Abstract

In this paper the design, fabrication and characterization of a bioinspired overlayer deposited on a GaN LED is described. The purpose of this overlayer is to improve light extraction into air from the diode’s high refractive-index active material. The layer design is inspired by the microstructure found in the firefly Photuris sp. The actual dimensions and material composition have been optimized to take into account the high refractive index of the GaN diode stack. This two-dimensional pattern contrasts other designs by its unusual profile, its larger dimensions and the fact that it can be tailored to an existing diode design rather than requiring a complete redesign of the diode geometry. The gain of light extraction reaches values up to 55% with respect to the reference unprocessed LED.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (7)

J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Hong, K.-J. Byeon, H. Lee, “Light extraction efficiency improvement in GaN-based blue light emitting diode with two-dimensional nano-cavity structure,” Thin Solid Films 521, 115–118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, H. X. H. Zheng, T. Wei, H. Yang, J. Li, X. Yi, X. Song, G. Wang, J. Li, “Light extraction efficiency improvement by multiple laser stealth dicing in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 20, 6808–6815 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yin, X. Liu, Y. Wu, X. Hao, X. Xu, “Enhancement of light extraction in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes using rough beveled ZnO nanocone arrays,” Opt. Express 20, 1013–1021 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dylewicz, A. Khokhar, R. Wasielewski, P. Mazur, F. Rahman, “Nanostructured graded-index antireflection layer formation on InGaN for enhancing light extraction from light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 107, 393–399 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Zhao, H. Zhao, “Analysis of light extraction efficiency enhancement for thin-fil-flip-chip InGaNquantum wells light-emitting diodes with GaN micro-domes,” Opt. Express 20, A765–A776 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-W. Pan, C.-S. Wang, “Light extraction efficiency of GaN-based led with pyramid texture by using ray path analysis,” Opt. Express 20, A630–A640 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-W. Hsu, Y.-C. Lee, H.-L. Chen, Y.-F. Chou, “Optimizing textured structures possessing both optical gradient and diffraction properties to increase the extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Phot. Nano. Fund. Appl. 10, 523–533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (11)

M. Ma, F. Mont, X. Yan, J. Cho, E. Schubert, G. Kim, C. Sone, “Effects of the refractive index of the encapsulant on the light-extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19, A1135–A1140 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of iii-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. Lysak, J. H. Kang, C.-H. Hong, “Air-structured embedded mirror for enhancement of light extraction efficiency in vertical light-emitting diodes,” Optoelectron. Adv. Mat. 5, 481–483 (2011).

J.-M. Park, Z. Gan, W. Leung, R. Liu, Z. Ye, K. Constant, J. Shinar, R. Shinar, K.-M. Ho, “Soft holographic interference lithography microlens for enhanced organic light emitting diode light extraction,” Opt. Express 19, A786–A792 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Wu, C. Yen, H. Chien, H. Lu, T. Chang, T. Nee, “Effects of nano-structured photonic crystals on light extraction enhancement of nitride light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519, 5074–5077 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, Q. Wang, H. Li, “Enhancement of extraction efficiency by metallic photonic crystal embedding in light-emitting diode,” Optik 122, 1079–1083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Wei, Q. Kong, J. Wang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, G. Wang, J. Li, Y. Liao, F. Yi, “Improving light extraction of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with a roughened p-GaN surface using CsCl nano-islands,” Opt. Express 19, 1065–1071 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep. 498, 189–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jin, F. Yang, Q. Li, Z. Zhu, J. Zhu, S. Fan, “Enhanced light extraction from a GaN-based green light-emitting diode with hemicylindrical linear grating structure,” Opt. Express 20, 15818–15825 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zuo, D. Liu, B. Zhang, J. He, H. Liu, X. Xu, “Increasing the extraction efficiency of blue light emitting diodes via laser patterned Ga-polar p-GaN surface,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 2226–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. Schubert, J. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

