Abstract

Large-scale transmission gratings were produced for a stretcher and a compressor in the Yb-fiber chirped-pulse amplification system. A 23-W, 200-fs laser system with a 10-MHz repetition rate was demonstrated. Focused intensity as high as 1014 W/cm2 was achieved, which is high enough for multi-photon processes such as high-order harmonics generation and multi-photon ionization of neutral atoms. High-order harmonics up to 7th order were observed using Xe gas as a nonlinear medium.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (1)

A. Ozawa and Y. Kobayashi, “VUV frequency-comb spectroscopy of atomic xenon,” Phys. Rev. A 87(2), 022507 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

K. Okazaki, Y. Ota, Y. Kotani, W. Malaeb, Y. Ishida, T. Shimojima, T. Kiss, S. Watanabe, C.-T. Chen, K. Kihou, C. H. Lee, A. Iyo, H. Eisaki, T. Saito, H. Fukazawa, Y. Kohori, K. Hashimoto, T. Shibauchi, Y. Matsuda, H. Ikeda, H. Miyahara, R. Arita, A. Chainani, and S. Shin, “Octet-Line Node Structure of Superconducting Order Parameter in KFe2As2,” Science 337(6100), 1314–1317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482(7383), 68–71 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

J. Lee, D. R. Carlson, and R. J. Jones, “Optimizing intracavity high harmonic generation for XUV fs frequency combs,” Opt. Express 19(23), 23315–23326 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vernaleken, J. Weitenberg, T. Sartorius, P. Russbueldt, W. Schneider, S. L. Stebbings, M. F. Kling, P. Hommelhoff, H. D. Hoffmann, R. Poprawe, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “Single-pass high-harmonic generation at 20.8 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3428–3430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhou, T. Seki, T. Sukegawa, T. Kanai, J. Itatani, Y. Kobayashi, and S. Watanabe, “Large-scale high-efficiency transmission grating for terawatt-class Ti:sapphire lasers at 1kHz,” Apex 4(7), 072701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. Ishizaka, T. Kiss, T. Yamamoto, Y. Ishida, T. Saitoh, M. Matsunami, R. Eguchi, T. Ohtsuki, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, M. Nohara, H. Takagi, S. Watanabe, and S. Shin, “Femtosecond core-level photoemision spectroscopy on 1T-TaS2 using a 60-eV laser source,” Phys. Rev. B 83(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

Y. Zaouter, J. Boullet, E. Mottay, and E. Cormier, “Transform-limited 100 microJ, 340 MW pulses from a nonlinear-fiber chirped-pulse amplifier using a mismatched grating stretcher-compressor,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1527–1529 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Röser, J. Rothhard, B. Ortac, A. Liem, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “131 W 220 fs fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett. 30(20), 2754–2756 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schätzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Strüder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and atomic ions by an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

1980 (1)

H. R. Reiss, “Effect of an intense electromagnetic field on a weakly bound system,” Phys. Rev. A 22(5), 1786–1813 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

F. H. M. Faisal, “Multiple absorption of laser photons by atoms,” J. Phys. B 6(4), L89–L92 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, “Ionization in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave,” Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965).

Allison, T. K.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482(7383), 68–71 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and atomic ions by an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Andersen, T. V.

Apolonski, A.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arita, R.

K. Okazaki, Y. Ota, Y. Kotani, W. Malaeb, Y. Ishida, T. Shimojima, T. Kiss, S. Watanabe, C.-T. Chen, K. Kihou, C. H. Lee, A. Iyo, H. Eisaki, T. Saito, H. Fukazawa, Y. Kohori, K. Hashimoto, T. Shibauchi, Y. Matsuda, H. Ikeda, H. Miyahara, R. Arita, A. Chainani, and S. Shin, “Octet-Line Node Structure of Superconducting Order Parameter in KFe2As2,” Science 337(6100), 1314–1317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arpin, P.

Backus, S.

Boullet, J.

Carlson, D. R.

Chainani, A.

K. Okazaki, Y. Ota, Y. Kotani, W. Malaeb, Y. Ishida, T. Shimojima, T. Kiss, S. Watanabe, C.-T. Chen, K. Kihou, C. H. Lee, A. Iyo, H. Eisaki, T. Saito, H. Fukazawa, Y. Kohori, K. Hashimoto, T. Shibauchi, Y. Matsuda, H. Ikeda, H. Miyahara, R. Arita, A. Chainani, and S. Shin, “Octet-Line Node Structure of Superconducting Order Parameter in KFe2As2,” Science 337(6100), 1314–1317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.-T.

