Abstract

The influcence of the pulse duration on the emission characteristics of nearly debris-free laser-induced plasmas in the soft x-ray region (λ ≈1-5 nm) was investigated, using six different target gases from a pulsed jet. Compared to ns pulses of the same energy, a ps laser generates a smaller, more strongly ionized plasma, being about 10 times brighter than the ns laser plasma. Moreover, the spectra are considerably shifted towards shorter wavelengths. Electron temperatures and densities of the plasma are obtained by comparing the spectra with model calculations using a magneto-hydrodynamic code.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (1)

B. Li, T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “‘Water window’ sources: Selection based on the interplay of spectral properties and multilayer reflection bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(4), 041117 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

T. Mey, M. Rein, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Brilliance improvement of laser-produced soft x-ray plasma by a barrel shock,” New J. Phys.14(7), 073045 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Fomenkov, N. Böwering, D. Brandt, D. Brown, A. Bykanov, A. Ershov, B. La Fontaine, M. Lercel, and D. Myers, “Light sources for EUV lithography at the 22-nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE8322, 83222N, 83222N-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient “water window” source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 014103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Vrba, M. Vrbová, P. Brůža, D. Pánek, F. Krejčí, M. Kroupa, and J. Jakůbek, “XUV radiation from gaseous nitrogen and argon target laser plasmas,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.370, 012049 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

V. Banine, K. Koshelev, and G. Swinkels, “Physical processes in EUV sources for microlithography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(25), 253001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, S. Döring, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Applications of compact laser-driven EUV/XUV plasma sources,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum.2010, 1–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. K. Hocking, S. DeBeer George, K. N. Raymond, K. O. Hodgson, B. Hedman, and E. I. Solomon, “Fe L-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy determination of differential orbital covalency of siderophore model compounds: electronic structure contributions to high stability constants,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(11), 4006–4015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5-6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Rakowski, A. Bartnik, H. Fiedorowicz, F. Gaufridy de Dortan, R. Jarocki, J. Kostecki, J. Mikołajczyk, L. Ryć, M. Szczurek, and P. Wachulak, “Characterization and optimization of the laser-produced plasma EUV source at 13.5 nm based on a double-stream Xe/He gas puff target,” Appl. Phys. B101(4), 773–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

M. Banyay and L. Juschkin, “Table-top reflectometer in the extreme ultraviolet for surface sensitive analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 063507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

C. Peth, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, “Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements using a laboratory-scale XUV source,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(10), 105202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Benk, K. Bergmann, D. Schäfer, and T. Wilhein, “Compact soft x-ray microscope using a gas-discharge light source,” Opt. Lett.33(20), 2359–2361 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (4)

P. A. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution compact x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc.226(2), 175–181 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Peth, A. Kalinin, F. Barkusky, K. Mann, J. P. Toennies, and L. Y. Rusin, “XUV laser-plasma source based on solid Ar filament,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(10), 103509 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Wu and A. Kumar, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography: A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B25(6), 1743–1761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. MacFarlane, I. Golovkin, P. Wang, P. Woodruff, and N. Pereyra, “SPECT3D – A multi-dimensional collisional-radiative code for generating diagnostic signatures based on hydrodynamics and PIC simulation output,” H. Ener. Dens. Phys.3(1-2), 181–190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

J. MacFarlane, C. Rettig, P. Wang, I. Golovkin, and P. Woodruff, “Radiation-hydrodynamics, spectral, and atomic physics modeling of laser-produced plasma EUVL light sources,” Proc. SPIE5751, 588–600 (2005).
[CrossRef]

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

U. Vogt, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, H. Stollberg, P. Jansson, and H. Hertz, “High-resolution spatial characterization of laser produced plasmas at soft x-ray wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. B78(1), 53–58 (2004).
[CrossRef]

L. Podobedova, J. Fuhr, J. Reader, and W. Wiese“Atomic spectral tables for the Chandra x-ray observatory. Part IV. Ne V – Ne VIII,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data33(2), 525–540 (2004).

2003 (1)

S. Kranzusch, C. Peth, and K. Mann, “Spatial characterization of extreme ultraviolet plasmas generated by laser excitation of xenon gas targets,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.74(2), 969–974 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

U. Vogt, H. Stiel, I. Will, P. Nickles, W. Sandner, M. Wieland, and T. Wilhein, “Influence of laser intensity and pulse duration on the extreme ultraviolet yield from a water jet target laser plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(15), 2336–2338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Kranzusch and K. Mann, “Spectral characterization of EUV radiation emitted from a laser-irradiated gas puff target,” Opt. Commun.200(1-6), 223–230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, H. Daido, I. Choi, M. Suzuki, and S. Yamagami, “Strong extreme ultraviolet emission from a double-stream xenon/helium gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.184(1-4), 161–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, M. Szczurek, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, V. Kmetik, Y. Kato, M. Suzuki, M. Matsumura, J. Tajima, T. Nakayama, and T. Wilhein, “Investigation of soft x-ray emission from a gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.163(1-3), 103–114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

T. Ditmire, R. Smith, R. Marjoribanks, G. Kulcsár, and M. Hutchinson, “X-ray yields from Xe clusters heated by short pulse high intensity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(2), 166–168 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. Turcu, C. Mann, S. Moon, R. Allott, N. Lisi, B. J. Maddison, S. E. Huq, and N. S. Kim, “Deep, three dimensional lithography with a laser-plasma x-ray source at 1nm wavelength,” Microelectron. Eng.35(1-4), 541–544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. Verner, E. Verner, and G. Ferland, “Atomic Data for Permitted Resonance Lines of Atoms and Ions from H to Si, and S, Ar, Ca, and Fe,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables64, 1–180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Strong x-ray emission from high-temperature plasmas produced by intense irradiation of clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(17), 3122–3125 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

