Abstract

In this work, we present an innovative design of a dual-junction nanowire array solar cell. Using a dual-diameter nanowire structure, the solar spectrum is separated and absorbed in the core wire and the shell wire with respect to the wavelength. This solar cell provides high optical absorptivity over the entire spectrum due to an electromagnetic concentration effect. Microscopic simulations were performed in a three-dimensional setup, and the optical properties of the structure were evaluated by solving Maxwell’s equations. The Shockley-Queisser method was employed to calculate the current-voltage relationship of the dual-junction structure. Proper design of the geometrical and material parameters leads to an efficiency of 39.1%.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. Inose, M. Sakai, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, T. Ohtsuki, “Light localization characteristics in a random configuration of dielectric cylindrical columns,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205328 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885–889 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. L. J. Lauhon, M. S. Gudiksen, D. Wang, C. M. Lieber, “Epitaxial core-shell and core-multishell nanowire heterostructures,” Nature 420, 57–61 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Shockley, H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510–519 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. D. Palik, Handbook of optical constants of solids (Academic Press, 1985).
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

S. Yu, J. Kupec, B. Witzigmann, “Efficiency analysis of III–V axial and core-shell nanowire solar cells”, J Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 9, 688–695 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Huang, C. Lin, M. L. Povinelli, ”Limiting efficiencies of tandem solar cells consisting of III–V nanowire arrays on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 064321 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yu, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, L. Cao, “Dielectric core-shell optical antennas for strong solar absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett. 7, 3674–3681 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

M. T. Borgstrom, J. Wallentin, M. Heurlin, S. Falt, P. Wickert, J. Leene, M. H. Magnusson, K. Deppert, L. Samuelson, “Nanowires with promise for photovoltaics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 17, 1050–1061 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Nguyen, Y. Chang, I. Shih, Z. Mi, “InN p-i-n nanowire solar cells on Si,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 17, 1062–1069 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

E. Garnett, P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10, 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10, 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kupec, R. L. Stoop, B. Witzigmann, “Light absorption and emission in nanowire array solar cells,” Opt. Express 18, 27589–27605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Inose, M. Sakai, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, T. Ohtsuki, “Light localization characteristics in a random configuration of dielectric cylindrical columns,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205328 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

R. Yan, D. Gargas, P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nature Photon. 3, 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Kupec, B. Witzigmann, “Dispersion, wave propagation and efficiency analysis of nanowire solar cells,” Opt. Express 17, 10399–10410 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Goto, K. Nosaki, K. Tomioka, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, J. Motohisa, T. Fukui, “Growth of core–shell InP nanowires for photovoltaic application by selective-area metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Expr. 2, 035004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hu, G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7, 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

L. J. Lauhon, M. S. Gudiksen, D. Wang, C. M. Lieber, “Epitaxial core-shell and core-multishell nanowire heterostructures,” Nature 420, 57–61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1961 (1)

W. Shockley, H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Alivisatos, A. P.

Y. Yu, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, L. Cao, “Dielectric core-shell optical antennas for strong solar absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett. 7, 3674–3681 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Borgstrom, M. T.

M. T. Borgstrom, J. Wallentin, M. Heurlin, S. Falt, P. Wickert, J. Leene, M. H. Magnusson, K. Deppert, L. Samuelson, “Nanowires with promise for photovoltaics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 17, 1050–1061 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cao, L.

Y. Yu, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, L. Cao, “Dielectric core-shell optical antennas for strong solar absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett. 7, 3674–3681 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y.

H. Nguyen, Y. Chang, I. Shih, Z. Mi, “InN p-i-n nanowire solar cells on Si,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 17, 1062–1069 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

L. Hu, G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7, 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chueh, Y.-L.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10, 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

A. Gu, Y. Huo, S. Hu, T. Sarmiento, E. Pickett, D. Liang, S. Li, A. Lin, S. Thombare, Z. Yu, S. Fan, P. Mclntyre, Y. Cui, J. Harris, “Design and growth of IIIV nanowire solar cell arrays on low cost substrates,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2010 35th IEEE), 002034 –002037.

Deppert, K.

M. T. Borgstrom, J. Wallentin, M. Heurlin, S. Falt, P. Wickert, J. Leene, M. H. Magnusson, K. Deppert, L. Samuelson, “Nanowires with promise for photovoltaics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 17, 1050–1061 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ema, K.

Y. Inose, M. Sakai, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, T. Ohtsuki, “Light localization characteristics in a random configuration of dielectric cylindrical columns,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205328 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Falt, S.

