorption and haze in thin film silicon solar cells front electrodes,” Phys. stat. sol. RRL 4, 326–328 (2010).

2009 (4)

H. Sai, M. Kondo, “Effect of self-orderly textured back reflectors on light trapping in thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 094511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 884–887 (2009).
[CrossRef]

B. Weintraub, Y. Wei, Z. L. Wang, “Optical fiber/nanowire hybrid structures for efficient three-dimensional dye-sensitized solar cells,” Chem., Int. Ed. 48(47), 8981–8985 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Z. Chu, K. Wada, S. Inoue, M. Isogai, Y. Katsuta, A. Yasumori, “Large-scale fabrication of ordered nanoporous alumina films with arbitrary pore intervals by critical-potential anodization,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(9), B384–B391 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

S. Z. Chu, S. Inoue, K. Wada, S. Hishita, K. Kurashima, “Self-organized nanoporous anodic titania films and ordered titania nanodots/nanorods on Glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(8), 1343–1349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Saito, M. Sano, S. Okabe, S. Sugiyama, K. Ogawa, “Microcrystalline silicon solar cells fabricated by VHF plasma CVD method,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 86(4), 565–575 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

A. Takano, M. Uno, M. Tanda, S. Iwasaki, H. Tanaka, J. Yasuda, T. Kamoshita, “Highly textured silver electrode deposition using roll-to-roll low-temperature sputtering process,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L277–L279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. Matsumoto, K. Nishio, H. Masuda, “Flow-through-type DNA array based on ideally ordered anodic porous alumina substrate,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(23-24), 2105–2108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

S. Z. Chu, K. Wada, S. Inoue, S. I. Todoroki, Y. K. Takahashi, K. Hono, “Fabrication and characteristics of ordered Ni nanostructures on glass by anodization and direct current electrodeposition,” Chem. Mater. 14(11), 4595–4602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Sander, A. L. Prieto, R. Gronsky, T. Sands, A. M. Stacy, “Fabrication of high-density, high aspect ratio, large-area bismuth telluride nanowire arrays by electrodeposition into porous anodic alumina templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(9), 665–667 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

C. R. Martin, G. Che, B. B. Lakshmi, E. R. Fisher, “Metal-nanocluster-filled carbon nanotubes: catalytic properties and possible applications in electrochemical energy storage and production,” Nature 393(6683), 346–349 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Masuda, K. Yada, A. Osaka, “Self-ordering of cell configuration of anodicporous alumina with large-size pores in phosphoric acid solution,” Jpn. J. Physiol. 37(Part 2, No. 11A), L1340–L1342 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

H. Masuda, F. Hasegwa, S. Ono, “Self‐ordering of cell arrangement of anodic porous alumina formed in sulfuric-acid-solution,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144(5), L127–L130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

H. Masuda, K. Fukuda, “Ordered metal nanohole arrays made by a two-step replication of honeycomb structures of anodic alumina,” Science 268(5216), 1466–1468 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kikuta, H. Yoshida, K. Iwata, “Ability and limitation of effective medium theory for subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Rev. 2(2), 92–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Heine, R. H. Morf, “Submicrometer gratings for solar energy applications,” Appl. Opt. 34(14), 2476–2482 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

T. M. Whitney, P. C. Searson, J. S. Jiang, C. L. Chien, “Fabrication and magnetic properties of arrays of metallic nanowires,” Science 261(5126), 1316–1319 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

K. Sato, Y. Gotoh, Y. Wakayama, Y. Hayashi, K. Adachi, H. Nishimura, “Highly textured SnO2:F TCO films for a-Si solar cells,” Rep. Res. Lab. Asahi Glass Co. Ltd. 42, 129–137 (1992).

1989 (1)

R. C. Furneaux, W. R. Rigby, A. P. Davidson, “The formation of controlled-porosity membranes from anodically oxidized aluminium,” Nature 337(6203), 147–149 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

H. Ehrenreich, H. R. Philipp, B. Segall, “Optical properties of aluminum,” Phys. Rev. 132(5), 1918–1928 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Adachi, K.