A. Bay, J. P. Vigneron, “Light extraction from the bioluminescent organs of fireflies,” Proc. SPIE 7041, 1–12 (2009).

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, U. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal leds designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, “Comparison of Ni/Au, ITO, and ATO-based current spreading layers for near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 4, 2646–2649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. Vigneron, V. Lousse, “Variation of a photonic crystal color with the miller indices of the exposed surface,” Proc. SPIE 6128, 61281G (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, “Photonic structures in biology,” Nature 424, 852–855 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

P. Eliseev, G. Smolyakov, M. Osinski, “Ghost modes and resonant effects in AlGaN-InGaN-GaN lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 771–779 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ho, C. C. Chiu, C.-N. Huang, C.-Y. Chen, K.-K. Shih, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1275–1277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Vigneron, F. Forati, D. André, A. Castiaux, I. Derycke, A. Dereux, “Theory of electromagnetic energy transfer in three-dimensional structures,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 21–27 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1907 (1)

I. Sollas, “On the identification of chitin by its physical constants,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 79, 474–481 (1907).
[CrossRef]

André, D.

J. Vigneron, F. Forati, D. André, A. Castiaux, I. Derycke, A. Dereux, “Theory of electromagnetic energy transfer in three-dimensional structures,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 21–27 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baumberg, J. J.

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the papilio blumei butterfly,” Nature Nanotech. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bay, A.

A. Bay, J. P. Vigneron, “Light extraction from the bioluminescent organs of fireflies,” Proc. SPIE 7041, 1–12 (2009).

A. Bay, M. Sarrazin, J. P. Vigneron, “Light extraction : What we can learn from fireflies,” (2012). ArXiv:1209.4286 [physics.optics].

A. Bay, P. Cloetens, H. Suhonen, J. P. Vigneron, “Optical structures used for light extraction in the bioluminescent lantern of Photuris fireflies (Lampyridae),” (2012). ArXiv:1209.4298 [physics.optics].

Bergenek, K.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, U. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal leds designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Byeon, K.-J.

J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Hong, K.-J. Byeon, H. Lee, “Light extraction efficiency improvement in GaN-based blue light emitting diode with two-dimensional nano-cavity structure,” Thin Solid Films 521, 115–118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Castiaux, A.

J. Vigneron, F. Forati, D. André, A. Castiaux, I. Derycke, A. Dereux, “Theory of electromagnetic energy transfer in three-dimensional structures,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 21–27 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T.

G. Wu, C. Yen, H. Chien, H. Lu, T. Chang, T. Nee, “Effects of nano-structured photonic crystals on light extraction enhancement of nitride light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519, 5074–5077 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-Y.

Chen, H.-L.

C.-W. Hsu, Y.-C. Lee, H.-L. Chen, Y.-F. Chou, “Optimizing textured structures possessing both optical gradient and diffraction properties to increase the extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Phot. Nano. Fund. Appl. 10, 523–533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, Q. Wang, H. Li, “Enhancement of extraction efficiency by metallic photonic crystal embedding in light-emitting diode,” Optik 122, 1079–1083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chhajed, S.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. Schubert, J. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chien, H.

G. Wu, C. Yen, H. Chien, H. Lu, T. Chang, T. Nee, “Effects of nano-structured photonic crystals on light extraction enhancement of nitride light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519, 5074–5077 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. C.

J.-H. Ho, C. C. Chiu, C.-N. Huang, C.-Y. Chen, K.-K. Shih, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1275–1277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

M. Ma, F. Mont, X. Yan, J. Cho, E. Schubert, G. Kim, C. Sone, “Effects of the refractive index of the encapsulant on the light-extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19, A1135–A1140 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. Schubert, J. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Hong, K.-J. Byeon, H. Lee, “Light extraction efficiency improvement in GaN-based blue light emitting diode with two-dimensional nano-cavity structure,” Thin Solid Films 521, 115–118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chong, W. C.

W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, “Comparison of Ni/Au, ITO, and ATO-based current spreading layers for near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 4, 2646–2649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chou, Y.-F.

C.-W. Hsu, Y.-C. Lee, H.-L. Chen, Y.-F. Chou, “Optimizing textured structures possessing both optical gradient and diffraction properties to increase the extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Phot. Nano. Fund. Appl. 10, 523–533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cloetens, P.

