Abstract

We report on a simple and reproducible method for fabricating InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well (MQW) nanorod light-emitting diodes (LEDs), prepared by combining a SiO2 nanosphere lithography and dry-etch process. Focused-ion-beam (FIB)-deposited Pt was contacted to both ends of the nanorod LEDs, producing bright electroluminescence from the LEDs under forward bias conditions. The turn-on voltage in these nanorod LEDs was higher (13 V) than in companion thin film devices (3 V) and this can be attributed to the high contact resistance between the FIB-deposited Pt and nanorod LEDs and the damage induced by inductively-coupled plasma and Ga + -ions. Our method to obtain uniform MQW nanorod LEDs shows promise for improving the reproducibility of nano-optoelectronics.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. Y. Li, F. Qian, J. Xiang, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire electronic and optoelectronic devices,” Mater. Today9(10), 18–27 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, H. Yan, and P. Yang, “Semiconductor Nanowires for Subwavelength Photonics Integration,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(32), 15190–15213 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. F. Patolsky and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors,” Mater. Today8(4), 20–28 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. G. Hobbs, N. Petkov, and J. D. Holmes, “Semiconductor Nanowire Fabrication by Bottom-Up and Top-Down Paradigms,” Chem. Mater.24(11), 1975–1991 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. J. Fan, P. Werner, and M. Zacharias, “Semiconductor Nanowires: From Self-Organization to Patterned Growth,” Small2(6), 700–717 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. W. Kolasinski, “Catalytic growth of nanowires: Vapor–liquid–solid, vapor–solid–solid, solution–liquid–solid and solid–liquid–solid growth,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.10(3–4), 182–191 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. Hahn, Z. Zhang, A. Fu, C. H. Wu, Y. J. Hwang, D. J. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Epitaxial Growth of InGaN Nanowire Arrays for Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano5(5), 3970–3976 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Raychaudhuri, S. A. Dayeh, D. Wang, and E. T. Yu, “Precise Semiconductor Nanowire Placement Through Dielectrophoresis,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2260–2266 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradečak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium Nitride-Based Nanowire Radial Heterostructures for Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett.4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: A Versatile Nanofabrication Tool for Studies of Size-Dependent Nanoparticle Optics,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(24), 5599–5611 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Fuhrmann, H. S. Leipner, H.-R. Höche, L. Schubert, P. Werner, and U. Gösele, “Ordered Arrays of Silicon Nanowires Produced by Nanosphere Lithography and Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2524–2527 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. Kosiorek, W. Kandulski, H. Glaczynska, and M. Giersig, “Fabrication of Nanoscale Rings, Dots, and Rods by Combining Shadow Nanosphere Lithography and Annealed Polystyrene Nanosphere Masks,” Small1(4), 439–444 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L.-Y. Chen, Y.-Y. Huang, C.-H. Chang, Y.-H. Sun, Y.-W. Cheng, M.-Y. Ke, C.-P. Chen, and J. Huang, “High performance InGaN/GaN nanorod light emitting diode arrays fabricated by nanosphere lithography and chemical mechanical polishing processes,” Opt. Express18(8), 7664–7669 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. C. Thelander, P. Agarwal, S. Brongersma, J. Eymery, L. F. Feiner, A. Forchel, M. Scheffler, W. Riess, B. J. Ohlsson, U. Gösele, and L. Samuelson, “Nanowire-based one-dimensional electronics,” Mater. Today9(10), 28–35 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolić, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. B.-J. Kim, H. Jung, H.-Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, “Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.26(1), 62–69 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. H. Li, Z. Ma, and H. W. Choi, “Single-mode whispering gallery lasing from metal-clad GaN nanopillars,” Opt. Lett.37(3), 374–376 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 024306 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. Y. Nam, J. Y. Kim, and J. E. Fischer, “Focused-ion-beam platinum nanopatterning for GaN nanowires: Ohmic contacts and patterned growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(19), 193112 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2012

R. G. Hobbs, N. Petkov, and J. D. Holmes, “Semiconductor Nanowire Fabrication by Bottom-Up and Top-Down Paradigms,” Chem. Mater.24(11), 1975–1991 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. H. Li, Z. Ma, and H. W. Choi, “Single-mode whispering gallery lasing from metal-clad GaN nanopillars,” Opt. Lett.37(3), 374–376 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

C. Hahn, Z. Zhang, A. Fu, C. H. Wu, Y. J. Hwang, D. J. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Epitaxial Growth of InGaN Nanowire Arrays for Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano5(5), 3970–3976 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

