Abstract

We herein report on the improved photovoltaic (PV) effects of using a polymer bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) layer that consists of a low-band gap electron donor polymer of poly(N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3′-benzothiadiazole)) (PCDTBT) and an acceptor of [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM70), doped with an interface-engineering surfactant additive of poly(oxyethylene tridecyl ether) (PTE). The presence of an interface-engineering additive in the PV layer results in excellent performance; the addition of PTE to a PCDTBT:PCBM70 system produces a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.0%, which is much higher than that of a reference device without the additive (4.9%). We attribute this improvement to an increased charge carrier lifetime, which is likely to be the result of the presence of PTE molecules oriented at the interfaces between the BHJ PV layer and the anode and cathode, as well as at the interfaces between the phase-separated BHJ domains. Our results suggest that the incorporation of the PTE interface-engineering additive in the PCDTBT:PCBM70 PV layer results in a functional composite system that shows considerable promise for use in efficient polymer BHJ PV cells.

© 2012 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science 270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043704 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Thermal stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. M. Coakley, M. D. McGehee, “Conjugated polymer photovoltaic cells,” Chem. Mater. 16(23), 4533–4542 (2004).
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  7. G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Morana, M. Wegscheider, A. Bonanni, N. Kopidakis, S. Shaheen, M. Scharber, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. Brabec, “Bipolar charge transport in PCPDTBT-PCBM bulk-heterojuction for photovoltaic application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(12), 1757–1766 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T.-Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
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  11. J. Zhou, X. Wan, Y. Liu, F. Wang, G. Long, C. Li, Y. Chen, “Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of a poly(2,7-carbazole) derivative based on dithienosilole and benzothiadiazole,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 212(11), 1109–1114 (2011).
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  12. J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  18. G. Dennler, A. J. Mozer, G. Juška, A. Pivrikas, R. Österbacka, A. Fuchsbauer, N. S. Sariciftci, “Charge carrier mobility and lifetime versus composition of conjugated polymer/fullerene bulk-heterojuction solar cells,” Org. Electron. 7(4), 229–234 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Huang, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Influence of composition and heat-treatment on the charge transport properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester blends,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(11), 112105 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  21. H.-L. Yip, S. K. Hau, N. S. Baek, H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, “Polymer solar cells that use self-assembled-monolayer-modified ZnO/Metals as cathodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(12), 2376–2382 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. J. Mozer, G. Dennler, N. S. Sariciftci, M. Westerling, A. Pivrikas, R. Österbacka, G. Juška, “Time-dependent mobility and recombination of the photoinduced charge carriers in conjugated polyer/fullerene bulk heterojuction solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035217 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. R. Cowan, R. A. Street, S. Cho, A. J. Heeger, “Transient photoconductivity in polymer bulk heterojuction solar cells: Competition between sweep-out and recombination,” Phys. Rev. B 83(3), 035205 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. B. Yang, Y. Yuan, P. Sharma, S. Poddar, R. Korlacki, S. Ducharme, A. Gruverman, R. Saraf, J. Huang, “Tuning the energy level offset between donor and acceptor with ferroelectric dipole layers for increased efficiency in bilayer organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(11), 1455–1460 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. P. P. Boix, J. Ajuria, R. Pacios, G. Garcia-Belmonte, “Carrier recombination losses in inverted polymer: Fullerene solar cells with ZnO hole-blocking layer from transient photovoltage and impedance spectroscopy techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074514 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  28. V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Effect of self-organization in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojuctions on solar cell performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 063505 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2012

B. Yang, Y. Yuan, P. Sharma, S. Poddar, R. Korlacki, S. Ducharme, A. Gruverman, R. Saraf, J. Huang, “Tuning the energy level offset between donor and acceptor with ferroelectric dipole layers for increased efficiency in bilayer organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(11), 1455–1460 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

P. P. Boix, J. Ajuria, R. Pacios, G. Garcia-Belmonte, “Carrier recombination losses in inverted polymer: Fullerene solar cells with ZnO hole-blocking layer from transient photovoltage and impedance spectroscopy techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Cowan, R. A. Street, S. Cho, A. J. Heeger, “Transient photoconductivity in polymer bulk heterojuction solar cells: Competition between sweep-out and recombination,” Phys. Rev. B 83(3), 035205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, X. Wan, Y. Liu, F. Wang, G. Long, C. Li, Y. Chen, “Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of a poly(2,7-carbazole) derivative based on dithienosilole and benzothiadiazole,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 212(11), 1109–1114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. C. Hesse, J. Weickert, M. Al-Hussein, L. Dössel, X. Feng, K. Müllen, L. Schmidt-Mende, “Discotic materials for organic solar cells: effect of chemical structure on assembly and performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 560–567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Garcia-Belmonte, J. Bisquert, “Open-circuit voltage limit caused by recombination through tail states in bulk heterojuction polymer-fullerene solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. Ho Huh, J. S. Lim, S. Cheol Yoon, B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