A. Bay, P. Cloetens, H. Suhonen, J. P. Vigneron, “Optical structures used for light extraction in the bioluminescent lantern of Photuris fireflies (Lampyridae),” (2012). ArXiv:1209.4298 [physics.optics].

Constant, K.

Dereux, A.

J. Vigneron, F. Forati, D. André, A. Castiaux, I. Derycke, A. Dereux, “Theory of electromagnetic energy transfer in three-dimensional structures,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 21–27 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Derycke, I.

J. Vigneron, F. Forati, D. André, A. Castiaux, I. Derycke, A. Dereux, “Theory of electromagnetic energy transfer in three-dimensional structures,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 21–27 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dylewicz, R.

R. Dylewicz, A. Khokhar, R. Wasielewski, P. Mazur, F. Rahman, “Nanostructured graded-index antireflection layer formation on InGaN for enhancing light extraction from light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 107, 393–399 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ee, Y.-K.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of iii-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eliseev, P.

P. Eliseev, G. Smolyakov, M. Osinski, “Ghost modes and resonant effects in AlGaN-InGaN-GaN lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 771–779 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

Forati, F.

J. Vigneron, F. Forati, D. André, A. Castiaux, I. Derycke, A. Dereux, “Theory of electromagnetic energy transfer in three-dimensional structures,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 21–27 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gan, Z.

Gilchrist, J.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of iii-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hao, X.

He, J.

Z. Zuo, D. Liu, B. Zhang, J. He, H. Liu, X. Xu, “Increasing the extraction efficiency of blue light emitting diodes via laser patterned Ga-polar p-GaN surface,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 2226–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ho, J.-H.

J.-H. Ho, C. C. Chiu, C.-N. Huang, C.-Y. Chen, K.-K. Shih, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1275–1277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ho, K.-M.

Hong, C.-H.

V. Lysak, J. H. Kang, C.-H. Hong, “Air-structured embedded mirror for enhancement of light extraction efficiency in vertical light-emitting diodes,” Optoelectron. Adv. Mat. 5, 481–483 (2011).

Hong, S.-H.

J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Hong, K.-J. Byeon, H. Lee, “Light extraction efficiency improvement in GaN-based blue light emitting diode with two-dimensional nano-cavity structure,” Thin Solid Films 521, 115–118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, C.-W.

C.-W. Hsu, Y.-C. Lee, H.-L. Chen, Y.-F. Chou, “Optimizing textured structures possessing both optical gradient and diffraction properties to increase the extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Phot. Nano. Fund. Appl. 10, 523–533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C.-N.

J.-H. Ho, C. C. Chiu, C.-N. Huang, C.-Y. Chen, K.-K. Shih, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1275–1277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, F.

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the papilio blumei butterfly,” Nature Nanotech. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, W.

D. Lynch, W. Hunter, E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic Press, Inc., 1991).

Jin, Y.

Kang, J. H.

V. Lysak, J. H. Kang, C.-H. Hong, “Air-structured embedded mirror for enhancement of light extraction efficiency in vertical light-emitting diodes,” Optoelectron. Adv. Mat. 5, 481–483 (2011).

Khokhar, A.

R. Dylewicz, A. Khokhar, R. Wasielewski, P. Mazur, F. Rahman, “Nanostructured graded-index antireflection layer formation on InGaN for enhancing light extraction from light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 107, 393–399 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, G.

Kim, J.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. Schubert, J. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kolle, M.

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the papilio blumei butterfly,” Nature Nanotech. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Q.

Kumnorkaew, P.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of iii-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lau, K. M.

W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, “Comparison of Ni/Au, ITO, and ATO-based current spreading layers for near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 4, 2646–2649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Hong, K.-J. Byeon, H. Lee, “Light extraction efficiency improvement in GaN-based blue light emitting diode with two-dimensional nano-cavity structure,” Thin Solid Films 521, 115–118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-L.

Lee, W.

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. Schubert, J. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y.-C.

C.-W. Hsu, Y.-C. Lee, H.-L. Chen, Y.-F. Chou, “Optimizing textured structures possessing both optical gradient and diffraction properties to increase the extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Phot. Nano. Fund. Appl. 10, 523–533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y.-C. Lee, C.-H. Ni, C.-Y. Chen, “Enhancing light extraction mechanisms of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes through the integration of imprinting microstructures, patterned sapphire substrates, and surface roughness,” Opt. Express 18, A489–A498 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leung, W.

