Abstract

Spatially-resolved electroluminescence (EL) images in the triple-junction InGaP/InGaAs/Ge solar cell have been investigated to demonstrate the subcell coupling effect. Upon irradiating the infrared light with an energy below bandgap of the active layer in the top subcell, but above that in the middle subcell, the EL of the top subcell quenches. By analysis of EL intensity as a function of irradiation level, it is found that the coupled p-n junction structure and the photovoltaic effect are responsible for the observed EL quenching. With optical coupling and photoswitching effects in the multi-junction diode, a concept of infrared image sensors is proposed.

© 2012 OSA

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  1. S. Kurtz, J. Geisz, “Multijunction solar cells for conversion of concentrated sunlight to electricity,” Opt. Express 18(S1), A73–A78 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Fuyuki, H. Kondo, T. Yamazaki, Y. Takahashi, Y. Uraoka, “Photographic surveying of minority carrier diffusion length in polycrystalline silicon solar cells by electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 262108 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Giesecke, M. Kasemann, W. Warta, “Determination of local minority carrier diffusion lengths in crystalline silicon from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(1), 014907 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Würfel, T. Trupke, T. Puzzer, E. Schäffer, W. Warta, S. W. Glunz, “Diffusion lengths of silicon solar cells from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Glatthaar, J. Giesecke, M. Kasemann, J. Haunschild, M. The, W. Warta, S. Rein, “Spatially resolved determination of the dark saturation current of silicon solar cells from electroluminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113110 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Fuyuki, H. Kondo, Y. Kaji, A. Ogane, Y. Takahashi, “Analytic findings in the electroluminescence characterization of crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 023711 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, A. Helbig, J. H. Werner, “Internal voltage in GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Roensch, R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, “Subcell I-V characteristic analysis of GaInP/GaInAa/Ge solar cells using electroluminescence measure;ments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251113 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. G. Zimmermann, “Utilizing lateral current spreading in multijunction solar cells: An alternative approach to detecting mechanical defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023714 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Takeuchi, Y. Kamo, Y. Yamamoto, T. Oku, M. Totsuka, M. Nakayama, “Phoitovoltaic effects on Franz-Keldysh oscillation in photoreflectance spectra: Application to determination of surface Fermi level and surface recombination velocity in undoped GaAs/n-type GaAs epitaxial layer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063708 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. M. Sze, Semiconductor Devices, Physics and Technology (John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2002).
  12. F. H. Pollak, “Study of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces using electromodulation,” Surf. Interface Anal. 31(10), 938–953 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. G. Rodriges, I. Bhat, J. M. Borrego, and R. Venkatasubramanian, “Photoreflectance characterization of InP and GaAs solar cells,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1993), pp. 504–509.
  14. M. Meusel, C. Baur, G. Létay, A. W. Bett, W. Warta, E. Fernandez, “Spectral response measurements of monolithic GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge triple-junction solar cells: measurement artifacts and their explanation,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 499 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. H. Lim, J. J. Li, E. H. Steenbergen, Y. H. Zhang, “Luminescence coupling effects on multijunction solar cell external quantum efficiency measurement,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (to be published).

2011

S. Roensch, R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, “Subcell I-V characteristic analysis of GaInP/GaInAa/Ge solar cells using electroluminescence measure;ments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

J. Giesecke, M. Kasemann, W. Warta, “Determination of local minority carrier diffusion lengths in crystalline silicon from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(1), 014907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Glatthaar, J. Giesecke, M. Kasemann, J. Haunschild, M. The, W. Warta, S. Rein, “Spatially resolved determination of the dark saturation current of silicon solar cells from electroluminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, A. Helbig, J. H. Werner, “Internal voltage in GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Fuyuki, H. Kondo, Y. Kaji, A. Ogane, Y. Takahashi, “Analytic findings in the electroluminescence characterization of crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 023711 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Würfel, T. Trupke, T. Puzzer, E. Schäffer, W. Warta, S. W. Glunz, “Diffusion lengths of silicon solar cells from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. G. Zimmermann, “Utilizing lateral current spreading in multijunction solar cells: An alternative approach to detecting mechanical defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

