Abstract

We have investigated the transport characteristics of red phosphorescent dye bis(1-(phenyl)isoquinoline) iridium (III) acetylanetonate (Ir(piq)2acac) doped 4,4’,4”-tri(N-carbazolyl)triphenylamine (TCTA), and found that the increasing doping ratio was facilitated to improve the ability of hole transporting. A high color rendering index (CRI) and high-efficiency WOLED was achieved by employing Ir(piq)2acac doped TCTA film as an effective red emissive layer due to the generation of charge transfer complex (CTC) at the interface. The relative proportion in red: green: blue emission intensity can be controlled by the CTC concentration to obtain high CRI WOLEDs. The WOLED with an optimal red dye doping concentration of 5 wt% exhibits a high CRI of 89 and a power efficiency of 31.2 lm/W and 27.5 lm/W at the initial luminance and 100 cd/m2, respectively. The devices show little variation of the Commission Internationale de I’Eclairage coordinates in a wide range of luminance.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
  14. K. O. Cheon, J. Shinar, “Bright white small molecular organic light-emitting devices based on a red-emitting guest-host layer and blue-emitting 4,4′-bis(2,2′-diphenylvinyl)-1,1′-biphenyl,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1738–1740 (2002).
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  15. S. Reineke, G. Schwartz, K. Walzer, K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by suppression of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123508 (2007).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2011

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2008

H. S. Yang, Y. W. Shi, Y. Zhao, Y. L. Meng, W. Hu, J. Y. Hou, S. Y. Liu, “High colour rendering index white organic light-emitting devices with three emitting layers,” Displays 29(4), 327–332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Reineke, G. Schwartz, K. Walzer, K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by suppression of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123508 (2007).

2006

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. T. Lei, L. D. Wang, Y. Qiu, “Multilayer organic electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes without exciton-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

T. K. Hatwar, J. P. Spindler, M. L. Ricks, R. H. Young, Y. Hamada, N. Saito, K. Mameno, R. Nishikawa, H. Takahashi, G. Rajeswaran, “High-efficiency white OLEDs based on small molecules,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 233–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Liu, Y. S. Wu, M. T. Lee, H. H. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient yellow and with organic electroluminescent devices base on sterically hindered tetra (t-butyl) rubrene dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4304–4306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. W. D’Andrade, S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohno, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of white LED spectra,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 88–98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, J. Shinar, “Combinatorial fabrication and studies of bright white organic light-emitting devices based on emission from rubrene-doped 4,4′-bis(2,2′-diphenylvinyl)-1,1′-biphenyl,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5359–5361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

K. O. Cheon, J. Shinar, “Bright white small molecular organic light-emitting devices based on a red-emitting guest-host layer and blue-emitting 4,4′-bis(2,2′-diphenylvinyl)-1,1′-biphenyl,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1738–1740 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. W. Ko, Y. T. Tao, “Bright white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4234–4236 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulovic´, S. R. Forrest, “White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(7), 888–890 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. Sato, T. Ogata, S. Ichinosawa, Y. Murata, “Characteristics of organic electroluminescent devices with new dopants,” Synth. Met. 91(1-3), 103–107 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

J. Kido, M. Kimura, K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science 267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. J.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bulovic´, V.

R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulovic´, S. R. Forrest, “White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(7), 888–890 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

T. H. Liu, Y. S. Wu, M. T. Lee, H. H. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient yellow and with organic electroluminescent devices base on sterically hindered tetra (t-butyl) rubrene dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4304–4306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. H.

T. H. Liu, Y. S. Wu, M. T. Lee, H. H. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient yellow and with organic electroluminescent devices base on sterically hindered tetra (t-butyl) rubrene dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4304–4306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. Z.

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheon, K. O.

K. O. Cheon, J. Shinar, “Bright white small molecular organic light-emitting devices based on a red-emitting guest-host layer and blue-emitting 4,4′-bis(2,2′-diphenylvinyl)-1,1′-biphenyl,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1738–1740 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chou, Y. C.

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chung, C. H.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D’Andrade, B. W.

B. W. D’Andrade, S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Deshpande, R. S.

R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulovic´, S. R. Forrest, “White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(7), 888–890 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. W. D’Andrade, S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulovic´, S. R. Forrest, “White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(7), 888–890 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Giebink, N. C.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamada, Y.