Y. Li and R. Fedosejevs, “Density measurements of a high-density pulsed gas jet for laser-plasma interaction studies,” Meas. Sci. Technol.5(10), 1197–1201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, Z. Patron, and P. Parys, “X-ray emission from laser-irradiated gas puff targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(22), 2778–2780 (1993).
[CrossRef]

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

E. Gabl, B. Failor, G. Busch, R. Schroeder, D. Ress, and L. Suter, “Plasma evolution from laser-driven gold disks. I. Experiments and results,” Phys. Fluids B2(10), 2437–2447 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

D. Proch and T. Trickl, “A high-intensity multi-purpose piezoelectric pulsed molecular beam source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.60(4), 713–716 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

O. F. Hagena, “Nucleation and growth of clusters in expanding nozzle flows,” Surf. Sci.106(1-3), 101–116 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

D. Colombant and G. Tonon, “X-ray emission in laser-produced plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys.44(8), 3524–3537 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Allott, R.

I. Turcu, C. Mann, S. Moon, R. Allott, N. Lisi, B. J. Maddison, S. E. Huq, and N. S. Kim, “Deep, three dimensional lithography with a laser-plasma x-ray source at 1nm wavelength,” Microelectron. Eng.35(1-4), 541–544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E. H.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Banine, V.

V. Banine, K. Koshelev, and G. Swinkels, “Physical processes in EUV sources for microlithography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(25), 253001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Banyay, M.

M. Banyay and L. Juschkin, “Table-top reflectometer in the extreme ultraviolet for surface sensitive analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 063507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barkusky, F.

A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, S. Döring, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Applications of compact laser-driven EUV/XUV plasma sources,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum.2010, 1–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Peth, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, “Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements using a laboratory-scale XUV source,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(10), 105202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Peth, A. Kalinin, F. Barkusky, K. Mann, J. P. Toennies, and L. Y. Rusin, “XUV laser-plasma source based on solid Ar filament,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(10), 103509 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartnik, A.

R. Rakowski, A. Bartnik, H. Fiedorowicz, F. Gaufridy de Dortan, R. Jarocki, J. Kostecki, J. Mikołajczyk, L. Ryć, M. Szczurek, and P. Wachulak, “Characterization and optimization of the laser-produced plasma EUV source at 13.5 nm based on a double-stream Xe/He gas puff target,” Appl. Phys. B101(4), 773–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, H. Daido, I. Choi, M. Suzuki, and S. Yamagami, “Strong extreme ultraviolet emission from a double-stream xenon/helium gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.184(1-4), 161–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, M. Szczurek, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, V. Kmetik, Y. Kato, M. Suzuki, M. Matsumura, J. Tajima, T. Nakayama, and T. Wilhein, “Investigation of soft x-ray emission from a gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.163(1-3), 103–114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, Z. Patron, and P. Parys, “X-ray emission from laser-irradiated gas puff targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(22), 2778–2780 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bayer, A.

A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, S. Döring, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Applications of compact laser-driven EUV/XUV plasma sources,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum.2010, 1–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Benk, M.

Bergmann, K.

Böwering, N.

I. Fomenkov, N. Böwering, D. Brandt, D. Brown, A. Bykanov, A. Ershov, B. La Fontaine, M. Lercel, and D. Myers, “Light sources for EUV lithography at the 22-nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE8322, 83222N, 83222N-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, D.

I. Fomenkov, N. Böwering, D. Brandt, D. Brown, A. Bykanov, A. Ershov, B. La Fontaine, M. Lercel, and D. Myers, “Light sources for EUV lithography at the 22-nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE8322, 83222N, 83222N-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D.

I. Fomenkov, N. Böwering, D. Brandt, D. Brown, A. Bykanov, A. Ershov, B. La Fontaine, M. Lercel, and D. Myers, “Light sources for EUV lithography at the 22-nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE8322, 83222N, 83222N-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bruža, P.

P. Vrba, M. Vrbová, P. Brůža, D. Pánek, F. Krejčí, M. Kroupa, and J. Jakůbek, “XUV radiation from gaseous nitrogen and argon target laser plasmas,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.370, 012049 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Busch, G.

E. Gabl, B. Failor, G. Busch, R. Schroeder, D. Ress, and L. Suter, “Plasma evolution from laser-driven gold disks. I. Experiments and results,” Phys. Fluids B2(10), 2437–2447 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bykanov, A.

I. Fomenkov, N. Böwering, D. Brandt, D. Brown, A. Bykanov, A. Ershov, B. La Fontaine, M. Lercel, and D. Myers, “Light sources for EUV lithography at the 22-nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE8322, 83222N, 83222N-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chao, W.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, I.

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, H. Daido, I. Choi, M. Suzuki, and S. Yamagami, “Strong extreme ultraviolet emission from a double-stream xenon/helium gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.184(1-4), 161–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Colombant, D.

D. Colombant and G. Tonon, “X-ray emission in laser-produced plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys.44(8), 3524–3537 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Daido, H.