Li, H.

J. Chen, Q. Wang, H. Li, “Enhancement of extraction efficiency by metallic photonic crystal embedding in light-emitting diode,” Optik 122, 1079–1083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Li, Q.

Li, X.-H.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of iii-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Linder, N.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, U. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal leds designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, D.

Z. Zuo, D. Liu, B. Zhang, J. He, H. Liu, X. Xu, “Increasing the extraction efficiency of blue light emitting diodes via laser patterned Ga-polar p-GaN surface,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 2226–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H.

Z. Zuo, D. Liu, B. Zhang, J. He, H. Liu, X. Xu, “Increasing the extraction efficiency of blue light emitting diodes via laser patterned Ga-polar p-GaN surface,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 2226–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, R.

Liu, X.

Lousse, V.

J. Vigneron, V. Lousse, “Variation of a photonic crystal color with the miller indices of the exposed surface,” Proc. SPIE 6128, 61281G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H.

G. Wu, C. Yen, H. Chien, H. Lu, T. Chang, T. Nee, “Effects of nano-structured photonic crystals on light extraction enhancement of nitride light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519, 5074–5077 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, D.

D. Lynch, W. Hunter, E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic Press, Inc., 1991).

Lysak, V.

V. Lysak, J. H. Kang, C.-H. Hong, “Air-structured embedded mirror for enhancement of light extraction efficiency in vertical light-emitting diodes,” Optoelectron. Adv. Mat. 5, 481–483 (2011).

Ma, M.

Mahajan, S.

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the papilio blumei butterfly,” Nature Nanotech. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, P.

R. Dylewicz, A. Khokhar, R. Wasielewski, P. Mazur, F. Rahman, “Nanostructured graded-index antireflection layer formation on InGaN for enhancing light extraction from light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 107, 393–399 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mont, F.

Nee, T.

G. Wu, C. Yen, H. Chien, H. Lu, T. Chang, T. Nee, “Effects of nano-structured photonic crystals on light extraction enhancement of nitride light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519, 5074–5077 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ni, C.-H.

Osinski, M.

P. Eliseev, G. Smolyakov, M. Osinski, “Ghost modes and resonant effects in AlGaN-InGaN-GaN lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 771–779 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E.

D. Lynch, W. Hunter, E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic Press, Inc., 1991).

Pan, J.-W.

Park, J.-M.

Rahman, F.

R. Dylewicz, A. Khokhar, R. Wasielewski, P. Mazur, F. Rahman, “Nanostructured graded-index antireflection layer formation on InGaN for enhancing light extraction from light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 107, 393–399 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Salgard-Cunha, P. M.

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the papilio blumei butterfly,” Nature Nanotech. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, “Photonic structures in biology,” Nature 424, 852–855 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sarrazin, M.

A. Bay, M. Sarrazin, J. P. Vigneron, “Light extraction : What we can learn from fireflies,” (2012). ArXiv:1209.4286 [physics.optics].

Scherer, M. R. J.

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the papilio blumei butterfly,” Nature Nanotech. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E.

M. Ma, F. Mont, X. Yan, J. Cho, E. Schubert, G. Kim, C. Sone, “Effects of the refractive index of the encapsulant on the light-extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19, A1135–A1140 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. Schubert, J. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, U.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, U. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal leds designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shih, K.-K.

J.-H. Ho, C. C. Chiu, C.-N. Huang, C.-Y. Chen, K.-K. Shih, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1275–1277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shinar, J.

Shinar, R.

Smolyakov, G.

P. Eliseev, G. Smolyakov, M. Osinski, “Ghost modes and resonant effects in AlGaN-InGaN-GaN lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 771–779 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sollas, I.

I. Sollas, “On the identification of chitin by its physical constants,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 79, 474–481 (1907).
[CrossRef]

Son, J.

Sone, C.

Song, R.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of iii-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Song, X.

Steiner, U.