S. Raychaudhuri, S. A. Dayeh, D. Wang, and E. T. Yu, “Precise Semiconductor Nanowire Placement Through Dielectrophoresis,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2260–2266 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-J. Kim, H. Jung, H.-Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 024306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Thelander, P. Agarwal, S. Brongersma, J. Eymery, L. F. Feiner, A. Forchel, M. Scheffler, W. Riess, B. J. Ohlsson, U. Gösele, and L. Samuelson, “Nanowire-based one-dimensional electronics,” Mater. Today9(10), 28–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolić, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Fan, P. Werner, and M. Zacharias, “Semiconductor Nanowires: From Self-Organization to Patterned Growth,” Small2(6), 700–717 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. W. Kolasinski, “Catalytic growth of nanowires: Vapor–liquid–solid, vapor–solid–solid, solution–liquid–solid and solid–liquid–solid growth,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.10(3–4), 182–191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, F. Qian, J. Xiang, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire electronic and optoelectronic devices,” Mater. Today9(10), 18–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, H. Yan, and P. Yang, “Semiconductor Nanowires for Subwavelength Photonics Integration,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(32), 15190–15213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Patolsky and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors,” Mater. Today8(4), 20–28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Fuhrmann, H. S. Leipner, H.-R. Höche, L. Schubert, P. Werner, and U. Gösele, “Ordered Arrays of Silicon Nanowires Produced by Nanosphere Lithography and Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2524–2527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kosiorek, W. Kandulski, H. Glaczynska, and M. Giersig, “Fabrication of Nanoscale Rings, Dots, and Rods by Combining Shadow Nanosphere Lithography and Annealed Polystyrene Nanosphere Masks,” Small1(4), 439–444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Y. Nam, J. Y. Kim, and J. E. Fischer, “Focused-ion-beam platinum nanopatterning for GaN nanowires: Ohmic contacts and patterned growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(19), 193112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradečak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium Nitride-Based Nanowire Radial Heterostructures for Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett.4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: A Versatile Nanofabrication Tool for Studies of Size-Dependent Nanoparticle Optics,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(24), 5599–5611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1968

W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, “Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.26(1), 62–69 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, P.

C. Thelander, P. Agarwal, S. Brongersma, J. Eymery, L. F. Feiner, A. Forchel, M. Scheffler, W. Riess, B. J. Ohlsson, U. Gösele, and L. Samuelson, “Nanowire-based one-dimensional electronics,” Mater. Today9(10), 28–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bang, J.

B.-J. Kim, H. Jung, H.-Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barrelet, C. J.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradečak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium Nitride-Based Nanowire Radial Heterostructures for Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett.4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bohn, E.

W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, “Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.26(1), 62–69 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, S.

C. Thelander, P. Agarwal, S. Brongersma, J. Eymery, L. F. Feiner, A. Forchel, M. Scheffler, W. Riess, B. J. Ohlsson, U. Gösele, and L. Samuelson, “Nanowire-based one-dimensional electronics,” Mater. Today9(10), 28–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-H.

Chen, C.-P.

Chen, L.-Y.

Cheng, Y.-W.

Cheung, C. L.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolić, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. W.

Davydov, A. V.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 024306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dayeh, S. A.

S. Raychaudhuri, S. A. Dayeh, D. Wang, and E. T. Yu, “Precise Semiconductor Nanowire Placement Through Dielectrophoresis,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2260–2266 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eymery, J.

C. Thelander, P. Agarwal, S. Brongersma, J. Eymery, L. F. Feiner, A. Forchel, M. Scheffler, W. Riess, B. J. Ohlsson, U. Gösele, and L. Samuelson, “Nanowire-based one-dimensional electronics,” Mater. Today9(10), 28–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, H. J.

H. J. Fan, P. Werner, and M. Zacharias, “Semiconductor Nanowires: From Self-Organization to Patterned Growth,” Small2(6), 700–717 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feiner, L. F.

C. Thelander, P. Agarwal, S. Brongersma, J. Eymery, L. F. Feiner, A. Forchel, M. Scheffler, W. Riess, B. J. Ohlsson, U. Gösele, and L. Samuelson, “Nanowire-based one-dimensional electronics,” Mater. Today9(10), 28–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fink, A.

W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, “Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.26(1), 62–69 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, J. E.

C. Y. Nam, J. Y. Kim, and J. E. Fischer, “Focused-ion-beam platinum nanopatterning for GaN nanowires: Ohmic contacts and patterned growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(19), 193112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

C. Thelander, P. Agarwal, S. Brongersma, J. Eymery, L. F. Feiner, A. Forchel, M. Scheffler, W. Riess, B. J. Ohlsson, U. Gösele, and L. Samuelson, “Nanowire-based one-dimensional electronics,” Mater. Today9(10), 28–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fu, A.