K. Sato, Y. Gotoh, Y. Wakayama, Y. Hayashi, K. Adachi, H. Nishimura, “Highly textured SnO2:F TCO films for a-Si solar cells,” Rep. Res. Lab. Asahi Glass Co. Ltd. 42, 129–137 (1992).

Alamariu, B. A.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, D. T. L.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Ballif, C.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, J. Escarré, C. Pahud, R. Biron, C. Ballif, “Highly reflective nanotextured sputtered silver back reflector for flexible high-efficiency n-i-p thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3585–3591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Boccard, P. Cuony, C. Battaglia, M. Despeisse, C. Ballif, “Unlinking absorption and haze in thin film silicon solar cells front electrodes,” Phys. stat. sol. RRL 4, 326–328 (2010).

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 884–887 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Battaglia, C.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Boccard, P. Cuony, C. Battaglia, M. Despeisse, C. Ballif, “Unlinking absorption and haze in thin film silicon solar cells front electrodes,” Phys. stat. sol. RRL 4, 326–328 (2010).

Biron, R.

K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, J. Escarré, C. Pahud, R. Biron, C. Ballif, “Highly reflective nanotextured sputtered silver back reflector for flexible high-efficiency n-i-p thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3585–3591 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Boccard, M.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Boccard, P. Cuony, C. Battaglia, M. Despeisse, C. Ballif, “Unlinking absorption and haze in thin film silicon solar cells front electrodes,” Phys. stat. sol. RRL 4, 326–328 (2010).

Boettcher, S. W.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Briggs, R. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

Burkhard, G. F.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cantoni, M.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charrière, M.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Che, G.

C. R. Martin, G. Che, B. B. Lakshmi, E. R. Fisher, “Metal-nanocluster-filled carbon nanotubes: catalytic properties and possible applications in electrochemical energy storage and production,” Nature 393(6683), 346–349 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Liu, C. H. Chen, S. Y. Chen, Y. T. Yen, W. C. Kuo, Y. K. Liao, J. Y. Juang, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lai, L. J. Chen, Y. L. Chueh, “Large scale single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high efficiency solar cell,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4443–4448 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

S. E. Han, G. Chen, “Toward the Lambertian limit of light trapping in thin nanostructured silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10(11), 4692–4696 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L. J.

C. H. Liu, C. H. Chen, S. Y. Chen, Y. T. Yen, W. C. Kuo, Y. K. Liao, J. Y. Juang, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lai, L. J. Chen, Y. L. Chueh, “Large scale single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high efficiency solar cell,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4443–4448 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
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A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001).
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C. R. Martin, G. Che, B. B. Lakshmi, E. R. Fisher, “Metal-nanocluster-filled carbon nanotubes: catalytic properties and possible applications in electrochemical energy storage and production,” Nature 393(6683), 346–349 (1998).
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Fujiwara, H.

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
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R. C. Furneaux, W. R. Rigby, A. P. Davidson, “The formation of controlled-porosity membranes from anodically oxidized aluminium,” Nature 337(6203), 147–149 (1989).
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M. S. Sander, A. L. Prieto, R. Gronsky, T. Sands, A. M. Stacy, “Fabrication of high-density, high aspect ratio, large-area bismuth telluride nanowire arrays by electrodeposition into porous anodic alumina templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(9), 665–667 (2002).
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H. Masuda, F. Hasegwa, S. Ono, “Self‐ordering of cell arrangement of anodic porous alumina formed in sulfuric-acid-solution,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144(5), L127–L130 (1997).
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Haug, F.-J.

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, J. Escarré, C. Pahud, R. Biron, C. Ballif, “Highly reflective nanotextured sputtered silver back reflector for flexible high-efficiency n-i-p thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3585–3591 (2011).
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Heine, C.

Hishita, S.