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the papilio blumei butterfly,” Nature Nanotech. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suhonen, H.

A. Bay, P. Cloetens, H. Suhonen, J. P. Vigneron, “Optical structures used for light extraction in the bioluminescent lantern of Photuris fireflies (Lampyridae),” (2012). ArXiv:1209.4298 [physics.optics].

Tansu, N.

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of iii-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vigneron, J.

J. Vigneron, V. Lousse, “Variation of a photonic crystal color with the miller indices of the exposed surface,” Proc. SPIE 6128, 61281G (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Vigneron, F. Forati, D. André, A. Castiaux, I. Derycke, A. Dereux, “Theory of electromagnetic energy transfer in three-dimensional structures,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 21–27 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vigneron, J. P.

A. Bay, J. P. Vigneron, “Light extraction from the bioluminescent organs of fireflies,” Proc. SPIE 7041, 1–12 (2009).

A. Bay, M. Sarrazin, J. P. Vigneron, “Light extraction : What we can learn from fireflies,” (2012). ArXiv:1209.4286 [physics.optics].

A. Bay, P. Cloetens, H. Suhonen, J. P. Vigneron, “Optical structures used for light extraction in the bioluminescent lantern of Photuris fireflies (Lampyridae),” (2012). ArXiv:1209.4298 [physics.optics].

Vukusic, P.

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the papilio blumei butterfly,” Nature Nanotech. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, “Photonic structures in biology,” Nature 424, 852–855 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.-S.

Wang, G.

Wang, J.

Wang, Q.

J. Chen, Q. Wang, H. Li, “Enhancement of extraction efficiency by metallic photonic crystal embedding in light-emitting diode,” Optik 122, 1079–1083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wasielewski, R.

R. Dylewicz, A. Khokhar, R. Wasielewski, P. Mazur, F. Rahman, “Nanostructured graded-index antireflection layer formation on InGaN for enhancing light extraction from light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 107, 393–399 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T.

Wiesmann, C.

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, U. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal leds designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, G.

G. Wu, C. Yen, H. Chien, H. Lu, T. Chang, T. Nee, “Effects of nano-structured photonic crystals on light extraction enhancement of nitride light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519, 5074–5077 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Xu, X.

Z. Yin, X. Liu, Y. Wu, X. Hao, X. Xu, “Enhancement of light extraction in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes using rough beveled ZnO nanocone arrays,” Opt. Express 20, 1013–1021 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Zuo, D. Liu, B. Zhang, J. He, H. Liu, X. Xu, “Increasing the extraction efficiency of blue light emitting diodes via laser patterned Ga-polar p-GaN surface,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 2226–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yan, X.

Yang, F.

Yang, H.

Ye, Z.

Yen, C.

G. Wu, C. Yen, H. Chien, H. Lu, T. Chang, T. Nee, “Effects of nano-structured photonic crystals on light extraction enhancement of nitride light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519, 5074–5077 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yi, F.

Yi, X.

Yin, Z.

Yu, H.

Zeng, Y.

Zhang, B.

Z. Zuo, D. Liu, B. Zhang, J. He, H. Liu, X. Xu, “Increasing the extraction efficiency of blue light emitting diodes via laser patterned Ga-polar p-GaN surface,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 2226–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Zhao, H.

Zhao, P.

Zheng, H. X. H.

Zhmakin, A.

A. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep. 498, 189–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

Zhu, Z.

Zuo, Z.

Z. Zuo, D. Liu, B. Zhang, J. He, H. Liu, X. Xu, “Increasing the extraction efficiency of blue light emitting diodes via laser patterned Ga-polar p-GaN surface,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 2226–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Dylewicz, A. Khokhar, R. Wasielewski, P. Mazur, F. Rahman, “Nanostructured graded-index antireflection layer formation on InGaN for enhancing light extraction from light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. B 107, 393–399 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Chhajed, W. Lee, J. Cho, E. Schubert, J. Kim, “Strong light extraction enhancement in GaInN light-emitting diodes by using self-organized nanoscale patterning of p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 071102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Ho, C. C. Chiu, C.-N. Huang, C.-Y. Chen, K.-K. Shih, “Low-resistance ohmic contacts to p-type GaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1275–1277 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Eliseev, G. Smolyakov, M. Osinski, “Ghost modes and resonant effects in AlGaN-InGaN-GaN lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 771–779 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