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, H. Daido, I. Choi, M. Suzuki, and S. Yamagami, “Strong extreme ultraviolet emission from a double-stream xenon/helium gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.184(1-4), 161–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, M. Szczurek, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, V. Kmetik, Y. Kato, M. Suzuki, M. Matsumura, J. Tajima, T. Nakayama, and T. Wilhein, “Investigation of soft x-ray emission from a gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.163(1-3), 103–114 (1999).
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R. K. Hocking, S. DeBeer George, K. N. Raymond, K. O. Hodgson, B. Hedman, and E. I. Solomon, “Fe L-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy determination of differential orbital covalency of siderophore model compounds: electronic structure contributions to high stability constants,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(11), 4006–4015 (2010).
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T. Ditmire, R. Smith, R. Marjoribanks, G. Kulcsár, and M. Hutchinson, “X-ray yields from Xe clusters heated by short pulse high intensity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(2), 166–168 (1997).
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B. Li, T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “‘Water window’ sources: Selection based on the interplay of spectral properties and multilayer reflection bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(4), 041117 (2013).
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T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient “water window” source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 014103 (2012).
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T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5-6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111503 (2010).
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B. Li, T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “‘Water window’ sources: Selection based on the interplay of spectral properties and multilayer reflection bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(4), 041117 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient “water window” source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 014103 (2012).
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T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5-6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111503 (2010).
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T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Strong x-ray emission from high-temperature plasmas produced by intense irradiation of clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(17), 3122–3125 (1995).
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H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, H. Daido, I. Choi, M. Suzuki, and S. Yamagami, “Strong extreme ultraviolet emission from a double-stream xenon/helium gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.184(1-4), 161–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, M. Szczurek, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, V. Kmetik, Y. Kato, M. Suzuki, M. Matsumura, J. Tajima, T. Nakayama, and T. Wilhein, “Investigation of soft x-ray emission from a gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.163(1-3), 103–114 (1999).
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I. Fomenkov, N. Böwering, D. Brandt, D. Brown, A. Bykanov, A. Ershov, B. La Fontaine, M. Lercel, and D. Myers, “Light sources for EUV lithography at the 22-nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE8322, 83222N, 83222N-9 (2012).
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U. Vogt, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, H. Stollberg, P. Jansson, and H. Hertz, “High-resolution spatial characterization of laser produced plasmas at soft x-ray wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. B78(1), 53–58 (2004).
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E. Gabl, B. Failor, G. Busch, R. Schroeder, D. Ress, and L. Suter, “Plasma evolution from laser-driven gold disks. I. Experiments and results,” Phys. Fluids B2(10), 2437–2447 (1990).
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R. Rakowski, A. Bartnik, H. Fiedorowicz, F. Gaufridy de Dortan, R. Jarocki, J. Kostecki, J. Mikołajczyk, L. Ryć, M. Szczurek, and P. Wachulak, “Characterization and optimization of the laser-produced plasma EUV source at 13.5 nm based on a double-stream Xe/He gas puff target,” Appl. Phys. B101(4), 773–789 (2010).
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J. MacFarlane, I. Golovkin, P. Wang, P. Woodruff, and N. Pereyra, “SPECT3D – A multi-dimensional collisional-radiative code for generating diagnostic signatures based on hydrodynamics and PIC simulation output,” H. Ener. Dens. Phys.3(1-2), 181–190 (2007).
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J. MacFarlane, C. Rettig, P. Wang, I. Golovkin, and P. Woodruff, “Radiation-hydrodynamics, spectral, and atomic physics modeling of laser-produced plasma EUVL light sources,” Proc. SPIE5751, 588–600 (2005).
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T. Mey, M. Rein, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Brilliance improvement of laser-produced soft x-ray plasma by a barrel shock,” New J. Phys.14(7), 073045 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, S. Döring, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Applications of compact laser-driven EUV/XUV plasma sources,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum.2010, 1–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gullikson, E.

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables54, 181–342 (1993).
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R. K. Hocking, S. DeBeer George, K. N. Raymond, K. O. Hodgson, B. Hedman, and E. I. Solomon, “Fe L-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy determination of differential orbital covalency of siderophore model compounds: electronic structure contributions to high stability constants,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(11), 4006–4015 (2010).
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B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables54, 181–342 (1993).
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U. Vogt, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, H. Stollberg, P. Jansson, and H. Hertz, “High-resolution spatial characterization of laser produced plasmas at soft x-ray wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. B78(1), 53–58 (2004).
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P. A. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution compact x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc.226(2), 175–181 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Higashiguchi, T.

B. Li, T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “‘Water window’ sources: Selection based on the interplay of spectral properties and multilayer reflection bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(4), 041117 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient “water window” source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 014103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5-6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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R. K. Hocking, S. DeBeer George, K. N. Raymond, K. O. Hodgson, B. Hedman, and E. I. Solomon, “Fe L-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy determination of differential orbital covalency of siderophore model compounds: electronic structure contributions to high stability constants,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(11), 4006–4015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. K. Hocking, S. DeBeer George, K. N. Raymond, K. O. Hodgson, B. Hedman, and E. I. Solomon, “Fe L-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy determination of differential orbital covalency of siderophore model compounds: electronic structure contributions to high stability constants,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(11), 4006–4015 (2010).
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P. A. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution compact x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc.226(2), 175–181 (2007).
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I. Turcu, C. Mann, S. Moon, R. Allott, N. Lisi, B. J. Maddison, S. E. Huq, and N. S. Kim, “Deep, three dimensional lithography with a laser-plasma x-ray source at 1nm wavelength,” Microelectron. Eng.35(1-4), 541–544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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T. Ditmire, R. Smith, R. Marjoribanks, G. Kulcsár, and M. Hutchinson, “X-ray yields from Xe clusters heated by short pulse high intensity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(2), 166–168 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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P. Vrba, M. Vrbová, P. Brůža, D. Pánek, F. Krejčí, M. Kroupa, and J. Jakůbek, “XUV radiation from gaseous nitrogen and argon target laser plasmas,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.370, 012049 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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U. Vogt, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, H. Stollberg, P. Jansson, and H. Hertz, “High-resolution spatial characterization of laser produced plasmas at soft x-ray wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. B78(1), 53–58 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jarocki, R.

R. Rakowski, A. Bartnik, H. Fiedorowicz, F. Gaufridy de Dortan, R. Jarocki, J. Kostecki, J. Mikołajczyk, L. Ryć, M. Szczurek, and P. Wachulak, “Characterization and optimization of the laser-produced plasma EUV source at 13.5 nm based on a double-stream Xe/He gas puff target,” Appl. Phys. B101(4), 773–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, W.