B. Park, Y. H. Huh, M. Kim, “Surfactant additives for improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(48), 10862–10868 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Cho, J. H. Seo, S. H. Park, S. Beaupré, M. Leclerc, A. J. Heeger, “A thermally stable semiconducting polymer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(11), 1253–1257 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

M. Morana, M. Wegscheider, A. Bonanni, N. Kopidakis, S. Shaheen, M. Scharber, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. Brabec, “Bipolar charge transport in PCPDTBT-PCBM bulk-heterojuction for photovoltaic application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(12), 1757–1766 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-L. Yip, S. K. Hau, N. S. Baek, H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, “Polymer solar cells that use self-assembled-monolayer-modified ZnO/Metals as cathodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(12), 2376–2382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T.-Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

G. Dennler, A. J. Mozer, G. Juška, A. Pivrikas, R. Österbacka, A. Fuchsbauer, N. S. Sariciftci, “Charge carrier mobility and lifetime versus composition of conjugated polymer/fullerene bulk-heterojuction solar cells,” Org. Electron. 7(4), 229–234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Effect of self-organization in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojuctions on solar cell performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 063505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

A. J. Mozer, G. Dennler, N. S. Sariciftci, M. Westerling, A. Pivrikas, R. Österbacka, G. Juška, “Time-dependent mobility and recombination of the photoinduced charge carriers in conjugated polyer/fullerene bulk heterojuction solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Influence of composition and heat-treatment on the charge transport properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester blends,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(11), 112105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Thermal stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. M. Coakley, M. D. McGehee, “Conjugated polymer photovoltaic cells,” Chem. Mater. 16(23), 4533–4542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1995

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science 270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1992

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ajuria, J.

P. P. Boix, J. Ajuria, R. Pacios, G. Garcia-Belmonte, “Carrier recombination losses in inverted polymer: Fullerene solar cells with ZnO hole-blocking layer from transient photovoltage and impedance spectroscopy techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Al-Hussein, M.

H. C. Hesse, J. Weickert, M. Al-Hussein, L. Dössel, X. Feng, K. Müllen, L. Schmidt-Mende, “Discotic materials for organic solar cells: effect of chemical structure on assembly and performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 560–567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baek, N. S.

H.-L. Yip, S. K. Hau, N. S. Baek, H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, “Polymer solar cells that use self-assembled-monolayer-modified ZnO/Metals as cathodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(12), 2376–2382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bazan, G. C.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beaupré, S.

S. Cho, J. H. Seo, S. H. Park, S. Beaupré, M. Leclerc, A. J. Heeger, “A thermally stable semiconducting polymer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(11), 1253–1257 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bisquert, J.

G. Garcia-Belmonte, J. Bisquert, “Open-circuit voltage limit caused by recombination through tail states in bulk heterojuction polymer-fullerene solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Boix, P. P.

P. P. Boix, J. Ajuria, R. Pacios, G. Garcia-Belmonte, “Carrier recombination losses in inverted polymer: Fullerene solar cells with ZnO hole-blocking layer from transient photovoltage and impedance spectroscopy techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bonanni, A.

M. Morana, M. Wegscheider, A. Bonanni, N. Kopidakis, S. Shaheen, M. Scharber, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. Brabec, “Bipolar charge transport in PCPDTBT-PCBM bulk-heterojuction for photovoltaic application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(12), 1757–1766 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C.

M. Morana, M. Wegscheider, A. Bonanni, N. Kopidakis, S. Shaheen, M. Scharber, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. Brabec, “Bipolar charge transport in PCPDTBT-PCBM bulk-heterojuction for photovoltaic application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(12), 1757–1766 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brabec, C. J.

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

J. Zhou, X. Wan, Y. Liu, F. Wang, G. Long, C. Li, Y. Chen, “Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of a poly(2,7-carbazole) derivative based on dithienosilole and benzothiadiazole,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 212(11), 1109–1114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheol Yoon, S.