H. Takeuchi, Y. Kamo, Y. Yamamoto, T. Oku, M. Totsuka, M. Nakayama, “Phoitovoltaic effects on Franz-Keldysh oscillation in photoreflectance spectra: Application to determination of surface Fermi level and surface recombination velocity in undoped GaAs/n-type GaAs epitaxial layer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063708 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuyuki, H. Kondo, T. Yamazaki, Y. Takahashi, Y. Uraoka, “Photographic surveying of minority carrier diffusion length in polycrystalline silicon solar cells by electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 262108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Meusel, C. Baur, G. Létay, A. W. Bett, W. Warta, E. Fernandez, “Spectral response measurements of monolithic GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge triple-junction solar cells: measurement artifacts and their explanation,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

F. H. Pollak, “Study of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces using electromodulation,” Surf. Interface Anal. 31(10), 938–953 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baur, C.

M. Meusel, C. Baur, G. Létay, A. W. Bett, W. Warta, E. Fernandez, “Spectral response measurements of monolithic GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge triple-junction solar cells: measurement artifacts and their explanation,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bett, A. W.

S. Roensch, R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, “Subcell I-V characteristic analysis of GaInP/GaInAa/Ge solar cells using electroluminescence measure;ments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, A. Helbig, J. H. Werner, “Internal voltage in GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Meusel, C. Baur, G. Létay, A. W. Bett, W. Warta, E. Fernandez, “Spectral response measurements of monolithic GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge triple-junction solar cells: measurement artifacts and their explanation,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dimroth, F.

S. Roensch, R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, “Subcell I-V characteristic analysis of GaInP/GaInAa/Ge solar cells using electroluminescence measure;ments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, E.

M. Meusel, C. Baur, G. Létay, A. W. Bett, W. Warta, E. Fernandez, “Spectral response measurements of monolithic GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge triple-junction solar cells: measurement artifacts and their explanation,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fuyuki, T.

T. Fuyuki, H. Kondo, Y. Kaji, A. Ogane, Y. Takahashi, “Analytic findings in the electroluminescence characterization of crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 023711 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuyuki, H. Kondo, T. Yamazaki, Y. Takahashi, Y. Uraoka, “Photographic surveying of minority carrier diffusion length in polycrystalline silicon solar cells by electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 262108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Geisz, J.

Giesecke, J.

J. Giesecke, M. Kasemann, W. Warta, “Determination of local minority carrier diffusion lengths in crystalline silicon from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(1), 014907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Glatthaar, J. Giesecke, M. Kasemann, J. Haunschild, M. The, W. Warta, S. Rein, “Spatially resolved determination of the dark saturation current of silicon solar cells from electroluminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Glatthaar, M.

M. Glatthaar, J. Giesecke, M. Kasemann, J. Haunschild, M. The, W. Warta, S. Rein, “Spatially resolved determination of the dark saturation current of silicon solar cells from electroluminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Glunz, S. W.

P. Würfel, T. Trupke, T. Puzzer, E. Schäffer, W. Warta, S. W. Glunz, “Diffusion lengths of silicon solar cells from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Haunschild, J.

M. Glatthaar, J. Giesecke, M. Kasemann, J. Haunschild, M. The, W. Warta, S. Rein, “Spatially resolved determination of the dark saturation current of silicon solar cells from electroluminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Helbig, A.

T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, A. Helbig, J. H. Werner, “Internal voltage in GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hermle, M.

T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, A. Helbig, J. H. Werner, “Internal voltage in GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hoheisel, R.

S. Roensch, R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, “Subcell I-V characteristic analysis of GaInP/GaInAa/Ge solar cells using electroluminescence measure;ments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kaji, Y.

T. Fuyuki, H. Kondo, Y. Kaji, A. Ogane, Y. Takahashi, “Analytic findings in the electroluminescence characterization of crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 023711 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kamo, Y.