K. Okazaki, Y. Ota, Y. Kotani, W. Malaeb, Y. Ishida, T. Shimojima, T. Kiss, S. Watanabe, C.-T. Chen, K. Kihou, C. H. Lee, A. Iyo, H. Eisaki, T. Saito, H. Fukazawa, Y. Kohori, K. Hashimoto, T. Shibauchi, Y. Matsuda, H. Ikeda, H. Miyahara, R. Arita, A. Chainani, and S. Shin, “Octet-Line Node Structure of Superconducting Order Parameter in KFe2As2,” Science 337(6100), 1314–1317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, M.-C.

Cingöz, A.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482(7383), 68–71 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Constant, E.

Cormier, E.

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and atomic ions by an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Eguchi, R.

K. Ishizaka, T. Kiss, T. Yamamoto, Y. Ishida, T. Saitoh, M. Matsunami, R. Eguchi, T. Ohtsuki, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, M. Nohara, H. Takagi, S. Watanabe, and S. Shin, “Femtosecond core-level photoemision spectroscopy on 1T-TaS2 using a 60-eV laser source,” Phys. Rev. B 83(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eidam, T.

Eisaki, H.

K. Okazaki, Y. Ota, Y. Kotani, W. Malaeb, Y. Ishida, T. Shimojima, T. Kiss, S. Watanabe, C.-T. Chen, K. Kihou, C. H. Lee, A. Iyo, H. Eisaki, T. Saito, H. Fukazawa, Y. Kohori, K. Hashimoto, T. Shibauchi, Y. Matsuda, H. Ikeda, H. Miyahara, R. Arita, A. Chainani, and S. Shin, “Octet-Line Node Structure of Superconducting Order Parameter in KFe2As2,” Science 337(6100), 1314–1317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fabre, B.

Faisal, F. H. M.

F. H. M. Faisal, “Multiple absorption of laser photons by atoms,” J. Phys. B 6(4), L89–L92 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M. E.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482(7383), 68–71 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ruehl, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and I. Hartl, “80 W, 120 fs Yb-fiber frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3015–3017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernandez, A.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fukazawa, H.

K. Okazaki, Y. Ota, Y. Kotani, W. Malaeb, Y. Ishida, T. Shimojima, T. Kiss, S. Watanabe, C.-T. Chen, K. Kihou, C. H. Lee, A. Iyo, H. Eisaki, T. Saito, H. Fukazawa, Y. Kohori, K. Hashimoto, T. Shibauchi, Y. Matsuda, H. Ikeda, H. Miyahara, R. Arita, A. Chainani, and S. Shin, “Octet-Line Node Structure of Superconducting Order Parameter in KFe2As2,” Science 337(6100), 1314–1317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gabler, T.

Gerrity, M. R.

Gohle, Ch.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Graf, R.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grasbon, F.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schätzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Strüder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hädrich, S.

Hanf, S.

Hänsch, T. W.

A. Vernaleken, J. Weitenberg, T. Sartorius, P. Russbueldt, W. Schneider, S. L. Stebbings, M. F. Kling, P. Hommelhoff, H. D. Hoffmann, R. Poprawe, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “Single-pass high-harmonic generation at 20.8 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3428–3430 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartl, I.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482(7383), 68–71 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ruehl, A. Marcinkevicius, M. E. Fermann, and I. Hartl, “80 W, 120 fs Yb-fiber frequency comb,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3015–3017 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartmann, R.

F. Lindner, W. Stremme, M. G. Schätzel, F. Grasbon, G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, R. Hartmann, and L. Strüder, “High-order harmonic generation at a repetition rate of 100 kHz,” Phys. Rev. A 68(1), 013814 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hashimoto, K.

K. Okazaki, Y. Ota, Y. Kotani, W. Malaeb, Y. Ishida, T. Shimojima, T. Kiss, S. Watanabe, C.-T. Chen, K. Kihou, C. H. Lee, A. Iyo, H. Eisaki, T. Saito, H. Fukazawa, Y. Kohori, K. Hashimoto, T. Shibauchi, Y. Matsuda, H. Ikeda, H. Miyahara, R. Arita, A. Chainani, and S. Shin, “Octet-Line Node Structure of Superconducting Order Parameter in KFe2As2,” Science 337(6100), 1314–1317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, M.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higuet, J.

Hoffmann, H. D.

Holzwarth, R.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hommelhoff, P.

Ikeda, H.

K. Okazaki, Y. Ota, Y. Kotani, W. Malaeb, Y. Ishida, T. Shimojima, T. Kiss, S. Watanabe, C.-T. Chen, K. Kihou, C. H. Lee, A. Iyo, H. Eisaki, T. Saito, H. Fukazawa, Y. Kohori, K. Hashimoto, T. Shibauchi, Y. Matsuda, H. Ikeda, H. Miyahara, R. Arita, A. Chainani, and S. Shin, “Octet-Line Node Structure of Superconducting Order Parameter in KFe2As2,” Science 337(6100), 1314–1317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishida, Y.