B. Li, T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “‘Water window’ sources: Selection based on the interplay of spectral properties and multilayer reflection bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(4), 041117 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient “water window” source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 014103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5-6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, G. A.

P. A. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution compact x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc.226(2), 175–181 (2007).
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C. Peth, A. Kalinin, F. Barkusky, K. Mann, J. P. Toennies, and L. Y. Rusin, “XUV laser-plasma source based on solid Ar filament,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(10), 103509 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kato, Y.

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, M. Szczurek, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, V. Kmetik, Y. Kato, M. Suzuki, M. Matsumura, J. Tajima, T. Nakayama, and T. Wilhein, “Investigation of soft x-ray emission from a gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.163(1-3), 103–114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kilbane, D.

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5-6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, N. S.

I. Turcu, C. Mann, S. Moon, R. Allott, N. Lisi, B. J. Maddison, S. E. Huq, and N. S. Kim, “Deep, three dimensional lithography with a laser-plasma x-ray source at 1nm wavelength,” Microelectron. Eng.35(1-4), 541–544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kmetik, V.

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, M. Szczurek, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, V. Kmetik, Y. Kato, M. Suzuki, M. Matsumura, J. Tajima, T. Nakayama, and T. Wilhein, “Investigation of soft x-ray emission from a gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.163(1-3), 103–114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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V. Banine, K. Koshelev, and G. Swinkels, “Physical processes in EUV sources for microlithography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(25), 253001 (2011).
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R. Rakowski, A. Bartnik, H. Fiedorowicz, F. Gaufridy de Dortan, R. Jarocki, J. Kostecki, J. Mikołajczyk, L. Ryć, M. Szczurek, and P. Wachulak, “Characterization and optimization of the laser-produced plasma EUV source at 13.5 nm based on a double-stream Xe/He gas puff target,” Appl. Phys. B101(4), 773–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kranzusch, S.

S. Kranzusch, C. Peth, and K. Mann, “Spatial characterization of extreme ultraviolet plasmas generated by laser excitation of xenon gas targets,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.74(2), 969–974 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kranzusch and K. Mann, “Spectral characterization of EUV radiation emitted from a laser-irradiated gas puff target,” Opt. Commun.200(1-6), 223–230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krejcí, F.

P. Vrba, M. Vrbová, P. Brůža, D. Pánek, F. Krejčí, M. Kroupa, and J. Jakůbek, “XUV radiation from gaseous nitrogen and argon target laser plasmas,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.370, 012049 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kroupa, M.

P. Vrba, M. Vrbová, P. Brůža, D. Pánek, F. Krejčí, M. Kroupa, and J. Jakůbek, “XUV radiation from gaseous nitrogen and argon target laser plasmas,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.370, 012049 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kulcsár, G.

T. Ditmire, R. Smith, R. Marjoribanks, G. Kulcsár, and M. Hutchinson, “X-ray yields from Xe clusters heated by short pulse high intensity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(2), 166–168 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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B. Wu and A. Kumar, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography: A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B25(6), 1743–1761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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I. Fomenkov, N. Böwering, D. Brandt, D. Brown, A. Bykanov, A. Ershov, B. La Fontaine, M. Lercel, and D. Myers, “Light sources for EUV lithography at the 22-nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE8322, 83222N, 83222N-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lercel, M.

I. Fomenkov, N. Böwering, D. Brandt, D. Brown, A. Bykanov, A. Ershov, B. La Fontaine, M. Lercel, and D. Myers, “Light sources for EUV lithography at the 22-nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE8322, 83222N, 83222N-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, B.

B. Li, T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “‘Water window’ sources: Selection based on the interplay of spectral properties and multilayer reflection bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(4), 041117 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient “water window” source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 014103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li and R. Fedosejevs, “Density measurements of a high-density pulsed gas jet for laser-plasma interaction studies,” Meas. Sci. Technol.5(10), 1197–1201 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liddle, J. A.

W. Chao, B. D. Harteneck, J. A. Liddle, E. H. Anderson, and D. T. Attwood, “Soft x-ray microscopy at a spatial resolution better than 15 nm,” Nature435(7046), 1210–1213 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lindblom, M.

P. A. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution compact x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc.226(2), 175–181 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lisi, N.

I. Turcu, C. Mann, S. Moon, R. Allott, N. Lisi, B. J. Maddison, S. E. Huq, and N. S. Kim, “Deep, three dimensional lithography with a laser-plasma x-ray source at 1nm wavelength,” Microelectron. Eng.35(1-4), 541–544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

MacFarlane, J.

J. MacFarlane, I. Golovkin, P. Wang, P. Woodruff, and N. Pereyra, “SPECT3D – A multi-dimensional collisional-radiative code for generating diagnostic signatures based on hydrodynamics and PIC simulation output,” H. Ener. Dens. Phys.3(1-2), 181–190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. MacFarlane, C. Rettig, P. Wang, I. Golovkin, and P. Woodruff, “Radiation-hydrodynamics, spectral, and atomic physics modeling of laser-produced plasma EUVL light sources,” Proc. SPIE5751, 588–600 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Maddison, B. J.

I. Turcu, C. Mann, S. Moon, R. Allott, N. Lisi, B. J. Maddison, S. E. Huq, and N. S. Kim, “Deep, three dimensional lithography with a laser-plasma x-ray source at 1nm wavelength,” Microelectron. Eng.35(1-4), 541–544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mann, C.

I. Turcu, C. Mann, S. Moon, R. Allott, N. Lisi, B. J. Maddison, S. E. Huq, and N. S. Kim, “Deep, three dimensional lithography with a laser-plasma x-ray source at 1nm wavelength,” Microelectron. Eng.35(1-4), 541–544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mann, K.