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. Ho Huh, J. S. Lim, S. Cheol Yoon, B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cho, G. S.

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.

S. R. Cowan, R. A. Street, S. Cho, A. J. Heeger, “Transient photoconductivity in polymer bulk heterojuction solar cells: Competition between sweep-out and recombination,” Phys. Rev. B 83(3), 035205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cho, J. H. Seo, S. H. Park, S. Beaupré, M. Leclerc, A. J. Heeger, “A thermally stable semiconducting polymer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(11), 1253–1257 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, E. H.

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coakley, K. M.

K. M. Coakley, M. D. McGehee, “Conjugated polymer photovoltaic cells,” Chem. Mater. 16(23), 4533–4542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Coates, N.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Coates, N. E.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T.-Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cowan, S. R.

S. R. Cowan, R. A. Street, S. Cho, A. J. Heeger, “Transient photoconductivity in polymer bulk heterojuction solar cells: Competition between sweep-out and recombination,” Phys. Rev. B 83(3), 035205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dante, M.

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T.-Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dennler, G.

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Dennler, A. J. Mozer, G. Juška, A. Pivrikas, R. Österbacka, A. Fuchsbauer, N. S. Sariciftci, “Charge carrier mobility and lifetime versus composition of conjugated polymer/fullerene bulk-heterojuction solar cells,” Org. Electron. 7(4), 229–234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Mozer, G. Dennler, N. S. Sariciftci, M. Westerling, A. Pivrikas, R. Österbacka, G. Juška, “Time-dependent mobility and recombination of the photoinduced charge carriers in conjugated polyer/fullerene bulk heterojuction solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dössel, L.

H. C. Hesse, J. Weickert, M. Al-Hussein, L. Dössel, X. Feng, K. Müllen, L. Schmidt-Mende, “Discotic materials for organic solar cells: effect of chemical structure on assembly and performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 560–567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ducharme, S.

B. Yang, Y. Yuan, P. Sharma, S. Poddar, R. Korlacki, S. Ducharme, A. Gruverman, R. Saraf, J. Huang, “Tuning the energy level offset between donor and acceptor with ferroelectric dipole layers for increased efficiency in bilayer organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(11), 1455–1460 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, X.

H. C. Hesse, J. Weickert, M. Al-Hussein, L. Dössel, X. Feng, K. Müllen, L. Schmidt-Mende, “Discotic materials for organic solar cells: effect of chemical structure on assembly and performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 560–567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fuchsbauer, A.

G. Dennler, A. J. Mozer, G. Juška, A. Pivrikas, R. Österbacka, A. Fuchsbauer, N. S. Sariciftci, “Charge carrier mobility and lifetime versus composition of conjugated polymer/fullerene bulk-heterojuction solar cells,” Org. Electron. 7(4), 229–234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science 270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Belmonte, G.

P. P. Boix, J. Ajuria, R. Pacios, G. Garcia-Belmonte, “Carrier recombination losses in inverted polymer: Fullerene solar cells with ZnO hole-blocking layer from transient photovoltage and impedance spectroscopy techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Garcia-Belmonte, J. Bisquert, “Open-circuit voltage limit caused by recombination through tail states in bulk heterojuction polymer-fullerene solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113301 (2010).
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Gaudiana, R.

M. Morana, M. Wegscheider, A. Bonanni, N. Kopidakis, S. Shaheen, M. Scharber, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. Brabec, “Bipolar charge transport in PCPDTBT-PCBM bulk-heterojuction for photovoltaic application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(12), 1757–1766 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gong, X.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Thermal stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gruverman, A.

B. Yang, Y. Yuan, P. Sharma, S. Poddar, R. Korlacki, S. Ducharme, A. Gruverman, R. Saraf, J. Huang, “Tuning the energy level offset between donor and acceptor with ferroelectric dipole layers for increased efficiency in bilayer organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(11), 1455–1460 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hau, S. K.

H.-L. Yip, S. K. Hau, N. S. Baek, H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, “Polymer solar cells that use self-assembled-monolayer-modified ZnO/Metals as cathodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(12), 2376–2382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

S. R. Cowan, R. A. Street, S. Cho, A. J. Heeger, “Transient photoconductivity in polymer bulk heterojuction solar cells: Competition between sweep-out and recombination,” Phys. Rev. B 83(3), 035205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Cho, J. H. Seo, S. H. Park, S. Beaupré, M. Leclerc, A. J. Heeger, “A thermally stable semiconducting polymer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(11), 1253–1257 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T.-Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Thermal stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science 270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hesse, H. C.