T. K. Hatwar, J. P. Spindler, M. L. Ricks, R. H. Young, Y. Hamada, N. Saito, K. Mameno, R. Nishikawa, H. Takahashi, G. Rajeswaran, “High-efficiency white OLEDs based on small molecules,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 233–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hatwar, T. K.

T. K. Hatwar, J. P. Spindler, M. L. Ricks, R. H. Young, Y. Hamada, N. Saito, K. Mameno, R. Nishikawa, H. Takahashi, G. Rajeswaran, “High-efficiency white OLEDs based on small molecules,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 233–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hou, J. Y.

H. S. Yang, Y. W. Shi, Y. Zhao, Y. L. Meng, W. Hu, J. Y. Hou, S. Y. Liu, “High colour rendering index white organic light-emitting devices with three emitting layers,” Displays 29(4), 327–332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hu, W.

H. S. Yang, Y. W. Shi, Y. Zhao, Y. L. Meng, W. Hu, J. Y. Hou, S. Y. Liu, “High colour rendering index white organic light-emitting devices with three emitting layers,” Displays 29(4), 327–332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, C. S.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ichinosawa, S.

Y. Sato, T. Ogata, S. Ichinosawa, Y. Murata, “Characteristics of organic electroluminescent devices with new dopants,” Synth. Met. 91(1-3), 103–107 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jou, J. H.

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jou, Y. C.

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kang, G. W.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kanno, H.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kido, J.

J. Kido, M. Kimura, K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science 267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, B. C.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. H.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kimura, M.

J. Kido, M. Kimura, K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science 267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ko, C. W.

C. W. Ko, Y. T. Tao, “Bright white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4234–4236 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ko, Y. W.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, M. T.

T. H. Liu, Y. S. Wu, M. T. Lee, H. H. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient yellow and with organic electroluminescent devices base on sterically hindered tetra (t-butyl) rubrene dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4304–4306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, N.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lei, G. T.

G. T. Lei, L. D. Wang, Y. Qiu, “Multilayer organic electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes without exciton-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

S. Reineke, G. Schwartz, K. Walzer, K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by suppression of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123508 (2007).

Li, G.

G. Li, J. Shinar, “Combinatorial fabrication and studies of bright white organic light-emitting devices based on emission from rubrene-doped 4,4′-bis(2,2′-diphenylvinyl)-1,1′-biphenyl,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5359–5361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C. H.

T. H. Liu, Y. S. Wu, M. T. Lee, H. H. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient yellow and with organic electroluminescent devices base on sterically hindered tetra (t-butyl) rubrene dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4304–4306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. R.

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. Y.

H. S. Yang, Y. W. Shi, Y. Zhao, Y. L. Meng, W. Hu, J. Y. Hou, S. Y. Liu, “High colour rendering index white organic light-emitting devices with three emitting layers,” Displays 29(4), 327–332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T. H.

T. H. Liu, Y. S. Wu, M. T. Lee, H. H. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient yellow and with organic electroluminescent devices base on sterically hindered tetra (t-butyl) rubrene dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4304–4306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, B.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mameno, K.

T. K. Hatwar, J. P. Spindler, M. L. Ricks, R. H. Young, Y. Hamada, N. Saito, K. Mameno, R. Nishikawa, H. Takahashi, G. Rajeswaran, “High-efficiency white OLEDs based on small molecules,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 233–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meng, Y. L.

H. S. Yang, Y. W. Shi, Y. Zhao, Y. L. Meng, W. Hu, J. Y. Hou, S. Y. Liu, “High colour rendering index white organic light-emitting devices with three emitting layers,” Displays 29(4), 327–332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Murata, Y.

Y. Sato, T. Ogata, S. Ichinosawa, Y. Murata, “Characteristics of organic electroluminescent devices with new dopants,” Synth. Met. 91(1-3), 103–107 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nagai, K.

J. Kido, M. Kimura, K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science 267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nishikawa, R.

T. K. Hatwar, J. P. Spindler, M. L. Ricks, R. H. Young, Y. Hamada, N. Saito, K. Mameno, R. Nishikawa, H. Takahashi, G. Rajeswaran, “High-efficiency white OLEDs based on small molecules,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 233–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ogata, T.