M. T. Borgstrom, J. Wallentin, M. Heurlin, S. Falt, P. Wickert, J. Leene, M. H. Magnusson, K. Deppert, L. Samuelson, “Nanowires with promise for photovoltaics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 17, 1050–1061 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fan, S.

A. Gu, Y. Huo, S. Hu, T. Sarmiento, E. Pickett, D. Liang, S. Li, A. Lin, S. Thombare, Z. Yu, S. Fan, P. Mclntyre, Y. Cui, J. Harris, “Design and growth of IIIV nanowire solar cell arrays on low cost substrates,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2010 35th IEEE), 002034 –002037.

Fan, Z.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10, 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Y.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferry, V. E.

Y. Yu, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, L. Cao, “Dielectric core-shell optical antennas for strong solar absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett. 7, 3674–3681 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fraas, L.

L. Fraas, L. Partain, Solar cells and their applications (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, T.

H. Goto, K. Nosaki, K. Tomioka, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, J. Motohisa, T. Fukui, “Growth of core–shell InP nanowires for photovoltaic application by selective-area metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Expr. 2, 035004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gargas, D.

R. Yan, D. Gargas, P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nature Photon. 3, 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Garnett, E.

E. Garnett, P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10, 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goto, H.

H. Goto, K. Nosaki, K. Tomioka, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, J. Motohisa, T. Fukui, “Growth of core–shell InP nanowires for photovoltaic application by selective-area metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Expr. 2, 035004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Green, M. A.

M. A. Green, Third generation photovoltaics: advanced solar energy conversion (Springer, 2005).

Gu, A.

A. Gu, Y. Huo, S. Hu, T. Sarmiento, E. Pickett, D. Liang, S. Li, A. Lin, S. Thombare, Z. Yu, S. Fan, P. Mclntyre, Y. Cui, J. Harris, “Design and growth of IIIV nanowire solar cell arrays on low cost substrates,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2010 35th IEEE), 002034 –002037.

Gudiksen, M. S.

L. J. Lauhon, M. S. Gudiksen, D. Wang, C. M. Lieber, “Epitaxial core-shell and core-multishell nanowire heterostructures,” Nature 420, 57–61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hara, S.

H. Goto, K. Nosaki, K. Tomioka, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, J. Motohisa, T. Fukui, “Growth of core–shell InP nanowires for photovoltaic application by selective-area metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Expr. 2, 035004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J.

A. Gu, Y. Huo, S. Hu, T. Sarmiento, E. Pickett, D. Liang, S. Li, A. Lin, S. Thombare, Z. Yu, S. Fan, P. Mclntyre, Y. Cui, J. Harris, “Design and growth of IIIV nanowire solar cell arrays on low cost substrates,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2010 35th IEEE), 002034 –002037.

Heurlin, M.

M. T. Borgstrom, J. Wallentin, M. Heurlin, S. Falt, P. Wickert, J. Leene, M. H. Magnusson, K. Deppert, L. Samuelson, “Nanowires with promise for photovoltaics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 17, 1050–1061 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hiruma, K.

H. Goto, K. Nosaki, K. Tomioka, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, J. Motohisa, T. Fukui, “Growth of core–shell InP nanowires for photovoltaic application by selective-area metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Expr. 2, 035004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, L.

L. Hu, G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7, 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, S.

A. Gu, Y. Huo, S. Hu, T. Sarmiento, E. Pickett, D. Liang, S. Li, A. Lin, S. Thombare, Z. Yu, S. Fan, P. Mclntyre, Y. Cui, J. Harris, “Design and growth of IIIV nanowire solar cell arrays on low cost substrates,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2010 35th IEEE), 002034 –002037.

Huang, J.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, N.

N. Huang, C. Lin, M. L. Povinelli, ”Limiting efficiencies of tandem solar cells consisting of III–V nanowire arrays on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 064321 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huo, Y.

A. Gu, Y. Huo, S. Hu, T. Sarmiento, E. Pickett, D. Liang, S. Li, A. Lin, S. Thombare, Z. Yu, S. Fan, P. Mclntyre, Y. Cui, J. Harris, “Design and growth of IIIV nanowire solar cell arrays on low cost substrates,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2010 35th IEEE), 002034 –002037.

Inose, Y.

Y. Inose, M. Sakai, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, T. Ohtsuki, “Light localization characteristics in a random configuration of dielectric cylindrical columns,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205328 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jamshidi, A.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10, 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Javey, A.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10, 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kapadia, R.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10, 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kempa, T. J.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kikuchi, A.