H. C. Hesse, J. Weickert, M. Al-Hussein, L. Dössel, X. Feng, K. Müllen, L. Schmidt-Mende, “Discotic materials for organic solar cells: effect of chemical structure on assembly and performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 560–567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ho Huh, Y.

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. Ho Huh, J. S. Lim, S. Cheol Yoon, B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hong, B. H.

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

B. Yang, Y. Yuan, P. Sharma, S. Poddar, R. Korlacki, S. Ducharme, A. Gruverman, R. Saraf, J. Huang, “Tuning the energy level offset between donor and acceptor with ferroelectric dipole layers for increased efficiency in bilayer organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(11), 1455–1460 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huang, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Influence of composition and heat-treatment on the charge transport properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester blends,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(11), 112105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huh, Y. H.

B. Park, Y. H. Huh, M. Kim, “Surfactant additives for improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(48), 10862–10868 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hummelen, J. C.

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science 270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

H.-L. Yip, S. K. Hau, N. S. Baek, H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, “Polymer solar cells that use self-assembled-monolayer-modified ZnO/Metals as cathodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(12), 2376–2382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Juška, G.

G. Dennler, A. J. Mozer, G. Juška, A. Pivrikas, R. Österbacka, A. Fuchsbauer, N. S. Sariciftci, “Charge carrier mobility and lifetime versus composition of conjugated polymer/fullerene bulk-heterojuction solar cells,” Org. Electron. 7(4), 229–234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Mozer, G. Dennler, N. S. Sariciftci, M. Westerling, A. Pivrikas, R. Österbacka, G. Juška, “Time-dependent mobility and recombination of the photoinduced charge carriers in conjugated polyer/fullerene bulk heterojuction solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T.-Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M.

B. Park, Y. H. Huh, M. Kim, “Surfactant additives for improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(48), 10862–10868 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. Ho Huh, J. S. Lim, S. Cheol Yoon, B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. W.

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kopidakis, N.

M. Morana, M. Wegscheider, A. Bonanni, N. Kopidakis, S. Shaheen, M. Scharber, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. Brabec, “Bipolar charge transport in PCPDTBT-PCBM bulk-heterojuction for photovoltaic application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(12), 1757–1766 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Korlacki, R.

B. Yang, Y. Yuan, P. Sharma, S. Poddar, R. Korlacki, S. Ducharme, A. Gruverman, R. Saraf, J. Huang, “Tuning the energy level offset between donor and acceptor with ferroelectric dipole layers for increased efficiency in bilayer organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(11), 1455–1460 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leclerc, M.

S. Cho, J. H. Seo, S. H. Park, S. Beaupré, M. Leclerc, A. J. Heeger, “A thermally stable semiconducting polymer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(11), 1253–1257 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T.-Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Thermal stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. I.

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. Ho Huh, J. S. Lim, S. Cheol Yoon, B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

J. Zhou, X. Wan, Y. Liu, F. Wang, G. Long, C. Li, Y. Chen, “Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of a poly(2,7-carbazole) derivative based on dithienosilole and benzothiadiazole,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 212(11), 1109–1114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Effect of self-organization in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojuctions on solar cell performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 063505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Influence of composition and heat-treatment on the charge transport properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester blends,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(11), 112105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Y.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, J.

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. S.

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. Ho Huh, J. S. Lim, S. Cheol Yoon, B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

J. Zhou, X. Wan, Y. Liu, F. Wang, G. Long, C. Li, Y. Chen, “Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of a poly(2,7-carbazole) derivative based on dithienosilole and benzothiadiazole,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 212(11), 1109–1114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Long, G.

J. Zhou, X. Wan, Y. Liu, F. Wang, G. Long, C. Li, Y. Chen, “Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of a poly(2,7-carbazole) derivative based on dithienosilole and benzothiadiazole,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 212(11), 1109–1114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

H.-L. Yip, S. K. Hau, N. S. Baek, H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, “Polymer solar cells that use self-assembled-monolayer-modified ZnO/Metals as cathodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(12), 2376–2382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ma, W.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Thermal stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ma, W. L.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGehee, M. D.

K. M. Coakley, M. D. McGehee, “Conjugated polymer photovoltaic cells,” Chem. Mater. 16(23), 4533–4542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moon, J. S.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Morana, M.