K. Okazaki, Y. Ota, Y. Kotani, W. Malaeb, Y. Ishida, T. Shimojima, T. Kiss, S. Watanabe, C.-T. Chen, K. Kihou, C. H. Lee, A. Iyo, H. Eisaki, T. Saito, H. Fukazawa, Y. Kohori, K. Hashimoto, T. Shibauchi, Y. Matsuda, H. Ikeda, H. Miyahara, R. Arita, A. Chainani, and S. Shin, “Octet-Line Node Structure of Superconducting Order Parameter in KFe2As2,” Science 337(6100), 1314–1317 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ishizaka, T. Kiss, T. Yamamoto, Y. Ishida, T. Saitoh, M. Matsunami, R. Eguchi, T. Ohtsuki, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, M. Nohara, H. Takagi, S. Watanabe, and S. Shin, “Femtosecond core-level photoemision spectroscopy on 1T-TaS2 using a 60-eV laser source,” Phys. Rev. B 83(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ishizaka, K.

K. Ishizaka, T. Kiss, T. Yamamoto, Y. Ishida, T. Saitoh, M. Matsunami, R. Eguchi, T. Ohtsuki, A. Kosuge, T. Kanai, M. Nohara, H. Takagi, S. Watanabe, and S. Shin, “Femtosecond core-level photoemision spectroscopy on 1T-TaS2 using a 60-eV laser source,” Phys. Rev. B 83(8), 081104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Itatani, J.

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Walker, D. R.

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
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[CrossRef]

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R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshitomi, D.

Yost, D. C.

A. Cingöz, D. C. Yost, T. K. Allison, A. Ruehl, M. E. Fermann, I. Hartl, and J. Ye, “Direct frequency comb spectroscopy in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 482(7383), 68–71 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Zhang, X.

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[CrossRef]

Zhou, X.

Apex (1)

C. Zhou, T. Seki, T. Sukegawa, T. Kanai, J. Itatani, Y. Kobayashi, and S. Watanabe, “Large-scale high-efficiency transmission grating for terawatt-class Ti:sapphire lasers at 1kHz,” Apex 4(7), 072701 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (1)

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[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ch. Gohle, T. Udem, M. Herrmann, J. Rauschenberger, R. Holzwarth, H. A. Schuessler, F. Krausz, and T. W. Hänsch, “A frequency comb in the extreme ultraviolet,” Nature 436(7048), 234–237 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (7)

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A. Vernaleken, J. Weitenberg, T. Sartorius, P. Russbueldt, W. Schneider, S. L. Stebbings, M. F. Kling, P. Hommelhoff, H. D. Hoffmann, R. Poprawe, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “Single-pass high-harmonic generation at 20.8 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3428–3430 (2011).
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T. Eidam, S. Hanf, E. Seise, T. V. Andersen, T. Gabler, C. Wirth, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Femtosecond fiber CPA system emitting 830 W average output power,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 94–96 (2010).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

R. J. Jones, K. D. Moll, M. J. Thorpe, and J. Ye, “Phase-coherent frequency combs in the vacuum ultraviolet via high-harmonic generation inside a femtosecond enhancement cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(19), 193201 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ozawa, J. Rauschenberger, Ch. Gohle, M. Herrmann, D. R. Walker, V. Pervak, A. Fernandez, R. Graf, A. Apolonski, R. Holzwarth, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and Th. Udem, “High harmonic frequency combs for high resolution spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 253901 (2008).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. WDM, wavelength division multiplexer; PBS, polarized beam splitter; SMF, single-mode fiber; LD, laser diode; λ/2, half waveplate; λ/4, quarter waveplate; YDF, Yb-doped fiber. Blue boxes with arrows are isolators.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) A micrograph of the surface of the grating. The line depth is 1.4 μm with a duty cycle of 0.45. (b) Calculated diffraction efficiency for various duty cycles and line depths. The dotted circle shows the parameters for the manufactured grating. (c) Measured diffraction efficiency of the transmission grating with various incident angles. Inset shows the optical spectrum used for this measurement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The spectrum after the stretcher. (b) The temporal pulse shape observed by a fast photo diode. The stretched pulse shape shows a clear chirp, whose structure corresponds to the spectral shape. The stretched pulse duration is 0.5 ns.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical spectra measured after the (a) preamplifier, and (b) main amplifier.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Observed FROG-trace with an average power of 23 W. (b) Retrieved temporal pulse shape and phase. This shows a pulse duration of 200 fs with no obvious pedestals.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Ion current measurement of Xe (a) and Kr (b). The bottom x-axes show the estimated intensity from the experiment, and the top x-axes show the fitted intensity to the tunneling ionization probability. The left y-axes show the observed ion current, and the right y-axes show the ionization probabilities.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The 3rd, 5th, and 7th harmonic spectrum generated by Xe gas. Plasma emission around 170 nm is also observed. Higher harmonics were absorbed by the window of the detector.

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