Y. Sato, T. Ogata, S. Ichinosawa, Y. Murata, “Characteristics of organic electroluminescent devices with new dopants,” Synth. Met. 91(1-3), 103–107 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohno, Y.

Y. Ohno, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of white LED spectra,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 88–98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, Y.

G. T. Lei, L. D. Wang, Y. Qiu, “Multilayer organic electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes without exciton-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rajeswaran, G.

T. K. Hatwar, J. P. Spindler, M. L. Ricks, R. H. Young, Y. Hamada, N. Saito, K. Mameno, R. Nishikawa, H. Takahashi, G. Rajeswaran, “High-efficiency white OLEDs based on small molecules,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 233–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reineke, S.

S. Reineke, G. Schwartz, K. Walzer, K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by suppression of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123508 (2007).

Ricks, M. L.

T. K. Hatwar, J. P. Spindler, M. L. Ricks, R. H. Young, Y. Hamada, N. Saito, K. Mameno, R. Nishikawa, H. Takahashi, G. Rajeswaran, “High-efficiency white OLEDs based on small molecules,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 233–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saito, N.

T. K. Hatwar, J. P. Spindler, M. L. Ricks, R. H. Young, Y. Hamada, N. Saito, K. Mameno, R. Nishikawa, H. Takahashi, G. Rajeswaran, “High-efficiency white OLEDs based on small molecules,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 233–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sato, Y.

Y. Sato, T. Ogata, S. Ichinosawa, Y. Murata, “Characteristics of organic electroluminescent devices with new dopants,” Synth. Met. 91(1-3), 103–107 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, G.

S. Reineke, G. Schwartz, K. Walzer, K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by suppression of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123508 (2007).

Shen, S. M.

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y. W.

H. S. Yang, Y. W. Shi, Y. Zhao, Y. L. Meng, W. Hu, J. Y. Hou, S. Y. Liu, “High colour rendering index white organic light-emitting devices with three emitting layers,” Displays 29(4), 327–332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shinar, J.

G. Li, J. Shinar, “Combinatorial fabrication and studies of bright white organic light-emitting devices based on emission from rubrene-doped 4,4′-bis(2,2′-diphenylvinyl)-1,1′-biphenyl,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5359–5361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Cheon, J. Shinar, “Bright white small molecular organic light-emitting devices based on a red-emitting guest-host layer and blue-emitting 4,4′-bis(2,2′-diphenylvinyl)-1,1′-biphenyl,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1738–1740 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, C. Y.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. H.

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Spindler, J. P.

T. K. Hatwar, J. P. Spindler, M. L. Ricks, R. H. Young, Y. Hamada, N. Saito, K. Mameno, R. Nishikawa, H. Takahashi, G. Rajeswaran, “High-efficiency white OLEDs based on small molecules,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 233–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, H.

T. K. Hatwar, J. P. Spindler, M. L. Ricks, R. H. Young, Y. Hamada, N. Saito, K. Mameno, R. Nishikawa, H. Takahashi, G. Rajeswaran, “High-efficiency white OLEDs based on small molecules,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 233–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tao, Y. T.

C. W. Ko, Y. T. Tao, “Bright white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4234–4236 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, M. E.

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walzer, K.

S. Reineke, G. Schwartz, K. Walzer, K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by suppression of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123508 (2007).

Wang, L. D.

G. T. Lei, L. D. Wang, Y. Qiu, “Multilayer organic electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes without exciton-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. S.

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. S.

T. H. Liu, Y. S. Wu, M. T. Lee, H. H. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient yellow and with organic electroluminescent devices base on sterically hindered tetra (t-butyl) rubrene dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4304–4306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. S.

H. S. Yang, Y. W. Shi, Y. Zhao, Y. L. Meng, W. Hu, J. Y. Hou, S. Y. Liu, “High colour rendering index white organic light-emitting devices with three emitting layers,” Displays 29(4), 327–332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Young, R. H.