M. Morana, M. Wegscheider, A. Bonanni, N. Kopidakis, S. Shaheen, M. Scharber, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. Brabec, “Bipolar charge transport in PCPDTBT-PCBM bulk-heterojuction for photovoltaic application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(12), 1757–1766 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Moses, D.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T.-Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mozer, A. J.

G. Dennler, A. J. Mozer, G. Juška, A. Pivrikas, R. Österbacka, A. Fuchsbauer, N. S. Sariciftci, “Charge carrier mobility and lifetime versus composition of conjugated polymer/fullerene bulk-heterojuction solar cells,” Org. Electron. 7(4), 229–234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Mozer, G. Dennler, N. S. Sariciftci, M. Westerling, A. Pivrikas, R. Österbacka, G. Juška, “Time-dependent mobility and recombination of the photoinduced charge carriers in conjugated polyer/fullerene bulk heterojuction solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Müllen, K.

H. C. Hesse, J. Weickert, M. Al-Hussein, L. Dössel, X. Feng, K. Müllen, L. Schmidt-Mende, “Discotic materials for organic solar cells: effect of chemical structure on assembly and performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 560–567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, T.-Q.

J. Y. Kim, K. Lee, N. E. Coates, D. Moses, T.-Q. Nguyen, M. Dante, A. J. Heeger, “Efficient tandem polymer solar cells fabricated by all-solution processing,” Science 317(5835), 222–225 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, S. S.

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Österbacka, R.

G. Dennler, A. J. Mozer, G. Juška, A. Pivrikas, R. Österbacka, A. Fuchsbauer, N. S. Sariciftci, “Charge carrier mobility and lifetime versus composition of conjugated polymer/fullerene bulk-heterojuction solar cells,” Org. Electron. 7(4), 229–234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Mozer, G. Dennler, N. S. Sariciftci, M. Westerling, A. Pivrikas, R. Österbacka, G. Juška, “Time-dependent mobility and recombination of the photoinduced charge carriers in conjugated polyer/fullerene bulk heterojuction solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pacios, R.

P. P. Boix, J. Ajuria, R. Pacios, G. Garcia-Belmonte, “Carrier recombination losses in inverted polymer: Fullerene solar cells with ZnO hole-blocking layer from transient photovoltage and impedance spectroscopy techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, B.

B. Park, Y. H. Huh, M. Kim, “Surfactant additives for improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(48), 10862–10868 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. Ho Huh, J. S. Lim, S. Cheol Yoon, B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. H.

S. Cho, J. H. Seo, S. H. Park, S. Beaupré, M. Leclerc, A. J. Heeger, “A thermally stable semiconducting polymer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(11), 1253–1257 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Peet, J.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pivrikas, A.

G. Dennler, A. J. Mozer, G. Juška, A. Pivrikas, R. Österbacka, A. Fuchsbauer, N. S. Sariciftci, “Charge carrier mobility and lifetime versus composition of conjugated polymer/fullerene bulk-heterojuction solar cells,” Org. Electron. 7(4), 229–234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Mozer, G. Dennler, N. S. Sariciftci, M. Westerling, A. Pivrikas, R. Österbacka, G. Juška, “Time-dependent mobility and recombination of the photoinduced charge carriers in conjugated polyer/fullerene bulk heterojuction solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poddar, S.

B. Yang, Y. Yuan, P. Sharma, S. Poddar, R. Korlacki, S. Ducharme, A. Gruverman, R. Saraf, J. Huang, “Tuning the energy level offset between donor and acceptor with ferroelectric dipole layers for increased efficiency in bilayer organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(11), 1455–1460 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ray, C.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roy, A.

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Saraf, R.

B. Yang, Y. Yuan, P. Sharma, S. Poddar, R. Korlacki, S. Ducharme, A. Gruverman, R. Saraf, J. Huang, “Tuning the energy level offset between donor and acceptor with ferroelectric dipole layers for increased efficiency in bilayer organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(11), 1455–1460 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sariciftci, N. S.

G. Dennler, A. J. Mozer, G. Juška, A. Pivrikas, R. Österbacka, A. Fuchsbauer, N. S. Sariciftci, “Charge carrier mobility and lifetime versus composition of conjugated polymer/fullerene bulk-heterojuction solar cells,” Org. Electron. 7(4), 229–234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Mozer, G. Dennler, N. S. Sariciftci, M. Westerling, A. Pivrikas, R. Österbacka, G. Juška, “Time-dependent mobility and recombination of the photoinduced charge carriers in conjugated polyer/fullerene bulk heterojuction solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scharber, M.