T. Mey, M. Rein, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Brilliance improvement of laser-produced soft x-ray plasma by a barrel shock,” New J. Phys.14(7), 073045 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Bayer, F. Barkusky, S. Döring, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Applications of compact laser-driven EUV/XUV plasma sources,” X-Ray Opt. Instrum.2010, 1–9 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Peth, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, “Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements using a laboratory-scale XUV source,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(10), 105202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Peth, A. Kalinin, F. Barkusky, K. Mann, J. P. Toennies, and L. Y. Rusin, “XUV laser-plasma source based on solid Ar filament,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(10), 103509 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kranzusch, C. Peth, and K. Mann, “Spatial characterization of extreme ultraviolet plasmas generated by laser excitation of xenon gas targets,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.74(2), 969–974 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Kranzusch and K. Mann, “Spectral characterization of EUV radiation emitted from a laser-irradiated gas puff target,” Opt. Commun.200(1-6), 223–230 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marjoribanks, R.

T. Ditmire, R. Smith, R. Marjoribanks, G. Kulcsár, and M. Hutchinson, “X-ray yields from Xe clusters heated by short pulse high intensity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(2), 166–168 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsumura, M.

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, M. Szczurek, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, V. Kmetik, Y. Kato, M. Suzuki, M. Matsumura, J. Tajima, T. Nakayama, and T. Wilhein, “Investigation of soft x-ray emission from a gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.163(1-3), 103–114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mey, T.

T. Mey, M. Rein, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Brilliance improvement of laser-produced soft x-ray plasma by a barrel shock,” New J. Phys.14(7), 073045 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mikolajczyk, J.

R. Rakowski, A. Bartnik, H. Fiedorowicz, F. Gaufridy de Dortan, R. Jarocki, J. Kostecki, J. Mikołajczyk, L. Ryć, M. Szczurek, and P. Wachulak, “Characterization and optimization of the laser-produced plasma EUV source at 13.5 nm based on a double-stream Xe/He gas puff target,” Appl. Phys. B101(4), 773–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moon, S.

I. Turcu, C. Mann, S. Moon, R. Allott, N. Lisi, B. J. Maddison, S. E. Huq, and N. S. Kim, “Deep, three dimensional lithography with a laser-plasma x-ray source at 1nm wavelength,” Microelectron. Eng.35(1-4), 541–544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Myers, D.

I. Fomenkov, N. Böwering, D. Brandt, D. Brown, A. Bykanov, A. Ershov, B. La Fontaine, M. Lercel, and D. Myers, “Light sources for EUV lithography at the 22-nm node and beyond,” Proc. SPIE8322, 83222N, 83222N-9 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, T.

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, M. Szczurek, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, V. Kmetik, Y. Kato, M. Suzuki, M. Matsumura, J. Tajima, T. Nakayama, and T. Wilhein, “Investigation of soft x-ray emission from a gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.163(1-3), 103–114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nickles, P.

U. Vogt, H. Stiel, I. Will, P. Nickles, W. Sandner, M. Wieland, and T. Wilhein, “Influence of laser intensity and pulse duration on the extreme ultraviolet yield from a water jet target laser plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(15), 2336–2338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O’Sullivan, G.

B. Li, T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “‘Water window’ sources: Selection based on the interplay of spectral properties and multilayer reflection bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(4), 041117 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient “water window” source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 014103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5-6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Otsuka, T.

B. Li, T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “‘Water window’ sources: Selection based on the interplay of spectral properties and multilayer reflection bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(4), 041117 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient “water window” source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 014103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5-6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pánek, D.

P. Vrba, M. Vrbová, P. Brůža, D. Pánek, F. Krejčí, M. Kroupa, and J. Jakůbek, “XUV radiation from gaseous nitrogen and argon target laser plasmas,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.370, 012049 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Parys, P.

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, Z. Patron, and P. Parys, “X-ray emission from laser-irradiated gas puff targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(22), 2778–2780 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Patron, Z.

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, Z. Patron, and P. Parys, “X-ray emission from laser-irradiated gas puff targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(22), 2778–2780 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pereyra, N.

J. MacFarlane, I. Golovkin, P. Wang, P. Woodruff, and N. Pereyra, “SPECT3D – A multi-dimensional collisional-radiative code for generating diagnostic signatures based on hydrodynamics and PIC simulation output,” H. Ener. Dens. Phys.3(1-2), 181–190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Strong x-ray emission from high-temperature plasmas produced by intense irradiation of clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(17), 3122–3125 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peth, C.

C. Peth, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, “Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements using a laboratory-scale XUV source,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(10), 105202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Peth, A. Kalinin, F. Barkusky, K. Mann, J. P. Toennies, and L. Y. Rusin, “XUV laser-plasma source based on solid Ar filament,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(10), 103509 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kranzusch, C. Peth, and K. Mann, “Spatial characterization of extreme ultraviolet plasmas generated by laser excitation of xenon gas targets,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.74(2), 969–974 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Podobedova, L.

L. Podobedova, J. Fuhr, J. Reader, and W. Wiese“Atomic spectral tables for the Chandra x-ray observatory. Part IV. Ne V – Ne VIII,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data33(2), 525–540 (2004).

Proch, D.

D. Proch and T. Trickl, “A high-intensity multi-purpose piezoelectric pulsed molecular beam source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.60(4), 713–716 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rakowski, R.

R. Rakowski, A. Bartnik, H. Fiedorowicz, F. Gaufridy de Dortan, R. Jarocki, J. Kostecki, J. Mikołajczyk, L. Ryć, M. Szczurek, and P. Wachulak, “Characterization and optimization of the laser-produced plasma EUV source at 13.5 nm based on a double-stream Xe/He gas puff target,” Appl. Phys. B101(4), 773–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Raymond, K. N.

R. K. Hocking, S. DeBeer George, K. N. Raymond, K. O. Hodgson, B. Hedman, and E. I. Solomon, “Fe L-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy determination of differential orbital covalency of siderophore model compounds: electronic structure contributions to high stability constants,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(11), 4006–4015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reader, J.