S. Z. Chu, S. Inoue, K. Wada, S. Hishita, K. Kurashima, “Self-organized nanoporous anodic titania films and ordered titania nanodots/nanorods on Glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(8), 1343–1349 (2005).
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L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
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S. Z. Chu, K. Wada, S. Inoue, S. I. Todoroki, Y. K. Takahashi, K. Hono, “Fabrication and characteristics of ordered Ni nanostructures on glass by anodization and direct current electrodeposition,” Chem. Mater. 14(11), 4595–4602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C. M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
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C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
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S. Z. Chu, K. Wada, S. Inoue, M. Isogai, Y. Katsuta, A. Yasumori, “Large-scale fabrication of ordered nanoporous alumina films with arbitrary pore intervals by critical-potential anodization,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(9), B384–B391 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Z. Chu, S. Inoue, K. Wada, S. Hishita, K. Kurashima, “Self-organized nanoporous anodic titania films and ordered titania nanodots/nanorods on Glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(8), 1343–1349 (2005).
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S. Z. Chu, K. Wada, S. Inoue, S. I. Todoroki, Y. K. Takahashi, K. Hono, “Fabrication and characteristics of ordered Ni nanostructures on glass by anodization and direct current electrodeposition,” Chem. Mater. 14(11), 4595–4602 (2002).
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A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001).
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S. Z. Chu, K. Wada, S. Inoue, M. Isogai, Y. Katsuta, A. Yasumori, “Large-scale fabrication of ordered nanoporous alumina films with arbitrary pore intervals by critical-potential anodization,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(9), B384–B391 (2006).
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Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Javey, A.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
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T. M. Whitney, P. C. Searson, J. S. Jiang, C. L. Chien, “Fabrication and magnetic properties of arrays of metallic nanowires,” Science 261(5126), 1316–1319 (1993).
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A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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C. H. Liu, C. H. Chen, S. Y. Chen, Y. T. Yen, W. C. Kuo, Y. K. Liao, J. Y. Juang, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lai, L. J. Chen, Y. L. Chueh, “Large scale single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high efficiency solar cell,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4443–4448 (2011).
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A. Takano, M. Uno, M. Tanda, S. Iwasaki, H. Tanaka, J. Yasuda, T. Kamoshita, “Highly textured silver electrode deposition using roll-to-roll low-temperature sputtering process,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L277–L279 (2004).
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Kanamori, Y.

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
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Kapadia, R.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
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S. Z. Chu, K. Wada, S. Inoue, M. Isogai, Y. Katsuta, A. Yasumori, “Large-scale fabrication of ordered nanoporous alumina films with arbitrary pore intervals by critical-potential anodization,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(9), B384–B391 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
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H. Kikuta, H. Yoshida, K. Iwata, “Ability and limitation of effective medium theory for subwavelength gratings,” Opt. Rev. 2(2), 92–99 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziejski, L. A.

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001).
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H. Sai, M. Kondo, “Effect of self-orderly textured back reflectors on light trapping in thin-film microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(9), 094511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

C. H. Liu, C. H. Chen, S. Y. Chen, Y. T. Yen, W. C. Kuo, Y. K. Liao, J. Y. Juang, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lai, L. J. Chen, Y. L. Chueh, “Large scale single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high efficiency solar cell,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4443–4448 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuo, W. C.

C. H. Liu, C. H. Chen, S. Y. Chen, Y. T. Yen, W. C. Kuo, Y. K. Liao, J. Y. Juang, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lai, L. J. Chen, Y. L. Chueh, “Large scale single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high efficiency solar cell,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4443–4448 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurashima, K.

S. Z. Chu, S. Inoue, K. Wada, S. Hishita, K. Kurashima, “Self-organized nanoporous anodic titania films and ordered titania nanodots/nanorods on Glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(8), 1343–1349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lai, C. H.