C. Hahn, Z. Zhang, A. Fu, C. H. Wu, Y. J. Hwang, D. J. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Epitaxial Growth of InGaN Nanowire Arrays for Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano5(5), 3970–3976 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuhrmann, B.

B. Fuhrmann, H. S. Leipner, H.-R. Höche, L. Schubert, P. Werner, and U. Gösele, “Ordered Arrays of Silicon Nanowires Produced by Nanosphere Lithography and Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2524–2527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gargas, D. J.

C. Hahn, Z. Zhang, A. Fu, C. H. Wu, Y. J. Hwang, D. J. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Epitaxial Growth of InGaN Nanowire Arrays for Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano5(5), 3970–3976 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giersig, M.

A. Kosiorek, W. Kandulski, H. Glaczynska, and M. Giersig, “Fabrication of Nanoscale Rings, Dots, and Rods by Combining Shadow Nanosphere Lithography and Annealed Polystyrene Nanosphere Masks,” Small1(4), 439–444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glaczynska, H.

A. Kosiorek, W. Kandulski, H. Glaczynska, and M. Giersig, “Fabrication of Nanoscale Rings, Dots, and Rods by Combining Shadow Nanosphere Lithography and Annealed Polystyrene Nanosphere Masks,” Small1(4), 439–444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gösele, U.

C. Thelander, P. Agarwal, S. Brongersma, J. Eymery, L. F. Feiner, A. Forchel, M. Scheffler, W. Riess, B. J. Ohlsson, U. Gösele, and L. Samuelson, “Nanowire-based one-dimensional electronics,” Mater. Today9(10), 28–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Fuhrmann, H. S. Leipner, H.-R. Höche, L. Schubert, P. Werner, and U. Gösele, “Ordered Arrays of Silicon Nanowires Produced by Nanosphere Lithography and Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2524–2527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gradecak, S.

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradečak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium Nitride-Based Nanowire Radial Heterostructures for Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett.4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, C.

C. Hahn, Z. Zhang, A. Fu, C. H. Wu, Y. J. Hwang, D. J. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Epitaxial Growth of InGaN Nanowire Arrays for Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano5(5), 3970–3976 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haynes, C. L.

C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: A Versatile Nanofabrication Tool for Studies of Size-Dependent Nanoparticle Optics,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(24), 5599–5611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hobbs, R. G.

R. G. Hobbs, N. Petkov, and J. D. Holmes, “Semiconductor Nanowire Fabrication by Bottom-Up and Top-Down Paradigms,” Chem. Mater.24(11), 1975–1991 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Höche, H.-R.

B. Fuhrmann, H. S. Leipner, H.-R. Höche, L. Schubert, P. Werner, and U. Gösele, “Ordered Arrays of Silicon Nanowires Produced by Nanosphere Lithography and Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2524–2527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holmes, J. D.

R. G. Hobbs, N. Petkov, and J. D. Holmes, “Semiconductor Nanowire Fabrication by Bottom-Up and Top-Down Paradigms,” Chem. Mater.24(11), 1975–1991 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

Huang, Y.-Y.

Hwang, Y. J.

C. Hahn, Z. Zhang, A. Fu, C. H. Wu, Y. J. Hwang, D. J. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Epitaxial Growth of InGaN Nanowire Arrays for Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano5(5), 3970–3976 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, H.

B.-J. Kim, H. Jung, H.-Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kandulski, W.

A. Kosiorek, W. Kandulski, H. Glaczynska, and M. Giersig, “Fabrication of Nanoscale Rings, Dots, and Rods by Combining Shadow Nanosphere Lithography and Annealed Polystyrene Nanosphere Masks,” Small1(4), 439–444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ke, M.-Y.

Kim, B.-J.

B.-J. Kim, H. Jung, H.-Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-Y.

B.-J. Kim, H. Jung, H.-Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

B.-J. Kim, H. Jung, H.-Y. Kim, J. Bang, and J. Kim, “Fabrication of GaN nanorods by inductively coupled plasma etching via SiO2 nanosphere lithography,” Thin Solid Films517(14), 3859–3861 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. Y.

C. Y. Nam, J. Y. Kim, and J. E. Fischer, “Focused-ion-beam platinum nanopatterning for GaN nanowires: Ohmic contacts and patterned growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(19), 193112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kolasinski, K. W.

K. W. Kolasinski, “Catalytic growth of nanowires: Vapor–liquid–solid, vapor–solid–solid, solution–liquid–solid and solid–liquid–solid growth,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.10(3–4), 182–191 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kosiorek, A.