H. Takeuchi, Y. Kamo, Y. Yamamoto, T. Oku, M. Totsuka, M. Nakayama, “Phoitovoltaic effects on Franz-Keldysh oscillation in photoreflectance spectra: Application to determination of surface Fermi level and surface recombination velocity in undoped GaAs/n-type GaAs epitaxial layer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063708 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kasemann, M.

M. Glatthaar, J. Giesecke, M. Kasemann, J. Haunschild, M. The, W. Warta, S. Rein, “Spatially resolved determination of the dark saturation current of silicon solar cells from electroluminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Giesecke, M. Kasemann, W. Warta, “Determination of local minority carrier diffusion lengths in crystalline silicon from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(1), 014907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kirchartz, T.

T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, A. Helbig, J. H. Werner, “Internal voltage in GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, H.

T. Fuyuki, H. Kondo, Y. Kaji, A. Ogane, Y. Takahashi, “Analytic findings in the electroluminescence characterization of crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 023711 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuyuki, H. Kondo, T. Yamazaki, Y. Takahashi, Y. Uraoka, “Photographic surveying of minority carrier diffusion length in polycrystalline silicon solar cells by electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 262108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, S.

Létay, G.

M. Meusel, C. Baur, G. Létay, A. W. Bett, W. Warta, E. Fernandez, “Spectral response measurements of monolithic GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge triple-junction solar cells: measurement artifacts and their explanation,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. J.

S. H. Lim, J. J. Li, E. H. Steenbergen, Y. H. Zhang, “Luminescence coupling effects on multijunction solar cell external quantum efficiency measurement,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (to be published).

Lim, S. H.

S. H. Lim, J. J. Li, E. H. Steenbergen, Y. H. Zhang, “Luminescence coupling effects on multijunction solar cell external quantum efficiency measurement,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (to be published).

Meusel, M.

M. Meusel, C. Baur, G. Létay, A. W. Bett, W. Warta, E. Fernandez, “Spectral response measurements of monolithic GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge triple-junction solar cells: measurement artifacts and their explanation,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, M.

H. Takeuchi, Y. Kamo, Y. Yamamoto, T. Oku, M. Totsuka, M. Nakayama, “Phoitovoltaic effects on Franz-Keldysh oscillation in photoreflectance spectra: Application to determination of surface Fermi level and surface recombination velocity in undoped GaAs/n-type GaAs epitaxial layer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063708 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ogane, A.

T. Fuyuki, H. Kondo, Y. Kaji, A. Ogane, Y. Takahashi, “Analytic findings in the electroluminescence characterization of crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 023711 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oku, T.

H. Takeuchi, Y. Kamo, Y. Yamamoto, T. Oku, M. Totsuka, M. Nakayama, “Phoitovoltaic effects on Franz-Keldysh oscillation in photoreflectance spectra: Application to determination of surface Fermi level and surface recombination velocity in undoped GaAs/n-type GaAs epitaxial layer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063708 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pollak, F. H.

F. H. Pollak, “Study of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces using electromodulation,” Surf. Interface Anal. 31(10), 938–953 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Puzzer, T.

P. Würfel, T. Trupke, T. Puzzer, E. Schäffer, W. Warta, S. W. Glunz, “Diffusion lengths of silicon solar cells from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rau, U.

T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, A. Helbig, J. H. Werner, “Internal voltage in GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rein, S.

M. Glatthaar, J. Giesecke, M. Kasemann, J. Haunschild, M. The, W. Warta, S. Rein, “Spatially resolved determination of the dark saturation current of silicon solar cells from electroluminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Roensch, S.

S. Roensch, R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, “Subcell I-V characteristic analysis of GaInP/GaInAa/Ge solar cells using electroluminescence measure;ments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schäffer, E.

P. Würfel, T. Trupke, T. Puzzer, E. Schäffer, W. Warta, S. W. Glunz, “Diffusion lengths of silicon solar cells from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Steenbergen, E. H.