C. H. Liu, C. H. Chen, S. Y. Chen, Y. T. Yen, W. C. Kuo, Y. K. Liao, J. Y. Juang, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lai, L. J. Chen, Y. L. Chueh, “Large scale single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high efficiency solar cell,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4443–4448 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakshmi, B. B.

C. R. Martin, G. Che, B. B. Lakshmi, E. R. Fisher, “Metal-nanocluster-filled carbon nanotubes: catalytic properties and possible applications in electrochemical energy storage and production,” Nature 393(6683), 346–349 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leu, P. W.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, N. S.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
[PubMed]

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C. H. Liu, C. H. Chen, S. Y. Chen, Y. T. Yen, W. C. Kuo, Y. K. Liao, J. Y. Juang, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lai, L. J. Chen, Y. L. Chueh, “Large scale single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high efficiency solar cell,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4443–4448 (2011).
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C. H. Liu, C. H. Chen, S. Y. Chen, Y. T. Yen, W. C. Kuo, Y. K. Liao, J. Y. Juang, H. C. Kuo, C. H. Lai, L. J. Chen, Y. L. Chueh, “Large scale single-crystal Cu(In,Ga)Se2 nanotip arrays for high efficiency solar cell,” Nano Lett. 11(10), 4443–4448 (2011).
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Liu, J.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, C. R.

C. R. Martin, G. Che, B. B. Lakshmi, E. R. Fisher, “Metal-nanocluster-filled carbon nanotubes: catalytic properties and possible applications in electrochemical energy storage and production,” Nature 393(6683), 346–349 (1998).
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Masuda, H.

F. Matsumoto, K. Nishio, H. Masuda, “Flow-through-type DNA array based on ideally ordered anodic porous alumina substrate,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(23-24), 2105–2108 (2004).
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H. Masuda, K. Yada, A. Osaka, “Self-ordering of cell configuration of anodicporous alumina with large-size pores in phosphoric acid solution,” Jpn. J. Physiol. 37(Part 2, No. 11A), L1340–L1342 (1998).
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H. Masuda, F. Hasegwa, S. Ono, “Self‐ordering of cell arrangement of anodic porous alumina formed in sulfuric-acid-solution,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144(5), L127–L130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Masuda, K. Fukuda, “Ordered metal nanohole arrays made by a two-step replication of honeycomb structures of anodic alumina,” Science 268(5216), 1466–1468 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsumoto, F.

F. Matsumoto, K. Nishio, H. Masuda, “Flow-through-type DNA array based on ideally ordered anodic porous alumina substrate,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(23-24), 2105–2108 (2004).
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McGehee, M.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morf, R. H.

Narasimhan, V. K.

Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat Commun 3, 664 (2012).
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F. Matsumoto, K. Nishio, H. Masuda, “Flow-through-type DNA array based on ideally ordered anodic porous alumina substrate,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(23-24), 2105–2108 (2004).
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K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, J. Escarré, C. Pahud, R. Biron, C. Ballif, “Highly reflective nanotextured sputtered silver back reflector for flexible high-efficiency n-i-p thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3585–3591 (2011).
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A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001).
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M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
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M. S. Sander, A. L. Prieto, R. Gronsky, T. Sands, A. M. Stacy, “Fabrication of high-density, high aspect ratio, large-area bismuth telluride nanowire arrays by electrodeposition into porous anodic alumina templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(9), 665–667 (2002).
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M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
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F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 884–887 (2009).
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A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001).
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Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
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Ruan, Z.

Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat Commun 3, 664 (2012).
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Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
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K. Saito, M. Sano, S. Okabe, S. Sugiyama, K. Ogawa, “Microcrystalline silicon solar cells fabricated by VHF plasma CVD method,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 86(4), 565–575 (2005).
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M. S. Sander, A. L. Prieto, R. Gronsky, T. Sands, A. M. Stacy, “Fabrication of high-density, high aspect ratio, large-area bismuth telluride nanowire arrays by electrodeposition into porous anodic alumina templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(9), 665–667 (2002).
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M. S. Sander, A. L. Prieto, R. Gronsky, T. Sands, A. M. Stacy, “Fabrication of high-density, high aspect ratio, large-area bismuth telluride nanowire arrays by electrodeposition into porous anodic alumina templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(9), 665–667 (2002).
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K. Saito, M. Sano, S. Okabe, S. Sugiyama, K. Ogawa, “Microcrystalline silicon solar cells fabricated by VHF plasma CVD method,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 86(4), 565–575 (2005).
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K. Sato, Y. Gotoh, Y. Wakayama, Y. Hayashi, K. Adachi, H. Nishimura, “Highly textured SnO2:F TCO films for a-Si solar cells,” Rep. Res. Lab. Asahi Glass Co. Ltd. 42, 129–137 (1992).

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T. M. Whitney, P. C. Searson, J. S. Jiang, C. L. Chien, “Fabrication and magnetic properties of arrays of metallic nanowires,” Science 261(5126), 1316–1319 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segall, B.

H. Ehrenreich, H. R. Philipp, B. Segall, “Optical properties of aluminum,” Phys. Rev. 132(5), 1918–1928 (1963).
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G. Yue, B. Yan, L. Sivec, Y. Zhou, J. Yang, S. Guha, “Effect of impurities on performance of hydrogenated nanocrystalline solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 104, 109–112 (2012).
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C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
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K. Söderström, F.-J. Haug, J. Escarré, C. Pahud, R. Biron, C. Ballif, “Highly reflective nanotextured sputtered silver back reflector for flexible high-efficiency n-i-p thin-film silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 95(12), 3585–3591 (2011).
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Söderström, T.

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 884–887 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Spurgeon, J. M.

M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
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Stacy, A. M.

M. S. Sander, A. L. Prieto, R. Gronsky, T. Sands, A. M. Stacy, “Fabrication of high-density, high aspect ratio, large-area bismuth telluride nanowire arrays by electrodeposition into porous anodic alumina templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(9), 665–667 (2002).
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Sugiyama, S.

K. Saito, M. Sano, S. Okabe, S. Sugiyama, K. Ogawa, “Microcrystalline silicon solar cells fabricated by VHF plasma CVD method,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 86(4), 565–575 (2005).
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A. Takano, M. Uno, M. Tanda, S. Iwasaki, H. Tanaka, J. Yasuda, T. Kamoshita, “Highly textured silver electrode deposition using roll-to-roll low-temperature sputtering process,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L277–L279 (2004).
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A. Takano, M. Uno, M. Tanda, S. Iwasaki, H. Tanaka, J. Yasuda, T. Kamoshita, “Highly textured silver electrode deposition using roll-to-roll low-temperature sputtering process,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L277–L279 (2004).
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Terrazzoni-Daudrix, V.

F.-J. Haug, T. Söderström, M. Python, V. Terrazzoni-Daudrix, X. Niquille, C. Ballif, “Development of micromorph tandem solar cells on flexible low-cost plastic substrates,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 93(6-7), 884–887 (2009).
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S. Z. Chu, K. Wada, S. Inoue, S. I. Todoroki, Y. K. Takahashi, K. Hono, “Fabrication and characteristics of ordered Ni nanostructures on glass by anodization and direct current electrodeposition,” Chem. Mater. 14(11), 4595–4602 (2002).
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M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
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A. Takano, M. Uno, M. Tanda, S. Iwasaki, H. Tanaka, J. Yasuda, T. Kamoshita, “Highly textured silver electrode deposition using roll-to-roll low-temperature sputtering process,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L277–L279 (2004).
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S. Z. Chu, K. Wada, S. Inoue, M. Isogai, Y. Katsuta, A. Yasumori, “Large-scale fabrication of ordered nanoporous alumina films with arbitrary pore intervals by critical-potential anodization,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(9), B384–B391 (2006).
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S. Z. Chu, K. Wada, S. Inoue, S. I. Todoroki, Y. K. Takahashi, K. Hono, “Fabrication and characteristics of ordered Ni nanostructures on glass by anodization and direct current electrodeposition,” Chem. Mater. 14(11), 4595–4602 (2002).
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K. Sato, Y. Gotoh, Y. Wakayama, Y. Hayashi, K. Adachi, H. Nishimura, “Highly textured SnO2:F TCO films for a-Si solar cells,” Rep. Res. Lab. Asahi Glass Co. Ltd. 42, 129–137 (1992).