X.-H. Li, R. Song, Y.-K. Ee, P. Kumnorkaew, J. Gilchrist, N. Tansu, “Light extraction efficiency and radiation patterns of iii-nitride light-emitting diodes with colloidal microlens arrays with various aspect ratios,” IEEE Photon. J. 3, 489–499 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

C. Wiesmann, K. Bergenek, N. Linder, U. Schwarz, “Photonic crystal leds designing light extraction,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3, 262–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. Vukusic, J. R. Sambles, “Photonic structures in biology,” Nature 424, 852–855 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Nanotech. (1)

M. Kolle, P. M. Salgard-Cunha, M. R. J. Scherer, F. Huang, P. Vukusic, S. Mahajan, J. J. Baumberg, U. Steiner, “Mimicking the colourful wing scale structure of the papilio blumei butterfly,” Nature Nanotech. 5, 511–515 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (10)

J.-M. Park, Z. Gan, W. Leung, R. Liu, Z. Ye, K. Constant, J. Shinar, R. Shinar, K.-M. Ho, “Soft holographic interference lithography microlens for enhanced organic light emitting diode light extraction,” Opt. Express 19, A786–A792 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Lee, C.-H. Ni, C.-Y. Chen, “Enhancing light extraction mechanisms of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes through the integration of imprinting microstructures, patterned sapphire substrates, and surface roughness,” Opt. Express 18, A489–A498 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Jin, F. Yang, Q. Li, Z. Zhu, J. Zhu, S. Fan, “Enhanced light extraction from a GaN-based green light-emitting diode with hemicylindrical linear grating structure,” Opt. Express 20, 15818–15825 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, H. X. H. Zheng, T. Wei, H. Yang, J. Li, X. Yi, X. Song, G. Wang, J. Li, “Light extraction efficiency improvement by multiple laser stealth dicing in InGaN-based blue light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 20, 6808–6815 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Wei, Q. Kong, J. Wang, J. Li, Y. Zeng, G. Wang, J. Li, Y. Liao, F. Yi, “Improving light extraction of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with a roughened p-GaN surface using CsCl nano-islands,” Opt. Express 19, 1065–1071 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Yin, X. Liu, Y. Wu, X. Hao, X. Xu, “Enhancement of light extraction in InGaN-based light-emitting diodes using rough beveled ZnO nanocone arrays,” Opt. Express 20, 1013–1021 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Son, H. Yu, J.-L. Lee, “MgO nano-pyramids structure for enhancement of light extraction efficiency in vertical light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 18, A403–A410 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Zhao, H. Zhao, “Analysis of light extraction efficiency enhancement for thin-fil-flip-chip InGaNquantum wells light-emitting diodes with GaN micro-domes,” Opt. Express 20, A765–A776 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-W. Pan, C.-S. Wang, “Light extraction efficiency of GaN-based led with pyramid texture by using ray path analysis,” Opt. Express 20, A630–A640 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ma, F. Mont, X. Yan, J. Cho, E. Schubert, G. Kim, C. Sone, “Effects of the refractive index of the encapsulant on the light-extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Opt. Express 19, A1135–A1140 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Optik (1)

J. Chen, Q. Wang, H. Li, “Enhancement of extraction efficiency by metallic photonic crystal embedding in light-emitting diode,” Optik 122, 1079–1083 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Optoelectron. Adv. Mat. (1)

V. Lysak, J. H. Kang, C.-H. Hong, “Air-structured embedded mirror for enhancement of light extraction efficiency in vertical light-emitting diodes,” Optoelectron. Adv. Mat. 5, 481–483 (2011).