T. K. Hatwar, J. P. Spindler, M. L. Ricks, R. H. Young, Y. Hamada, N. Saito, K. Mameno, R. Nishikawa, H. Takahashi, G. Rajeswaran, “High-efficiency white OLEDs based on small molecules,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 233–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

H. S. Yang, Y. W. Shi, Y. Zhao, Y. L. Meng, W. Hu, J. Y. Hou, S. Y. Liu, “High colour rendering index white organic light-emitting devices with three emitting layers,” Displays 29(4), 327–332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

B. W. D’Andrade, S. R. Forrest, “White organic light-emitting devices for solid-state lighting,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 16(18), 1585–1595 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. S. Deshpande, V. Bulovic´, S. R. Forrest, “White-light-emitting organic electroluminescent devices based on interlayer sequential energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(7), 888–890 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Lei, L. D. Wang, Y. Qiu, “Multilayer organic electrophosphorescent white light-emitting diodes without exciton-blocking layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(10), 103508 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Ko, Y. T. Tao, “Bright white organic light-emitting diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(25), 4234–4236 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, J. Shinar, “Combinatorial fabrication and studies of bright white organic light-emitting devices based on emission from rubrene-doped 4,4′-bis(2,2′-diphenylvinyl)-1,1′-biphenyl,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(26), 5359–5361 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. O. Cheon, J. Shinar, “Bright white small molecular organic light-emitting devices based on a red-emitting guest-host layer and blue-emitting 4,4′-bis(2,2′-diphenylvinyl)-1,1′-biphenyl,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(9), 1738–1740 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Reineke, G. Schwartz, K. Walzer, K. Leo, “Reduced efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light emitting diodes by suppression of triplet-triplet annihilation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123508 (2007).

T. H. Liu, Y. S. Wu, M. T. Lee, H. H. Chen, C. H. Liao, C. H. Chen, “Highly efficient yellow and with organic electroluminescent devices base on sterically hindered tetra (t-butyl) rubrene dopant,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4304–4306 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Displays

H. S. Yang, Y. W. Shi, Y. Zhao, Y. L. Meng, W. Hu, J. Y. Hou, S. Y. Liu, “High colour rendering index white organic light-emitting devices with three emitting layers,” Displays 29(4), 327–332 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature

Y. Sun, N. C. Giebink, H. Kanno, B. Ma, M. E. Thompson, S. R. Forrest, “Management of singlet and triplet excitons for efficient white organic light-emitting devices,” Nature 440(7086), 908–912 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Org. Electron.

J. H. Jou, S. M. Shen, C. R. Lin, Y. S. Wang, Y. C. Chou, S. Z. Chen, Y. C. Jou, “Efficient very-high rendering index organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 12(5), 865–868 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

T. K. Hatwar, J. P. Spindler, M. L. Ricks, R. H. Young, Y. Hamada, N. Saito, K. Mameno, R. Nishikawa, H. Takahashi, G. Rajeswaran, “High-efficiency white OLEDs based on small molecules,” Proc. SPIE 5214, 233–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohno, “Color rendering and luminous efficacy of white LED spectra,” Proc. SPIE 5530, 88–98 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. Kido, M. Kimura, K. Nagai, “Multilayer white light-emitting organic electroluminescent device,” Science 267(5202), 1332–1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Synth. Met.

Y. Sato, T. Ogata, S. Ichinosawa, Y. Murata, “Characteristics of organic electroluminescent devices with new dopants,” Synth. Met. 91(1-3), 103–107 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

Y. W. Ko, C. H. Chung, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Kim, C. Y. Sohn, B. C. Kim, C. S. Hwang, Y. H. Song, J. Lim, Y. J. Ahn, G. W. Kang, N. Lee, C. Lee, “Efficient white organic light emission by single emitting layer,” Thin Solid Films 426(1-2), 246–249 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

CIE 17.4–1987, “International lighting vocabulary,” No. 845–02–59 (1987).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The proposed energy diagram, (b) general structure of hole-only devices and (c) the J-V characteristics of hole-only devices.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The proposed energy diagram of Devices A, B and C.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) EL spectra of reference Device (x = 0) and Devices A (x = 2), B (x = 5) and C (x = 10) at the current density of 0.08 mA/cm2. (b) The current density-voltage-luminance (J-V-L) characteristics of Devices A, B and C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The J-V-L characteristics of Device B. (b) The current efficiency-luminance-power efficiency characters of Device B. (c)The electroluminescence (EL) spectra of Device B as the voltage applied from 3.4 V to 7.4 V. The inset shows the blue emitting part of the spectra. (d) The CRI histogram at various voltages.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Electroluminescent Properties of the Devices B, D, E and F

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