M. Morana, M. Wegscheider, A. Bonanni, N. Kopidakis, S. Shaheen, M. Scharber, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. Brabec, “Bipolar charge transport in PCPDTBT-PCBM bulk-heterojuction for photovoltaic application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(12), 1757–1766 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Scharber, M. C.

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Mende, L.

H. C. Hesse, J. Weickert, M. Al-Hussein, L. Dössel, X. Feng, K. Müllen, L. Schmidt-Mende, “Discotic materials for organic solar cells: effect of chemical structure on assembly and performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 560–567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seo, J. H.

S. Cho, J. H. Seo, S. H. Park, S. Beaupré, M. Leclerc, A. J. Heeger, “A thermally stable semiconducting polymer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(11), 1253–1257 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, Y. H.

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shaheen, S.

M. Morana, M. Wegscheider, A. Bonanni, N. Kopidakis, S. Shaheen, M. Scharber, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. Brabec, “Bipolar charge transport in PCPDTBT-PCBM bulk-heterojuction for photovoltaic application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(12), 1757–1766 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, P.

B. Yang, Y. Yuan, P. Sharma, S. Poddar, R. Korlacki, S. Ducharme, A. Gruverman, R. Saraf, J. Huang, “Tuning the energy level offset between donor and acceptor with ferroelectric dipole layers for increased efficiency in bilayer organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(11), 1455–1460 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shrotriya, V.

V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Effect of self-organization in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojuctions on solar cell performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 063505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smilowitz, L.

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Street, R. A.

S. R. Cowan, R. A. Street, S. Cho, A. J. Heeger, “Transient photoconductivity in polymer bulk heterojuction solar cells: Competition between sweep-out and recombination,” Phys. Rev. B 83(3), 035205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, S.-T.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waller, D.

M. Morana, M. Wegscheider, A. Bonanni, N. Kopidakis, S. Shaheen, M. Scharber, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. Brabec, “Bipolar charge transport in PCPDTBT-PCBM bulk-heterojuction for photovoltaic application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(12), 1757–1766 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wan, X.

J. Zhou, X. Wan, Y. Liu, F. Wang, G. Long, C. Li, Y. Chen, “Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of a poly(2,7-carbazole) derivative based on dithienosilole and benzothiadiazole,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 212(11), 1109–1114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, F.

J. Zhou, X. Wan, Y. Liu, F. Wang, G. Long, C. Li, Y. Chen, “Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of a poly(2,7-carbazole) derivative based on dithienosilole and benzothiadiazole,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 212(11), 1109–1114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wegscheider, M.

M. Morana, M. Wegscheider, A. Bonanni, N. Kopidakis, S. Shaheen, M. Scharber, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. Brabec, “Bipolar charge transport in PCPDTBT-PCBM bulk-heterojuction for photovoltaic application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(12), 1757–1766 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Weickert, J.

H. C. Hesse, J. Weickert, M. Al-Hussein, L. Dössel, X. Feng, K. Müllen, L. Schmidt-Mende, “Discotic materials for organic solar cells: effect of chemical structure on assembly and performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 560–567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Westerling, M.

A. J. Mozer, G. Dennler, N. S. Sariciftci, M. Westerling, A. Pivrikas, R. Österbacka, G. Juška, “Time-dependent mobility and recombination of the photoinduced charge carriers in conjugated polyer/fullerene bulk heterojuction solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wudl, F.

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science 270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, J.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, B.

B. Yang, Y. Yuan, P. Sharma, S. Poddar, R. Korlacki, S. Ducharme, A. Gruverman, R. Saraf, J. Huang, “Tuning the energy level offset between donor and acceptor with ferroelectric dipole layers for increased efficiency in bilayer organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(11), 1455–1460 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Thermal stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Effect of self-organization in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojuctions on solar cell performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 063505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Influence of composition and heat-treatment on the charge transport properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester blends,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(11), 112105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yao, Y.

V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Effect of self-organization in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojuctions on solar cell performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 063505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yip, H.-L.

H.-L. Yip, S. K. Hau, N. S. Baek, H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, “Polymer solar cells that use self-assembled-monolayer-modified ZnO/Metals as cathodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(12), 2376–2382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S. C.