A. Kosiorek, W. Kandulski, H. Glaczynska, and M. Giersig, “Fabrication of Nanoscale Rings, Dots, and Rods by Combining Shadow Nanosphere Lithography and Annealed Polystyrene Nanosphere Masks,” Small1(4), 439–444 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Law, M.

D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, H. Yan, and P. Yang, “Semiconductor Nanowires for Subwavelength Photonics Integration,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(32), 15190–15213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leipner, H. S.

B. Fuhrmann, H. S. Leipner, H.-R. Höche, L. Schubert, P. Werner, and U. Gösele, “Ordered Arrays of Silicon Nanowires Produced by Nanosphere Lithography and Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2524–2527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levin, I.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 024306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, K. H.

Li, Y.

Y. Li, F. Qian, J. Xiang, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire electronic and optoelectronic devices,” Mater. Today9(10), 18–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradečak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium Nitride-Based Nanowire Radial Heterostructures for Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett.4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lieber, C. M.

Y. Li, F. Qian, J. Xiang, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire electronic and optoelectronic devices,” Mater. Today9(10), 18–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Patolsky and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors,” Mater. Today8(4), 20–28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradečak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium Nitride-Based Nanowire Radial Heterostructures for Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett.4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Z.

Melngailis, J.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 024306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mohammad, S. N.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 024306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Motayed, A.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 024306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nam, C. Y.

C. Y. Nam, J. Y. Kim, and J. E. Fischer, “Focused-ion-beam platinum nanopatterning for GaN nanowires: Ohmic contacts and patterned growth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(19), 193112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nikolic, R. J.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolić, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ohlsson, B. J.

C. Thelander, P. Agarwal, S. Brongersma, J. Eymery, L. F. Feiner, A. Forchel, M. Scheffler, W. Riess, B. J. Ohlsson, U. Gösele, and L. Samuelson, “Nanowire-based one-dimensional electronics,” Mater. Today9(10), 28–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patolsky, F.

F. Patolsky and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors,” Mater. Today8(4), 20–28 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Petkov, N.

R. G. Hobbs, N. Petkov, and J. D. Holmes, “Semiconductor Nanowire Fabrication by Bottom-Up and Top-Down Paradigms,” Chem. Mater.24(11), 1975–1991 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Qian, F.

Y. Li, F. Qian, J. Xiang, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire electronic and optoelectronic devices,” Mater. Today9(10), 18–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradečak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium Nitride-Based Nanowire Radial Heterostructures for Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett.4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raychaudhuri, S.

S. Raychaudhuri, S. A. Dayeh, D. Wang, and E. T. Yu, “Precise Semiconductor Nanowire Placement Through Dielectrophoresis,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2260–2266 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reinhardt, C. E.

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolić, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riess, W.

C. Thelander, P. Agarwal, S. Brongersma, J. Eymery, L. F. Feiner, A. Forchel, M. Scheffler, W. Riess, B. J. Ohlsson, U. Gösele, and L. Samuelson, “Nanowire-based one-dimensional electronics,” Mater. Today9(10), 28–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Samuelson, L.

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B. Fuhrmann, H. S. Leipner, H.-R. Höche, L. Schubert, P. Werner, and U. Gösele, “Ordered Arrays of Silicon Nanowires Produced by Nanosphere Lithography and Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2524–2527 (2005).
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D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, H. Yan, and P. Yang, “Semiconductor Nanowires for Subwavelength Photonics Integration,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(32), 15190–15213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, “Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.26(1), 62–69 (1968).
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C. Thelander, P. Agarwal, S. Brongersma, J. Eymery, L. F. Feiner, A. Forchel, M. Scheffler, W. Riess, B. J. Ohlsson, U. Gösele, and L. Samuelson, “Nanowire-based one-dimensional electronics,” Mater. Today9(10), 28–35 (2006).
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C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: A Versatile Nanofabrication Tool for Studies of Size-Dependent Nanoparticle Optics,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(24), 5599–5611 (2001).
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A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 024306 (2006).
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S. Raychaudhuri, S. A. Dayeh, D. Wang, and E. T. Yu, “Precise Semiconductor Nanowire Placement Through Dielectrophoresis,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2260–2266 (2009).
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F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradečak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium Nitride-Based Nanowire Radial Heterostructures for Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett.4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
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C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolić, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
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H. J. Fan, P. Werner, and M. Zacharias, “Semiconductor Nanowires: From Self-Organization to Patterned Growth,” Small2(6), 700–717 (2006).
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B. Fuhrmann, H. S. Leipner, H.-R. Höche, L. Schubert, P. Werner, and U. Gösele, “Ordered Arrays of Silicon Nanowires Produced by Nanosphere Lithography and Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2524–2527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Hahn, Z. Zhang, A. Fu, C. H. Wu, Y. J. Hwang, D. J. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Epitaxial Growth of InGaN Nanowire Arrays for Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano5(5), 3970–3976 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, H. Yan, and P. Yang, “Semiconductor Nanowires for Subwavelength Photonics Integration,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(32), 15190–15213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