S. H. Lim, J. J. Li, E. H. Steenbergen, Y. H. Zhang, “Luminescence coupling effects on multijunction solar cell external quantum efficiency measurement,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (to be published).

Takahashi, Y.

T. Fuyuki, H. Kondo, Y. Kaji, A. Ogane, Y. Takahashi, “Analytic findings in the electroluminescence characterization of crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 023711 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuyuki, H. Kondo, T. Yamazaki, Y. Takahashi, Y. Uraoka, “Photographic surveying of minority carrier diffusion length in polycrystalline silicon solar cells by electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 262108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, H.

H. Takeuchi, Y. Kamo, Y. Yamamoto, T. Oku, M. Totsuka, M. Nakayama, “Phoitovoltaic effects on Franz-Keldysh oscillation in photoreflectance spectra: Application to determination of surface Fermi level and surface recombination velocity in undoped GaAs/n-type GaAs epitaxial layer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063708 (2005).
[CrossRef]

The, M.

M. Glatthaar, J. Giesecke, M. Kasemann, J. Haunschild, M. The, W. Warta, S. Rein, “Spatially resolved determination of the dark saturation current of silicon solar cells from electroluminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Totsuka, M.

H. Takeuchi, Y. Kamo, Y. Yamamoto, T. Oku, M. Totsuka, M. Nakayama, “Phoitovoltaic effects on Franz-Keldysh oscillation in photoreflectance spectra: Application to determination of surface Fermi level and surface recombination velocity in undoped GaAs/n-type GaAs epitaxial layer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063708 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Trupke, T.

P. Würfel, T. Trupke, T. Puzzer, E. Schäffer, W. Warta, S. W. Glunz, “Diffusion lengths of silicon solar cells from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Uraoka, Y.

T. Fuyuki, H. Kondo, T. Yamazaki, Y. Takahashi, Y. Uraoka, “Photographic surveying of minority carrier diffusion length in polycrystalline silicon solar cells by electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 262108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Warta, W.

M. Glatthaar, J. Giesecke, M. Kasemann, J. Haunschild, M. The, W. Warta, S. Rein, “Spatially resolved determination of the dark saturation current of silicon solar cells from electroluminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Giesecke, M. Kasemann, W. Warta, “Determination of local minority carrier diffusion lengths in crystalline silicon from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(1), 014907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Würfel, T. Trupke, T. Puzzer, E. Schäffer, W. Warta, S. W. Glunz, “Diffusion lengths of silicon solar cells from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Meusel, C. Baur, G. Létay, A. W. Bett, W. Warta, E. Fernandez, “Spectral response measurements of monolithic GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge triple-junction solar cells: measurement artifacts and their explanation,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Werner, J. H.

T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, A. Helbig, J. H. Werner, “Internal voltage in GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Würfel, P.

P. Würfel, T. Trupke, T. Puzzer, E. Schäffer, W. Warta, S. W. Glunz, “Diffusion lengths of silicon solar cells from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

H. Takeuchi, Y. Kamo, Y. Yamamoto, T. Oku, M. Totsuka, M. Nakayama, “Phoitovoltaic effects on Franz-Keldysh oscillation in photoreflectance spectra: Application to determination of surface Fermi level and surface recombination velocity in undoped GaAs/n-type GaAs epitaxial layer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063708 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yamazaki, T.

T. Fuyuki, H. Kondo, T. Yamazaki, Y. Takahashi, Y. Uraoka, “Photographic surveying of minority carrier diffusion length in polycrystalline silicon solar cells by electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 262108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y. H.

S. H. Lim, J. J. Li, E. H. Steenbergen, Y. H. Zhang, “Luminescence coupling effects on multijunction solar cell external quantum efficiency measurement,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (to be published).

Zimmermann, C. G.