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science 270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, Y.

B. Yang, Y. Yuan, P. Sharma, S. Poddar, R. Korlacki, S. Ducharme, A. Gruverman, R. Saraf, J. Huang, “Tuning the energy level offset between donor and acceptor with ferroelectric dipole layers for increased efficiency in bilayer organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(11), 1455–1460 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, X. Wan, Y. Liu, F. Wang, G. Long, C. Li, Y. Chen, “Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of a poly(2,7-carbazole) derivative based on dithienosilole and benzothiadiazole,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 212(11), 1109–1114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z.

M. Morana, M. Wegscheider, A. Bonanni, N. Kopidakis, S. Shaheen, M. Scharber, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. Brabec, “Bipolar charge transport in PCPDTBT-PCBM bulk-heterojuction for photovoltaic application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(12), 1757–1766 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Funct. Mater.

C. J. Brabec, N. S. Sariciftci, J. C. Hummelen, “Plastic solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 15–26 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Ma, C. Yang, X. Gong, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Thermal stable, efficient polymer solar cells with nanoscale control of the interpenetrating network morphology,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(10), 1617–1622 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Morana, M. Wegscheider, A. Bonanni, N. Kopidakis, S. Shaheen, M. Scharber, Z. Zhu, D. Waller, R. Gaudiana, C. Brabec, “Bipolar charge transport in PCPDTBT-PCBM bulk-heterojuction for photovoltaic application,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(12), 1757–1766 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

G. Dennler, M. C. Scharber, C. J. Brabec, “Polymer-fullerene bulk-heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 21(13), 1323–1338 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liang, Z. Xu, J. Xia, S.-T. Tsai, Y. Wu, G. Li, C. Ray, L. Yu, “For the bright future-bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 7.4%,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(20), E135–E138 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-L. Yip, S. K. Hau, N. S. Baek, H. Ma, A. K.-Y. Jen, “Polymer solar cells that use self-assembled-monolayer-modified ZnO/Metals as cathodes,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 20(12), 2376–2382 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Cho, J. H. Seo, S. H. Park, S. Beaupré, M. Leclerc, A. J. Heeger, “A thermally stable semiconducting polymer,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 22(11), 1253–1257 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Yang, Y. Yuan, P. Sharma, S. Poddar, R. Korlacki, S. Ducharme, A. Gruverman, R. Saraf, J. Huang, “Tuning the energy level offset between donor and acceptor with ferroelectric dipole layers for increased efficiency in bilayer organic photovoltaic cells,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) 24(11), 1455–1460 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Effect of self-organization in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojuctions on solar cell performance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(6), 063505 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Park, S. S. Oh, S. W. Kim, E. H. Choi, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Seo, G. S. Cho, B. Park, J. Lim, S. C. Yoon, C. Lee, “Double interfacial layers for highly efficient organic light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(15), 153508 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Huang, G. Li, Y. Yang, “Influence of composition and heat-treatment on the charge transport properties of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester blends,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(11), 112105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. Garcia-Belmonte, J. Bisquert, “Open-circuit voltage limit caused by recombination through tail states in bulk heterojuction polymer-fullerene solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(11), 113301 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater.

K. M. Coakley, M. D. McGehee, “Conjugated polymer photovoltaic cells,” Chem. Mater. 16(23), 4533–4542 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, Y. Yao, Y. Yang, “Investigation of annealing effects and film thickness dependence of polymer solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene),” J. Appl. Phys. 98(4), 043704 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Boix, J. Ajuria, R. Pacios, G. Garcia-Belmonte, “Carrier recombination losses in inverted polymer: Fullerene solar cells with ZnO hole-blocking layer from transient photovoltage and impedance spectroscopy techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(7), 074514 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

B. Park, Y. H. Huh, M. Kim, “Surfactant additives for improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells,” J. Mater. Chem. 20(48), 10862–10868 (2010).
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Macromol. Chem. Phys.

J. Zhou, X. Wan, Y. Liu, F. Wang, G. Long, C. Li, Y. Chen, “Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of a poly(2,7-carbazole) derivative based on dithienosilole and benzothiadiazole,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 212(11), 1109–1114 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

J. Peet, J. Y. Kim, N. E. Coates, W. L. Ma, D. Moses, A. J. Heeger, G. C. Bazan, “Efficiency enhancement in low-bandgap polymer solar cells by processing with alkane dithiols,” Nat. Mater. 6(7), 497–500 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

S. H. Park, A. Roy, S. Beaupré, S. Cho, N. Coates, J. S. Moon, D. Moses, M. Leclerc, K. Lee, A. J. Heeger, “Bulk heterojunction solar cells with internal quantum efficiency approaching 100%,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 297–302 (2009).
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Org. Electron.