Wang, Q.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
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B. Weintraub, Y. Wei, Z. L. Wang, “Optical fiber/nanowire hybrid structures for efficient three-dimensional dye-sensitized solar cells,” Chem., Int. Ed. 48(47), 8981–8985 (2009).
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M. D. Kelzenberg, S. W. Boettcher, J. A. Petykiewicz, D. B. Turner-Evans, M. C. Putnam, E. L. Warren, J. M. Spurgeon, R. M. Briggs, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, “Enhanced absorption and carrier collection in Si wire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 239–244 (2010).
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B. Weintraub, Y. Wei, Z. L. Wang, “Optical fiber/nanowire hybrid structures for efficient three-dimensional dye-sensitized solar cells,” Chem., Int. Ed. 48(47), 8981–8985 (2009).
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B. Weintraub, Y. Wei, Z. L. Wang, “Optical fiber/nanowire hybrid structures for efficient three-dimensional dye-sensitized solar cells,” Chem., Int. Ed. 48(47), 8981–8985 (2009).
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T. M. Whitney, P. C. Searson, J. S. Jiang, C. L. Chien, “Fabrication and magnetic properties of arrays of metallic nanowires,” Science 261(5126), 1316–1319 (1993).
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Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
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Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat Commun 3, 664 (2012).
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J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Masuda, K. Yada, A. Osaka, “Self-ordering of cell configuration of anodicporous alumina with large-size pores in phosphoric acid solution,” Jpn. J. Physiol. 37(Part 2, No. 11A), L1340–L1342 (1998).
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G. Yue, B. Yan, L. Sivec, Y. Zhou, J. Yang, S. Guha, “Effect of impurities on performance of hydrogenated nanocrystalline solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 104, 109–112 (2012).
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G. Yue, B. Yan, L. Sivec, Y. Zhou, J. Yang, S. Guha, “Effect of impurities on performance of hydrogenated nanocrystalline solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 104, 109–112 (2012).
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Y. Yao, J. Yao, V. K. Narasimhan, Z. Ruan, C. Xie, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Broadband light management using low-Q whispering gallery modes in spherical nanoshells,” Nat Commun 3, 664 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Takano, M. Uno, M. Tanda, S. Iwasaki, H. Tanaka, J. Yasuda, T. Kamoshita, “Highly textured silver electrode deposition using roll-to-roll low-temperature sputtering process,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(No. 2B), L277–L279 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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S. Z. Chu, K. Wada, S. Inoue, M. Isogai, Y. Katsuta, A. Yasumori, “Large-scale fabrication of ordered nanoporous alumina films with arbitrary pore intervals by critical-potential anodization,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 153(9), B384–B391 (2006).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Z.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yue, G.

G. Yue, B. Yan, L. Sivec, Y. Zhou, J. Yang, S. Guha, “Effect of impurities on performance of hydrogenated nanocrystalline solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 104, 109–112 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, L.

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
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Zhang, X.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10(10), 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

G. Yue, B. Yan, L. Sivec, Y. Zhou, J. Yang, S. Guha, “Effect of impurities on performance of hydrogenated nanocrystalline solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 104, 109–112 (2012).
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Zhu, J.