C. Hahn, Z. Zhang, A. Fu, C. H. Wu, Y. J. Hwang, D. J. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Epitaxial Growth of InGaN Nanowire Arrays for Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano5(5), 3970–3976 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, H. Yan, and P. Yang, “Semiconductor Nanowires for Subwavelength Photonics Integration,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(32), 15190–15213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, E. T.

S. Raychaudhuri, S. A. Dayeh, D. Wang, and E. T. Yu, “Precise Semiconductor Nanowire Placement Through Dielectrophoresis,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2260–2266 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zacharias, M.

H. J. Fan, P. Werner, and M. Zacharias, “Semiconductor Nanowires: From Self-Organization to Patterned Growth,” Small2(6), 700–717 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

C. Hahn, Z. Zhang, A. Fu, C. H. Wu, Y. J. Hwang, D. J. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Epitaxial Growth of InGaN Nanowire Arrays for Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano5(5), 3970–3976 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

C. Hahn, Z. Zhang, A. Fu, C. H. Wu, Y. J. Hwang, D. J. Gargas, and P. Yang, “Epitaxial Growth of InGaN Nanowire Arrays for Light Emitting Diodes,” ACS Nano5(5), 3970–3976 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. Motayed, A. V. Davydov, M. D. Vaudin, I. Levin, J. Melngailis, and S. N. Mohammad, “Fabrication of GaN-based nanoscale device structures utilizing focused ion beam induced Pt deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.100(2), 024306 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci.

W. Stöber, A. Fink, and E. Bohn, “Controlled growth of monodisperse silica spheres in the micron size range,” J. Colloid Interface Sci.26(1), 62–69 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B

C. L. Haynes and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: A Versatile Nanofabrication Tool for Studies of Size-Dependent Nanoparticle Optics,” J. Phys. Chem. B105(24), 5599–5611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Sirbuly, M. Law, H. Yan, and P. Yang, “Semiconductor Nanowires for Subwavelength Photonics Integration,” J. Phys. Chem. B109(32), 15190–15213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

Y. Li, F. Qian, J. Xiang, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire electronic and optoelectronic devices,” Mater. Today9(10), 18–27 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C. Thelander, P. Agarwal, S. Brongersma, J. Eymery, L. F. Feiner, A. Forchel, M. Scheffler, W. Riess, B. J. Ohlsson, U. Gösele, and L. Samuelson, “Nanowire-based one-dimensional electronics,” Mater. Today9(10), 28–35 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

B. Fuhrmann, H. S. Leipner, H.-R. Höche, L. Schubert, P. Werner, and U. Gösele, “Ordered Arrays of Silicon Nanowires Produced by Nanosphere Lithography and Molecular Beam Epitaxy,” Nano Lett.5(12), 2524–2527 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Raychaudhuri, S. A. Dayeh, D. Wang, and E. T. Yu, “Precise Semiconductor Nanowire Placement Through Dielectrophoresis,” Nano Lett.9(6), 2260–2266 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Qian, Y. Li, S. Gradečak, D. Wang, C. J. Barrelet, and C. M. Lieber, “Gallium Nitride-Based Nanowire Radial Heterostructures for Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett.4(10), 1975–1979 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology

C. L. Cheung, R. J. Nikolić, C. E. Reinhardt, and T. F. Wang, “Fabrication of nanopillars by nanosphere lithography,” Nanotechnology17(5), 1339–1343 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (1377 KB)     

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Fabrication processes to obtain uniform GaN-based nanorod LED structures (left: schematic, right: SEM images) (a) LED wafer coated with SiO2 nanospheres by natural lithography (b) nano-pillars after ICP etch (c) after BOE etch to remove residual SiO2 nanospheres (d) after KOH etch to remove the plasma damaged surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(A) SEM and (b) Cathodoluminescence image of uniform GaN-based nanorod LED structures

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microscope images (a) before and (b) when applying a forward bias to the GaN-based nanorod LED with InGaN/GaN MQWs (Media 1) (c, d) DSLR camera images under forward bias condition.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Optical microscope image (b, c, d) SEM images after FIB metal deposition.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

I-V characteristics from (a) InGaN/GaN MQWs nanorod LED and (b) FIB-deposited Pt line pattern without nanorod.

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