Abstract

Biosensors selectively detecting a very small amount of biomarker protein in human blood are desired for early and reliable diagnoses of severe diseases. This paper reports the detection of protein (streptavidin: SA) in ultra-low concentration, with an ultra-high selectivity against contaminants, using photonic crystal nanolasers. For biotin-modified nanolasers in pure water with SA, an extremely-low detection limit of 16 zM is evaluated. Even in a mixture with 1 μM bovine serum albumin as the contaminant, 100 zM SA is detected, meaning a selectivity of 1013. These are remarkable capabilities that are promising for practical biosensing in the medical applications mentioned above.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (3)

F. Vollmer and L. Yang, “Label-free detection with high-Q microcavities: a review of biosensing mechanisms for integrated devices,” Nanophotonics1(3–4), 267–291 (2012).

M. M. A. Hakim, M. Lombardini, K. Sun, F. Giustiniano, P. L. Roach, D. E. Davies, P. H. Howarth, M. R. R. de Planque, H. Morgan, and P. Ashburn, “Thin film polycrystalline silicon nanowire biosensors,” Nano Lett.12(4), 1868–1872 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Narimatsu, S. Kita, H. Abe, and T. Baba, “Enhancement of vertical emission in photonic crystal nanolasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 121117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

S. Kita, S. Hachuda, S. Otsuka, T. Endo, Y. Imai, Y. Nishijima, H. Misawa, and T. Baba, “Super-sensitivity in label-free protein sensing using a nanoslot nanolaser,” Opt. Express19(18), 17683–17690 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots −−− design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1632–1647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G.-J. Zhang, Z. H. H. Luo, M. J. Huang, J. J. Ang, T. G. Kang, and H. Ji, “An integrated chip for rapid, sensitive, and multiplexed detection of cardiac biomarkers from fingerprick blood,” Biosens. Bioelectron.28(1), 459–463 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

M. Piliarik, M. Bocková, and J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for parallelized detection of protein biomarkers in diluted blood plasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(4), 1656–1661 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. von Muhlen, N. D. Brault, S. M. Knudsen, S. Y. Jiang, and S. R. Manalis, “Label-free biomarker sensing in undiluted serum with suspended microchannel resonators,” Anal. Chem.82(5), 1905–1910 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Lu, P. T. Lin, K. U. Sio, and P. T. Lee, “Optical sensing of square lattice photonic crystal point-shifted nanocavity for protein adsorption detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kita, S. Hachuda, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Nanoslot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(16), 161108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Mao, G. H. Lu, K. H. Yu, Z. Bo, and J. H. Chen, “Specific protein detection using thermally reduced graphene oxide sheet decorated with gold nanoparticle-antibody conjugates,” Adv. Mater.22(32), 3521–3526 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2007 (3)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. De Vos, I. Bartolozzi, E. Schacht, P. Bienstman, and R. Baets, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator for sensitive and label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express15(12), 7610–7615 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Isono, H. Tanaka, and T. Ogino, ““Effect of chemical modification of the substrate surface on supported lipid bilayer formation,” e-J. Surf. Sci. Nanotech.5, 99–102 (2007).

2006 (2)

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Ivanov, V. M. Govorun, V. A. Bykov, and A. I. Archakov, “Nanotechnologies in proteomics,” Proteomics6(5), 1399–1414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(14), 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(26), 4648–4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Wiese, Y. Belosludtsev, T. Powdrill, P. Thompson, and M. Hogan, “Simultaneous multianalyte ELISA performed on a microarray platform,” Clin. Chem.47(8), 1451–1457 (2001).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.54(1−2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1995 (2)

N. Nakajima and Y. Ikada, “Mechanism of amide formation by carbodiimide for bioconjugation in aqueous media,” Bioconjug. Chem.6(1), 123–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ukeda, T. Ishii, M. Sawamura, and H. Kusunose, “Dynamic analysis of the binding process of bovine serum-albumin on glutaraldehyde-activated controlled-pore glass,” Anal. Chim. Acta308(1−3), 261–268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Abe, H.