J. Zhu, Z. Yu, G. F. Burkhard, C. M. Hsu, S. T. Connor, Y. Xu, Q. Wang, M. McGehee, S. Fan, Y. Cui, “Optical absorption enhancement in amorphous silicon nanowire and nanocone arrays,” Nano Lett. 9(1), 279–282 (2009).
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ACS Nano (1)

C. Battaglia, C.-M. Hsu, K. Söderström, J. Escarré, F.-J. Haug, M. Charrière, M. Boccard, M. Despeisse, D. T. L. Alexander, M. Cantoni, Y. Cui, C. Ballif, “Light trapping in solar cells: can periodic beat random?” ACS Nano 6(3), 2790–2797 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

S. Z. Chu, S. Inoue, K. Wada, S. Hishita, K. Kurashima, “Self-organized nanoporous anodic titania films and ordered titania nanodots/nanorods on Glass,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(8), 1343–1349 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (2)

M. S. Sander, A. L. Prieto, R. Gronsky, T. Sands, A. M. Stacy, “Fabrication of high-density, high aspect ratio, large-area bismuth telluride nanowire arrays by electrodeposition into porous anodic alumina templates,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 14(9), 665–667 (2002).
[CrossRef]

F. Matsumoto, K. Nishio, H. Masuda, “Flow-through-type DNA array based on ideally ordered anodic porous alumina substrate,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(23-24), 2105–2108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

A. A. Erchak, D. J. Ripin, S. Fan, P. Rakich, J. D. Joannopoulos, E. P. Ippen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, “Enhanced coupling to vertical radiation using a two-dimensional photonic crystal in a semiconductor light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(5), 563–565 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Sai, H. Fujiwara, M. Kondo, Y. Kanamori, “Enhancement of light trapping in thin-film hydrogenated microcrystalline Si solar cells using back reflectors with self-ordered dimple pattern,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(14), 143501 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Zeng, Y. Yi, C. Hong, J. Liu, N. Feng, X. Duan, L. C. Kimerling, B. A. Alamariu, “Efficiency enhancement in Si solar cells by textured photonic crystal back reflector,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(11), 111111 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

S. Z. Chu, K. Wada, S. Inoue, S. I. Todoroki, Y. K. Takahashi, K. Hono, “Fabrication and characteristics of ordered Ni nanostructures on glass by anodization and direct current electrodeposition,” Chem. Mater. 14(11), 4595–4602 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chem., Int. Ed. (1)

B. Weintraub, Y. Wei, Z. L. Wang, “Optical fiber/nanowire hybrid structures for efficient three-dimensional dye-sensitized solar cells,” Chem., Int. Ed. 48(47), 8981–8985 (2009).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photographs of four Al BSR samples

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of the (a) Oxalic, (b) Phosphoric, (c) Citric and (d) Citric* samples.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Distribution of center-to-center distance between all the pores on the surface of bare BSRs. Oxalic, Phosphoric and Citric samples are represented by red, green and blue lines, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

3D AFM images of the (a) Oxalic and (b) Phosphoric samples in 2μm square, and the (c) Citric and (d) Citric* samples in 5μm square.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

2D AFM images and cross sections of AFM analysis of the (a) Oxalic, (b) Phosphoric and (c) Citric samples.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reflectance spectra of the sample of Flat (black), Oxalic (red), Phosphoric (orange), Citric (green) and Citric* (blue).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Angular distribution of the reflected light from the sample, Oxalic (red), Phosphoric (orange), Citric (green) and Citric* (blue). with different wavelength of incident light (a) λ = 405 nm, (b) λ = 633 nm and (c) λ = 820 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic of geometry considered in theoretical reflectance calculations.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Calculated reflectance spectrum with different dpore. (b) Fill factor versus vertical distance into the BSR.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Anodization parameters for sample preparation. Citric went through a two-step procedure for increasing the homogeneity of surface microstructures, and the only difference of these two steps was the slope of increasing voltage.

Equations (3)

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λ= 1 2 Λandλ= 3 2 Λ.
ε eff = ε Al f+ ε Air (1f),
f= 2 3 r 2 (π6θ)6tanθ 2 3 ,r= 2 3 1 z 2 d 2 ,andθ= cos 1 ( min[1, r 1 ] ),

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