G. Dennler, A. J. Mozer, G. Juška, A. Pivrikas, R. Österbacka, A. Fuchsbauer, N. S. Sariciftci, “Charge carrier mobility and lifetime versus composition of conjugated polymer/fullerene bulk-heterojuction solar cells,” Org. Electron. 7(4), 229–234 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

A. J. Mozer, G. Dennler, N. S. Sariciftci, M. Westerling, A. Pivrikas, R. Österbacka, G. Juška, “Time-dependent mobility and recombination of the photoinduced charge carriers in conjugated polyer/fullerene bulk heterojuction solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B 72(3), 035217 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Cowan, R. A. Street, S. Cho, A. J. Heeger, “Transient photoconductivity in polymer bulk heterojuction solar cells: Competition between sweep-out and recombination,” Phys. Rev. B 83(3), 035205 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Science

N. S. Sariciftci, L. Smilowitz, A. J. Heeger, F. Wudl, “Photoinduced electron transfer from a conducting polymer to buckminsterfullerene,” Science 258(5087), 1474–1476 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Yu, J. Gao, J. C. Hummelen, F. Wudl, A. J. Heeger, “Polymer photovoltaic cells: enhanced efficiencies via a network of internal donor-acceptor heterojunctions,” Science 270(5243), 1789–1791 (1995).
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Y. I. Lee, M. Kim, Y. Ho Huh, J. S. Lim, S. Cheol Yoon, B. Park, “Improved photovoltaic effect of polymer solar cells with nanoscale interfacial layers,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(6), 1152–1156 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Hesse, J. Weickert, M. Al-Hussein, L. Dössel, X. Feng, K. Müllen, L. Schmidt-Mende, “Discotic materials for organic solar cells: effect of chemical structure on assembly and performance,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(3), 560–567 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other

B. D. Cullity, Elements of X-Ray Diffraction (Addison-Wesley, 1956).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematics of the structure of the PSC studied, which incorporates a PCDTBT:PCBM70 layer with a PTE interface-engineering additive; PCDTBT:PCBM70:PTE. (b) Device structures of the model PSC device investigated, which incorporates stacked PV layers with an ultrathin PTE interlayer; PCDTBT/PTE/PCBM70 (stacked PSC). (c) Left: Energy band diagram for the PSCs studied. Right: Chemical structures of the materials used.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The J-V characteristics of BHJ PSCs with and without the PTE additive. (b) IPCE spectra of PCDTBT:PCBM70 PSCs with and without the PTE additive.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) UV-vis absorption spectra of PCDTBT:PCBM70, with and without the PTE additive. (b) XRD spectra of PCDTBT:PCBM70 with and without the PTE additive. The black curve shows the XRD spectra for an annealed P3HT: PCBM60 BHJ PV layer. (c) 3-D topographical AFM images for PCDTBT:PCBM70 and PCDTBT:PCBM70:PTE films, before and after thermal annealing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Double logarithmic plots of the electron (a) and hole (b) TOF photocurrent transients measured at E = 9.4 × 10 5 V/cm for the PCDTBT:PCBM70 BHJ PV layers with and without the PTE additive.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Water drops on the surfaces of pure PCDTBT, pure PCBM70, PTE-mixed PCDTBT, and PTE-mixed PCBM70 films.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Representative J-V curves of the stacked (bilayer) PSC with the PCDTBT and PCBM70 layers (PCDTBT/PCBM70), together with the representative J-V curves for the stacked PSC with the PTE interlayer between the PCDTBT and the PCBM70 layers (PCDTBT/PTE/PCBM70) in the dark (a) and under illumination (b).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Normalized TPV decay signals for the BHJ PSCs with and without PTE additive, under VOC = 0.85 V. Solid curves show the least-squares fits. Inset shows carrier lifetimes as a function of VOC for the BHJ PSCs studied. The solid lines show the linear least-squares fits. (b) Photocurrent as a function of VEFF, for the BHJ PSCs, under illumination. The solid curves represent the theoretical JPH values.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Average photovoltaic performances of the PSCs studied.

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