Y. Inose, M. Sakai, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, T. Ohtsuki, “Light localization characteristics in a random configuration of dielectric cylindrical columns,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205328 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kishino, K.

Y. Inose, M. Sakai, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, T. Ohtsuki, “Light localization characteristics in a random configuration of dielectric cylindrical columns,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205328 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kupec, J.

Lauhon, L. J.

L. J. Lauhon, M. S. Gudiksen, D. Wang, C. M. Lieber, “Epitaxial core-shell and core-multishell nanowire heterostructures,” Nature 420, 57–61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leene, J.

M. T. Borgstrom, J. Wallentin, M. Heurlin, S. Falt, P. Wickert, J. Leene, M. H. Magnusson, K. Deppert, L. Samuelson, “Nanowires with promise for photovoltaics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 17, 1050–1061 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Leu, P. W.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10, 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, S.

A. Gu, Y. Huo, S. Hu, T. Sarmiento, E. Pickett, D. Liang, S. Li, A. Lin, S. Thombare, Z. Yu, S. Fan, P. Mclntyre, Y. Cui, J. Harris, “Design and growth of IIIV nanowire solar cell arrays on low cost substrates,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2010 35th IEEE), 002034 –002037.

Liang, D.

A. Gu, Y. Huo, S. Hu, T. Sarmiento, E. Pickett, D. Liang, S. Li, A. Lin, S. Thombare, Z. Yu, S. Fan, P. Mclntyre, Y. Cui, J. Harris, “Design and growth of IIIV nanowire solar cell arrays on low cost substrates,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2010 35th IEEE), 002034 –002037.

Lieber, C. M.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Lauhon, M. S. Gudiksen, D. Wang, C. M. Lieber, “Epitaxial core-shell and core-multishell nanowire heterostructures,” Nature 420, 57–61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, A.

A. Gu, Y. Huo, S. Hu, T. Sarmiento, E. Pickett, D. Liang, S. Li, A. Lin, S. Thombare, Z. Yu, S. Fan, P. Mclntyre, Y. Cui, J. Harris, “Design and growth of IIIV nanowire solar cell arrays on low cost substrates,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2010 35th IEEE), 002034 –002037.

Lin, C.

N. Huang, C. Lin, M. L. Povinelli, ”Limiting efficiencies of tandem solar cells consisting of III–V nanowire arrays on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 064321 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Magnusson, M. H.

M. T. Borgstrom, J. Wallentin, M. Heurlin, S. Falt, P. Wickert, J. Leene, M. H. Magnusson, K. Deppert, L. Samuelson, “Nanowires with promise for photovoltaics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 17, 1050–1061 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mclntyre, P.

A. Gu, Y. Huo, S. Hu, T. Sarmiento, E. Pickett, D. Liang, S. Li, A. Lin, S. Thombare, Z. Yu, S. Fan, P. Mclntyre, Y. Cui, J. Harris, “Design and growth of IIIV nanowire solar cell arrays on low cost substrates,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2010 35th IEEE), 002034 –002037.

Mi, Z.

H. Nguyen, Y. Chang, I. Shih, Z. Mi, “InN p-i-n nanowire solar cells on Si,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 17, 1062–1069 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Motohisa, J.

H. Goto, K. Nosaki, K. Tomioka, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, J. Motohisa, T. Fukui, “Growth of core–shell InP nanowires for photovoltaic application by selective-area metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Expr. 2, 035004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

H. Nguyen, Y. Chang, I. Shih, Z. Mi, “InN p-i-n nanowire solar cells on Si,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 17, 1062–1069 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nosaki, K.

H. Goto, K. Nosaki, K. Tomioka, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, J. Motohisa, T. Fukui, “Growth of core–shell InP nanowires for photovoltaic application by selective-area metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Expr. 2, 035004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuki, T.

Y. Inose, M. Sakai, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, T. Ohtsuki, “Light localization characteristics in a random configuration of dielectric cylindrical columns,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205328 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of optical constants of solids (Academic Press, 1985).

Partain, L.

L. Fraas, L. Partain, Solar cells and their applications (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010).
[CrossRef]

Pickett, E.

A. Gu, Y. Huo, S. Hu, T. Sarmiento, E. Pickett, D. Liang, S. Li, A. Lin, S. Thombare, Z. Yu, S. Fan, P. Mclntyre, Y. Cui, J. Harris, “Design and growth of IIIV nanowire solar cell arrays on low cost substrates,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2010 35th IEEE), 002034 –002037.