L. Podobedova, J. Fuhr, J. Reader, and W. Wiese“Atomic spectral tables for the Chandra x-ray observatory. Part IV. Ne V – Ne VIII,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data33(2), 525–540 (2004).

Rein, M.

T. Mey, M. Rein, P. Großmann, and K. Mann, “Brilliance improvement of laser-produced soft x-ray plasma by a barrel shock,” New J. Phys.14(7), 073045 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ress, D.

E. Gabl, B. Failor, G. Busch, R. Schroeder, D. Ress, and L. Suter, “Plasma evolution from laser-driven gold disks. I. Experiments and results,” Phys. Fluids B2(10), 2437–2447 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rettig, C.

J. MacFarlane, C. Rettig, P. Wang, I. Golovkin, and P. Woodruff, “Radiation-hydrodynamics, spectral, and atomic physics modeling of laser-produced plasma EUVL light sources,” Proc. SPIE5751, 588–600 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rusin, L. Y.

C. Peth, A. Kalinin, F. Barkusky, K. Mann, J. P. Toennies, and L. Y. Rusin, “XUV laser-plasma source based on solid Ar filament,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(10), 103509 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryc, L.

R. Rakowski, A. Bartnik, H. Fiedorowicz, F. Gaufridy de Dortan, R. Jarocki, J. Kostecki, J. Mikołajczyk, L. Ryć, M. Szczurek, and P. Wachulak, “Characterization and optimization of the laser-produced plasma EUV source at 13.5 nm based on a double-stream Xe/He gas puff target,” Appl. Phys. B101(4), 773–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sakaya, N.

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, M. Szczurek, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, V. Kmetik, Y. Kato, M. Suzuki, M. Matsumura, J. Tajima, T. Nakayama, and T. Wilhein, “Investigation of soft x-ray emission from a gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.163(1-3), 103–114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sandner, W.

U. Vogt, H. Stiel, I. Will, P. Nickles, W. Sandner, M. Wieland, and T. Wilhein, “Influence of laser intensity and pulse duration on the extreme ultraviolet yield from a water jet target laser plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(15), 2336–2338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, D.

Schroeder, R.

E. Gabl, B. Failor, G. Busch, R. Schroeder, D. Ress, and L. Suter, “Plasma evolution from laser-driven gold disks. I. Experiments and results,” Phys. Fluids B2(10), 2437–2447 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R.

T. Ditmire, R. Smith, R. Marjoribanks, G. Kulcsár, and M. Hutchinson, “X-ray yields from Xe clusters heated by short pulse high intensity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(2), 166–168 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, E. I.

R. K. Hocking, S. DeBeer George, K. N. Raymond, K. O. Hodgson, B. Hedman, and E. I. Solomon, “Fe L-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy determination of differential orbital covalency of siderophore model compounds: electronic structure contributions to high stability constants,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(11), 4006–4015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stiel, H.

U. Vogt, H. Stiel, I. Will, P. Nickles, W. Sandner, M. Wieland, and T. Wilhein, “Influence of laser intensity and pulse duration on the extreme ultraviolet yield from a water jet target laser plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(15), 2336–2338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stollberg, H.

P. A. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution compact x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc.226(2), 175–181 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Vogt, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, H. Stollberg, P. Jansson, and H. Hertz, “High-resolution spatial characterization of laser produced plasmas at soft x-ray wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. B78(1), 53–58 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Suter, L.

E. Gabl, B. Failor, G. Busch, R. Schroeder, D. Ress, and L. Suter, “Plasma evolution from laser-driven gold disks. I. Experiments and results,” Phys. Fluids B2(10), 2437–2447 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, H. Daido, I. Choi, M. Suzuki, and S. Yamagami, “Strong extreme ultraviolet emission from a double-stream xenon/helium gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.184(1-4), 161–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, M. Szczurek, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, V. Kmetik, Y. Kato, M. Suzuki, M. Matsumura, J. Tajima, T. Nakayama, and T. Wilhein, “Investigation of soft x-ray emission from a gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.163(1-3), 103–114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Swinkels, G.

V. Banine, K. Koshelev, and G. Swinkels, “Physical processes in EUV sources for microlithography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(25), 253001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Szczurek, M.

R. Rakowski, A. Bartnik, H. Fiedorowicz, F. Gaufridy de Dortan, R. Jarocki, J. Kostecki, J. Mikołajczyk, L. Ryć, M. Szczurek, and P. Wachulak, “Characterization and optimization of the laser-produced plasma EUV source at 13.5 nm based on a double-stream Xe/He gas puff target,” Appl. Phys. B101(4), 773–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, M. Szczurek, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, V. Kmetik, Y. Kato, M. Suzuki, M. Matsumura, J. Tajima, T. Nakayama, and T. Wilhein, “Investigation of soft x-ray emission from a gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.163(1-3), 103–114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, J.

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, M. Szczurek, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, V. Kmetik, Y. Kato, M. Suzuki, M. Matsumura, J. Tajima, T. Nakayama, and T. Wilhein, “Investigation of soft x-ray emission from a gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.163(1-3), 103–114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Takman, P. A.

P. A. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution compact x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc.226(2), 175–181 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toennies, J. P.

C. Peth, A. Kalinin, F. Barkusky, K. Mann, J. P. Toennies, and L. Y. Rusin, “XUV laser-plasma source based on solid Ar filament,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(10), 103509 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tonon, G.

D. Colombant and G. Tonon, “X-ray emission in laser-produced plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys.44(8), 3524–3537 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Trickl, T.

D. Proch and T. Trickl, “A high-intensity multi-purpose piezoelectric pulsed molecular beam source,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.60(4), 713–716 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Turcu, I.