C. G. Zimmermann, “Utilizing lateral current spreading in multijunction solar cells: An alternative approach to detecting mechanical defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

T. Fuyuki, H. Kondo, T. Yamazaki, Y. Takahashi, Y. Uraoka, “Photographic surveying of minority carrier diffusion length in polycrystalline silicon solar cells by electroluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(26), 262108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Kirchartz, U. Rau, M. Hermle, A. W. Bett, A. Helbig, J. H. Werner, “Internal voltage in GaInP/GaInAs/Ge multijunction solar cells determined by electroluminescence measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(12), 123502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Roensch, R. Hoheisel, F. Dimroth, A. W. Bett, “Subcell I-V characteristic analysis of GaInP/GaInAa/Ge solar cells using electroluminescence measure;ments,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251113 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. G. Zimmermann, “Utilizing lateral current spreading in multijunction solar cells: An alternative approach to detecting mechanical defects,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(2), 023714 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Takeuchi, Y. Kamo, Y. Yamamoto, T. Oku, M. Totsuka, M. Nakayama, “Phoitovoltaic effects on Franz-Keldysh oscillation in photoreflectance spectra: Application to determination of surface Fermi level and surface recombination velocity in undoped GaAs/n-type GaAs epitaxial layer structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(6), 063708 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Giesecke, M. Kasemann, W. Warta, “Determination of local minority carrier diffusion lengths in crystalline silicon from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(1), 014907 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Würfel, T. Trupke, T. Puzzer, E. Schäffer, W. Warta, S. W. Glunz, “Diffusion lengths of silicon solar cells from luminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(12), 123110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Glatthaar, J. Giesecke, M. Kasemann, J. Haunschild, M. The, W. Warta, S. Rein, “Spatially resolved determination of the dark saturation current of silicon solar cells from electroluminescence images,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(11), 113110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuyuki, H. Kondo, Y. Kaji, A. Ogane, Y. Takahashi, “Analytic findings in the electroluminescence characterization of crystalline silicon solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 101(2), 023711 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl.

M. Meusel, C. Baur, G. Létay, A. W. Bett, W. Warta, E. Fernandez, “Spectral response measurements of monolithic GaInP/Ga(In)As/Ge triple-junction solar cells: measurement artifacts and their explanation,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. 11, 499 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lim, J. J. Li, E. H. Steenbergen, Y. H. Zhang, “Luminescence coupling effects on multijunction solar cell external quantum efficiency measurement,” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl. (to be published).

Surf. Interface Anal.

F. H. Pollak, “Study of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces using electromodulation,” Surf. Interface Anal. 31(10), 938–953 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. G. Rodriges, I. Bhat, J. M. Borrego, and R. Venkatasubramanian, “Photoreflectance characterization of InP and GaAs solar cells,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (IEEE, 1993), pp. 504–509.

S. M. Sze, Semiconductor Devices, Physics and Technology (John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2002).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the investigated InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electroluminescence (EL) images of the triple-junction InGaP/InGaAs/Ge solar cell taken with the measurement (a) without and (b) with irradiation of an extra IR laser. The scale bar applies to images (a)-(b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The dependence of EL intensity of the top subcell on injection current without (the solid line) and with (the dashed line) irradiation of an extra IR laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Surface maps of EL intensity of the top subcell with different irradiation powers of IR light: (a) 0 (b) 1.8 (c) 8.3, and (d) 18.7 mW.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

EL intensity of profile of a line scan in the top subcell with different irradiation power of IR light: (a) 0, (b) 1.8, (c) 8.3, (d) 18.7, and (e) 59.0 mW. The dotted line displays the beam profile of the IR laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Integrated EL intensity from a line scan versus the irradiation power of IR light.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Electroreflectance spectra of the InGaP top subcell without (the solid line) and with (the dotted line) the IR illumination of 20 mW.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Induced voltage change δV of the InGaP top subcell for five different illumination powers (open circles). The solid line displays the calculated photovoltage according to Eq. (4).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Time dependence of EL intensity upon the ON-OFF switching of IR light irradiation.

Equations (6)

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I EL n p(0) L,
n p(0) = n p exp(e V app /kT),
ln I EL =C+e V app /kT,
V ph = nkT q ln( J PC A J 0 +1),
J PC =ePη(1R)/ω,
ln I EL =C+e( V app V ph )/kT.

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