Phot. Nano. Fund. Appl. (1)

C.-W. Hsu, Y.-C. Lee, H.-L. Chen, Y.-F. Chou, “Optimizing textured structures possessing both optical gradient and diffraction properties to increase the extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Phot. Nano. Fund. Appl. 10, 523–533 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep. 498, 189–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Stat. Sol. (1)

W. C. Chong, K. M. Lau, “Comparison of Ni/Au, ITO, and ATO-based current spreading layers for near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Stat. Sol. 4, 2646–2649 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

Z. Zuo, D. Liu, B. Zhang, J. He, H. Liu, X. Xu, “Increasing the extraction efficiency of blue light emitting diodes via laser patterned Ga-polar p-GaN surface,” Phys. Status Solidi A 208, 2226–2230 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B (1)

I. Sollas, “On the identification of chitin by its physical constants,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 79, 474–481 (1907).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

A. Bay, J. P. Vigneron, “Light extraction from the bioluminescent organs of fireflies,” Proc. SPIE 7041, 1–12 (2009).

J. Vigneron, V. Lousse, “Variation of a photonic crystal color with the miller indices of the exposed surface,” Proc. SPIE 6128, 61281G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

G. Wu, C. Yen, H. Chien, H. Lu, T. Chang, T. Nee, “Effects of nano-structured photonic crystals on light extraction enhancement of nitride light-emitting diodes,” Thin Solid Films 519, 5074–5077 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Cho, S.-H. Hong, K.-J. Byeon, H. Lee, “Light extraction efficiency improvement in GaN-based blue light emitting diode with two-dimensional nano-cavity structure,” Thin Solid Films 521, 115–118 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ultramicroscopy (1)

J. Vigneron, F. Forati, D. André, A. Castiaux, I. Derycke, A. Dereux, “Theory of electromagnetic energy transfer in three-dimensional structures,” Ultramicroscopy 61, 21–27 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

D. Lynch, W. Hunter, E. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II (Academic Press, Inc., 1991).

“Microchemicals, optical parameters of photoresists,” (2010). Www.microchemicals.eu/technical_information .

A. Bay, M. Sarrazin, J. P. Vigneron, “Light extraction : What we can learn from fireflies,” (2012). ArXiv:1209.4286 [physics.optics].

A. Bay, P. Cloetens, H. Suhonen, J. P. Vigneron, “Optical structures used for light extraction in the bioluminescent lantern of Photuris fireflies (Lampyridae),” (2012). ArXiv:1209.4298 [physics.optics].

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Firefly Photuris sp. (b) SEM picture of the cuticle structuration above the bioluminescent organ. (c) Model used for simulations of the light propagation. Period = 10 μm. Height = 3 μm

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

LEE maps showing the integrated extracted light intensity as a function of the incident polar (θ) and azimuthal (ϕ) angles. Zero transmission is represented by black areas and maximal transmission is represented by white areas. (a) Plane surface. (b) Firefly structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sketch of the device under theoretical consideration. The LED is modelized by a GaN semi-infinite bulk endowed with a 10 nm current spreading layer made of Ni-Au alloy. The device is covered by a patterned photoresist layer. The periodicity p and the height h of the factory-roofs have to be optimized.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optimization of the photoresist pattern regarding the factory-roof period and height. White cross corresponds to the setup under experimental consideration.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

LEE maps showing the integrated extracted light intensity as a function of the incident polar (θ) and azimuthal (ϕ) angles of the diode configuration. Zero transmission is represented by black areas and maximal transmission is represented by white areas. (a) Plane surface. (b) Firefly-like structure realized in photoresist.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

AlGaN/GaN LED heterostructure cross-section.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Heidelberg photoplotter schematic for direct-writing laser strategy.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Factory-roof patterns in AZ 9245®photoresist coating on a GaN-based LED, by direct-writing laser lithography.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measured radiance integrated over the full 2π hemispheric solid angle for two identical diodes covered by a photoresist layer terminated (A) by a micrometric factory-roof corrugation and (B) by a flat surface. The corrugation causes an 68% increase of the emitted power.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 LED layers thicknesses.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of extraction gains. A “bare LED” is defined as a non-treated LED. A “coated LED” is defined as a “bare LED” with a 5 μm thick photoresist layer. A “coated patterned LED” is defined as a “coated LED” where the photoresist is patterned with the specific factory-roof structure.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P ( λ ) = 0 2 π d ϕ 0 θ max sin θ d θ R ( θ , ϕ , λ )

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