I. Turcu, C. Mann, S. Moon, R. Allott, N. Lisi, B. J. Maddison, S. E. Huq, and N. S. Kim, “Deep, three dimensional lithography with a laser-plasma x-ray source at 1nm wavelength,” Microelectron. Eng.35(1-4), 541–544 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Verner, D.

D. Verner, E. Verner, and G. Ferland, “Atomic Data for Permitted Resonance Lines of Atoms and Ions from H to Si, and S, Ar, Ca, and Fe,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables64, 1–180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Verner, E.

D. Verner, E. Verner, and G. Ferland, “Atomic Data for Permitted Resonance Lines of Atoms and Ions from H to Si, and S, Ar, Ca, and Fe,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables64, 1–180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, U.

U. Vogt, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, H. Stollberg, P. Jansson, and H. Hertz, “High-resolution spatial characterization of laser produced plasmas at soft x-ray wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. B78(1), 53–58 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Vogt, H. Stiel, I. Will, P. Nickles, W. Sandner, M. Wieland, and T. Wilhein, “Influence of laser intensity and pulse duration on the extreme ultraviolet yield from a water jet target laser plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(15), 2336–2338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vrba, P.

P. Vrba, M. Vrbová, P. Brůža, D. Pánek, F. Krejčí, M. Kroupa, and J. Jakůbek, “XUV radiation from gaseous nitrogen and argon target laser plasmas,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.370, 012049 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vrbová, M.

P. Vrba, M. Vrbová, P. Brůža, D. Pánek, F. Krejčí, M. Kroupa, and J. Jakůbek, “XUV radiation from gaseous nitrogen and argon target laser plasmas,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.370, 012049 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wachulak, P.

R. Rakowski, A. Bartnik, H. Fiedorowicz, F. Gaufridy de Dortan, R. Jarocki, J. Kostecki, J. Mikołajczyk, L. Ryć, M. Szczurek, and P. Wachulak, “Characterization and optimization of the laser-produced plasma EUV source at 13.5 nm based on a double-stream Xe/He gas puff target,” Appl. Phys. B101(4), 773–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, P.

J. MacFarlane, I. Golovkin, P. Wang, P. Woodruff, and N. Pereyra, “SPECT3D – A multi-dimensional collisional-radiative code for generating diagnostic signatures based on hydrodynamics and PIC simulation output,” H. Ener. Dens. Phys.3(1-2), 181–190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. MacFarlane, C. Rettig, P. Wang, I. Golovkin, and P. Woodruff, “Radiation-hydrodynamics, spectral, and atomic physics modeling of laser-produced plasma EUVL light sources,” Proc. SPIE5751, 588–600 (2005).
[CrossRef]

White, J.

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5-6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wieland, M.

U. Vogt, H. Stiel, I. Will, P. Nickles, W. Sandner, M. Wieland, and T. Wilhein, “Influence of laser intensity and pulse duration on the extreme ultraviolet yield from a water jet target laser plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(15), 2336–2338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wiese, W.

L. Podobedova, J. Fuhr, J. Reader, and W. Wiese“Atomic spectral tables for the Chandra x-ray observatory. Part IV. Ne V – Ne VIII,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data33(2), 525–540 (2004).

Wilhein, T.

M. Benk, K. Bergmann, D. Schäfer, and T. Wilhein, “Compact soft x-ray microscope using a gas-discharge light source,” Opt. Lett.33(20), 2359–2361 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Vogt, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, H. Stollberg, P. Jansson, and H. Hertz, “High-resolution spatial characterization of laser produced plasmas at soft x-ray wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. B78(1), 53–58 (2004).
[CrossRef]

U. Vogt, H. Stiel, I. Will, P. Nickles, W. Sandner, M. Wieland, and T. Wilhein, “Influence of laser intensity and pulse duration on the extreme ultraviolet yield from a water jet target laser plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(15), 2336–2338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, M. Szczurek, H. Daido, N. Sakaya, V. Kmetik, Y. Kato, M. Suzuki, M. Matsumura, J. Tajima, T. Nakayama, and T. Wilhein, “Investigation of soft x-ray emission from a gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.163(1-3), 103–114 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Will, I.

U. Vogt, H. Stiel, I. Will, P. Nickles, W. Sandner, M. Wieland, and T. Wilhein, “Influence of laser intensity and pulse duration on the extreme ultraviolet yield from a water jet target laser plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(15), 2336–2338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Woodruff, P.

J. MacFarlane, I. Golovkin, P. Wang, P. Woodruff, and N. Pereyra, “SPECT3D – A multi-dimensional collisional-radiative code for generating diagnostic signatures based on hydrodynamics and PIC simulation output,” H. Ener. Dens. Phys.3(1-2), 181–190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. MacFarlane, C. Rettig, P. Wang, I. Golovkin, and P. Woodruff, “Radiation-hydrodynamics, spectral, and atomic physics modeling of laser-produced plasma EUVL light sources,” Proc. SPIE5751, 588–600 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

B. Wu and A. Kumar, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography: A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B25(6), 1743–1761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yamagami, S.

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, H. Daido, I. Choi, M. Suzuki, and S. Yamagami, “Strong extreme ultraviolet emission from a double-stream xenon/helium gas puff target irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Commun.184(1-4), 161–167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yatagai, T.

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5-6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yugami, N.