Povinelli, M. L.

N. Huang, C. Lin, M. L. Povinelli, ”Limiting efficiencies of tandem solar cells consisting of III–V nanowire arrays on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 064321 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Queisser, H. J.

W. Shockley, H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Rathore, A. A.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10, 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ruebusch, D. J.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10, 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakai, M.

Y. Inose, M. Sakai, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, T. Ohtsuki, “Light localization characteristics in a random configuration of dielectric cylindrical columns,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205328 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Samuelson, L.

M. T. Borgstrom, J. Wallentin, M. Heurlin, S. Falt, P. Wickert, J. Leene, M. H. Magnusson, K. Deppert, L. Samuelson, “Nanowires with promise for photovoltaics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 17, 1050–1061 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sarmiento, T.

A. Gu, Y. Huo, S. Hu, T. Sarmiento, E. Pickett, D. Liang, S. Li, A. Lin, S. Thombare, Z. Yu, S. Fan, P. Mclntyre, Y. Cui, J. Harris, “Design and growth of IIIV nanowire solar cell arrays on low cost substrates,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2010 35th IEEE), 002034 –002037.

Shih, I.

H. Nguyen, Y. Chang, I. Shih, Z. Mi, “InN p-i-n nanowire solar cells on Si,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 17, 1062–1069 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shockley, W.

W. Shockley, H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Stoop, R. L.

Takei, K.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10, 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thombare, S.

A. Gu, Y. Huo, S. Hu, T. Sarmiento, E. Pickett, D. Liang, S. Li, A. Lin, S. Thombare, Z. Yu, S. Fan, P. Mclntyre, Y. Cui, J. Harris, “Design and growth of IIIV nanowire solar cell arrays on low cost substrates,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2010 35th IEEE), 002034 –002037.

Tian, B.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomioka, K.

H. Goto, K. Nosaki, K. Tomioka, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, J. Motohisa, T. Fukui, “Growth of core–shell InP nanowires for photovoltaic application by selective-area metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Expr. 2, 035004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wallentin, J.

M. T. Borgstrom, J. Wallentin, M. Heurlin, S. Falt, P. Wickert, J. Leene, M. H. Magnusson, K. Deppert, L. Samuelson, “Nanowires with promise for photovoltaics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 17, 1050–1061 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

L. J. Lauhon, M. S. Gudiksen, D. Wang, C. M. Lieber, “Epitaxial core-shell and core-multishell nanowire heterostructures,” Nature 420, 57–61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wickert, P.

M. T. Borgstrom, J. Wallentin, M. Heurlin, S. Falt, P. Wickert, J. Leene, M. H. Magnusson, K. Deppert, L. Samuelson, “Nanowires with promise for photovoltaics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 17, 1050–1061 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Witzigmann, B.

Wu, M.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10, 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wuerfel, P.

P. Wuerfel, Physics of solar cells: from principles to new concepts (Wiley-VCH, 2005).

Yan, R.

R. Yan, D. Gargas, P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nature Photon. 3, 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P.

E. Garnett, P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10, 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yan, D. Gargas, P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nature Photon. 3, 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, K.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10, 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, S.

S. Yu, J. Kupec, B. Witzigmann, “Efficiency analysis of III–V axial and core-shell nanowire solar cells”, J Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 9, 688–695 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

Y. Yu, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, L. Cao, “Dielectric core-shell optical antennas for strong solar absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett. 7, 3674–3681 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Z.

A. Gu, Y. Huo, S. Hu, T. Sarmiento, E. Pickett, D. Liang, S. Li, A. Lin, S. Thombare, Z. Yu, S. Fan, P. Mclntyre, Y. Cui, J. Harris, “Design and growth of IIIV nanowire solar cell arrays on low cost substrates,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2010 35th IEEE), 002034 –002037.

Zhang, X.

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10, 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, X.