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient “water window” source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 014103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5-6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

U. Vogt, R. Frueke, T. Wilhein, H. Stollberg, P. Jansson, and H. Hertz, “High-resolution spatial characterization of laser produced plasmas at soft x-ray wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. B78(1), 53–58 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Rakowski, A. Bartnik, H. Fiedorowicz, F. Gaufridy de Dortan, R. Jarocki, J. Kostecki, J. Mikołajczyk, L. Ryć, M. Szczurek, and P. Wachulak, “Characterization and optimization of the laser-produced plasma EUV source at 13.5 nm based on a double-stream Xe/He gas puff target,” Appl. Phys. B101(4), 773–789 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

B. Li, T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “‘Water window’ sources: Selection based on the interplay of spectral properties and multilayer reflection bandwidth,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(4), 041117 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Ditmire, R. Smith, R. Marjoribanks, G. Kulcsár, and M. Hutchinson, “X-ray yields from Xe clusters heated by short pulse high intensity lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(2), 166–168 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Higashiguchi, T. Otsuka, N. Yugami, W. Jiang, A. Endo, B. Li, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Feasibility study of broadband efficient “water window” source,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 014103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Fiedorowicz, A. Bartnik, Z. Patron, and P. Parys, “X-ray emission from laser-irradiated gas puff targets,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(22), 2778–2780 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Banyay and L. Juschkin, “Table-top reflectometer in the extreme ultraviolet for surface sensitive analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(6), 063507 (2009).
[CrossRef]

U. Vogt, H. Stiel, I. Will, P. Nickles, W. Sandner, M. Wieland, and T. Wilhein, “Influence of laser intensity and pulse duration on the extreme ultraviolet yield from a water jet target laser plasma,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79(15), 2336–2338 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Otsuka, D. Kilbane, J. White, T. Higashiguchi, N. Yugami, T. Yatagai, W. Jiang, A. Endo, P. Dunne, and G. O’Sullivan, “Rare-earth plasma extreme ultraviolet sources at 6.5-6.7 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(11), 111503 (2010).
[CrossRef]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (2)

D. Verner, E. Verner, and G. Ferland, “Atomic Data for Permitted Resonance Lines of Atoms and Ions from H to Si, and S, Ar, Ca, and Fe,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables64, 1–180 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Henke, E. Gullikson, and J. Davis, “X-Ray Interactions: Photoabsorption, Scattering, Transmission, and Reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables54, 181–342 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Ener. Dens. Phys. (1)

J. MacFarlane, I. Golovkin, P. Wang, P. Woodruff, and N. Pereyra, “SPECT3D – A multi-dimensional collisional-radiative code for generating diagnostic signatures based on hydrodynamics and PIC simulation output,” H. Ener. Dens. Phys.3(1-2), 181–190 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

R. K. Hocking, S. DeBeer George, K. N. Raymond, K. O. Hodgson, B. Hedman, and E. I. Solomon, “Fe L-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy determination of differential orbital covalency of siderophore model compounds: electronic structure contributions to high stability constants,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.132(11), 4006–4015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Colombant and G. Tonon, “X-ray emission in laser-produced plasmas,” J. Appl. Phys.44(8), 3524–3537 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

P. A. Takman, H. Stollberg, G. A. Johansson, A. Holmberg, M. Lindblom, and H. M. Hertz, “High-resolution compact x-ray microscopy,” J. Microsc.226(2), 175–181 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data (1)

L. Podobedova, J. Fuhr, J. Reader, and W. Wiese“Atomic spectral tables for the Chandra x-ray observatory. Part IV. Ne V – Ne VIII,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data33(2), 525–540 (2004).

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

P. Vrba, M. Vrbová, P. Brůža, D. Pánek, F. Krejčí, M. Kroupa, and J. Jakůbek, “XUV radiation from gaseous nitrogen and argon target laser plasmas,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser.370, 012049 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (2)

C. Peth, F. Barkusky, and K. Mann, “Near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure measurements using a laboratory-scale XUV source,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.41(10), 105202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Banine, K. Koshelev, and G. Swinkels, “Physical processes in EUV sources for microlithography,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.44(25), 253001 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

B. Wu and A. Kumar, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography: A review,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B25(6), 1743–1761 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic drawing of the table-top soft x-ray plasma source; upper right insets show pinhole camera images of a ns (b) and a ps (c) laser-induced krypton plasma, respectively. The pinhole images were recorded with a Ti filter for blocking of out-of-band radiation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Emission spectra of six investigated gases from both ns and ps laser plasmas (accumulated over 100 pulses, 200 nm Al-filtered); gas backing pressure was 10 bar for all measurements. It should be noted that for the ns laser a shorter focal length of 80 mm was used to achieve a higher power density; a lens with 160 mm focal length as for the ps laser would have led to even lower ns plasma intensities.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of measured and calculated emission spectra of argon for ns (a) and ps laser (b), accumulated over 100 pulses (200 nm Al-filtered); pulse length, pulse energy and power density are the same as shown in Fig. 2. The parameters used for the calculations are compiled in Table 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Emission spectra of nitrogen (a) and krypton (b) for different pulse energies of the ps laser (accumulated over 100 pulses, Al-filtered). For comparison the emission spectra of the ns laser for pulse energies of 340 mJ (a) and 380 mJ (b) are displayed (red curve), corresponding to the same pulse energy as the strongest ps spectra.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fraction of absorbed laser pulse energy in nitrogen and krypton for different energies of the ns and ps laser (for further explanations see text).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Emission spectra of krypton for different absorbed pulse energies Qabs of the ns and ps laser (accumulated over 100 pulses, 200nm Al-filtered); corresponding laser output energies are displayed in brackets.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Emission spectra of nitrogen in the wavelength range from 1.5 nm to 3.5 nm measured with Al and Ti filters, respectively. Transmission data of both filters are taken from CXRO [41].

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Plasma brightness of all investigated gases, measured using a calibrated XUV photo-diode (IRD AXUV 100). The brightness is presented for the most intense single emission lines of nitrogen, oxygen and neon. For argon, krypton and xenon the most prominent spectral regions were chosen.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Electron temperatures and electron densities of the computed argon spectra.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Experimental parameters of the two employed laser systems and corresponding peak brilliances of the Ti filtered monochromatic nitrogen plasma (λ = 2.8787 nm, 1s2-1s2p, NVI).

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