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Expr. (1)

H. Goto, K. Nosaki, K. Tomioka, S. Hara, K. Hiruma, J. Motohisa, T. Fukui, “Growth of core–shell InP nanowires for photovoltaic application by selective-area metal organic vapour phase epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Expr. 2, 035004 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant (2)

H. Nguyen, Y. Chang, I. Shih, Z. Mi, “InN p-i-n nanowire solar cells on Si,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 17, 1062–1069 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Borgstrom, J. Wallentin, M. Heurlin, S. Falt, P. Wickert, J. Leene, M. H. Magnusson, K. Deppert, L. Samuelson, “Nanowires with promise for photovoltaics,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quant 17, 1050–1061 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J Comput. Theor. Nanosci. (1)

S. Yu, J. Kupec, B. Witzigmann, “Efficiency analysis of III–V axial and core-shell nanowire solar cells”, J Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 9, 688–695 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

N. Huang, C. Lin, M. L. Povinelli, ”Limiting efficiencies of tandem solar cells consisting of III–V nanowire arrays on silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 112, 064321 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Shockley, H. J. Queisser, “Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32, 510–519 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (4)

Z. Fan, R. Kapadia, P. W. Leu, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Chueh, K. Takei, K. Yu, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Rathore, D. J. Ruebusch, M. Wu, A. Javey, “Ordered arrays of dual-diameter nanopillars for maximized optical absorption,” Nano Lett. 10, 3823–3827 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Garnett, P. Yang, “Light trapping in silicon nanowire solar cells,” Nano Lett. 10, 1082–1087 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Hu, G. Chen, “Analysis of optical absorption in silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaic applications,” Nano Lett. 7, 3249–3252 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, V. E. Ferry, A. P. Alivisatos, L. Cao, “Dielectric core-shell optical antennas for strong solar absorption enhancement,” Nano Lett. 7, 3674–3681 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

B. Tian, X. Zheng, T. J. Kempa, Y. Fang, N. Yu, G. Yu, J. Huang, C. M. Lieber, “Coaxial silicon nanowires as solar cells and nanoelectronic power sources,” Nature 449, 885–889 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Lauhon, M. S. Gudiksen, D. Wang, C. M. Lieber, “Epitaxial core-shell and core-multishell nanowire heterostructures,” Nature 420, 57–61 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature Photon. (1)

R. Yan, D. Gargas, P. Yang, “Nanowire photonics,” Nature Photon. 3, 569–576 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Y. Inose, M. Sakai, K. Ema, A. Kikuchi, K. Kishino, T. Ohtsuki, “Light localization characteristics in a random configuration of dielectric cylindrical columns,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 205328 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

A. Gu, Y. Huo, S. Hu, T. Sarmiento, E. Pickett, D. Liang, S. Li, A. Lin, S. Thombare, Z. Yu, S. Fan, P. Mclntyre, Y. Cui, J. Harris, “Design and growth of IIIV nanowire solar cell arrays on low cost substrates,” in Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC) (2010 35th IEEE), 002034 –002037.

L. Fraas, L. Partain, Solar cells and their applications (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Green, Third generation photovoltaics: advanced solar energy conversion (Springer, 2005).

P. Wuerfel, Physics of solar cells: from principles to new concepts (Wiley-VCH, 2005).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of optical constants of solids (Academic Press, 1985).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dual-diameter nanowire array solar cell structure. Geometrical parameters are noted in the picture: a is the array pitch, d and D are the respective diameters of core and shell nanowire, h and H are the respective heights of core and shell nanowire. (a): Dual-diameter nanowire array. (b): Single wire structure: blue region is the core nanowire with a small diameter and a large bandgap (Eg_c), red region is the shell nanowire with a large diameter and a small band gap (Eg_s), yellow region is the substrate (Eg_sub). (c) Radially arranged dual-junction structure, the contacts for core and shell junctions are noted.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized optical absorptivity of dual-diameter nanowire array solar cell. The short wavelength spectrum (λ <= 800 nm) is absorbed in the core nanowire with absorptivity above 90%. The long wavelength spectrum is absorbed in the shell nanowire. The band gap positions are noted with arrows in the figure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical generation localization under different wavelength illumination. (a): 500 nm wavelength, the optical generation is localized in core nanowire. (b): 1040 nm wavelength, the optical generation is localized in shell nanowire. (c): Radial distribution of optical generation at 500 nm wavelength, generation localized in core nanowire. (d): Radial distribution of optical generation at 1040 nm wavelength, generation localized in shell nanowire.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Current-voltage relationship of dual-diameter nanowire array solar cell evaluated by detailed balance limit calculation. For the output of dual-junction solar cell, Jsc is 229.2 A/m2, and Voc is 1.92 V. The maximum cell efficiency is 39.1%

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

a ( r , λ ) = P abs ( r , λ ) / P A M 1.5 D ( λ )
g ( r , λ ) = a ( r , λ ) P A M 1.5 D ( λ ) λ / h c
I = I s c I 0 ( exp V / V c 1 )
V c = k B T c q
I s c = q Vol 0 g ( r , λ ) d r d λ

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