M. Narimatsu, S. Kita, H. Abe, and T. Baba, “Enhancement of vertical emission in photonic crystal nanolasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 121117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aldridge, J. C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ang, J. J.

G.-J. Zhang, Z. H. H. Luo, M. J. Huang, J. J. Ang, T. G. Kang, and H. Ji, “An integrated chip for rapid, sensitive, and multiplexed detection of cardiac biomarkers from fingerprick blood,” Biosens. Bioelectron.28(1), 459–463 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anthes-Washburn, M.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Archakov, A. I.

Y. D. Ivanov, V. M. Govorun, V. A. Bykov, and A. I. Archakov, “Nanotechnologies in proteomics,” Proteomics6(5), 1399–1414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arita, Y.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots −−− design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1632–1647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashburn, P.

M. M. A. Hakim, M. Lombardini, K. Sun, F. Giustiniano, P. L. Roach, D. E. Davies, P. H. Howarth, M. R. R. de Planque, H. Morgan, and P. Ashburn, “Thin film polycrystalline silicon nanowire biosensors,” Nano Lett.12(4), 1868–1872 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baba, T.

M. Narimatsu, S. Kita, H. Abe, and T. Baba, “Enhancement of vertical emission in photonic crystal nanolasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 121117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kita, S. Hachuda, S. Otsuka, T. Endo, Y. Imai, Y. Nishijima, H. Misawa, and T. Baba, “Super-sensitivity in label-free protein sensing using a nanoslot nanolaser,” Opt. Express19(18), 17683–17690 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots −−− design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1632–1647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kita, S. Hachuda, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Nanoslot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(16), 161108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Baev, A.

Bartolozzi, I.

Belosludtsev, Y.

R. Wiese, Y. Belosludtsev, T. Powdrill, P. Thompson, and M. Hogan, “Simultaneous multianalyte ELISA performed on a microarray platform,” Clin. Chem.47(8), 1451–1457 (2001).
[PubMed]

Bienstman, P.

Bo, Z.

S. Mao, G. H. Lu, K. H. Yu, Z. Bo, and J. H. Chen, “Specific protein detection using thermally reduced graphene oxide sheet decorated with gold nanoparticle-antibody conjugates,” Adv. Mater.22(32), 3521–3526 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bocková, M.

M. Piliarik, M. Bocková, and J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for parallelized detection of protein biomarkers in diluted blood plasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(4), 1656–1661 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brault, N. D.

M. G. von Muhlen, N. D. Brault, S. M. Knudsen, S. Y. Jiang, and S. R. Manalis, “Label-free biomarker sensing in undiluted serum with suspended microchannel resonators,” Anal. Chem.82(5), 1905–1910 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bykov, V. A.

Y. D. Ivanov, V. M. Govorun, V. A. Bykov, and A. I. Archakov, “Nanotechnologies in proteomics,” Proteomics6(5), 1399–1414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chbouki, N.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. H.

S. Mao, G. H. Lu, K. H. Yu, Z. Bo, and J. H. Chen, “Specific protein detection using thermally reduced graphene oxide sheet decorated with gold nanoparticle-antibody conjugates,” Adv. Mater.22(32), 3521–3526 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, L.

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(14), 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davies, D. E.

M. M. A. Hakim, M. Lombardini, K. Sun, F. Giustiniano, P. L. Roach, D. E. Davies, P. H. Howarth, M. R. R. de Planque, H. Morgan, and P. Ashburn, “Thin film polycrystalline silicon nanowire biosensors,” Nano Lett.12(4), 1868–1872 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Planque, M. R. R.

M. M. A. Hakim, M. Lombardini, K. Sun, F. Giustiniano, P. L. Roach, D. E. Davies, P. H. Howarth, M. R. R. de Planque, H. Morgan, and P. Ashburn, “Thin film polycrystalline silicon nanowire biosensors,” Nano Lett.12(4), 1868–1872 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Vos, K.

Desai, T. A.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Endo, T.

Fabricius, N.

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.54(1−2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Giustiniano, F.

M. M. A. Hakim, M. Lombardini, K. Sun, F. Giustiniano, P. L. Roach, D. E. Davies, P. H. Howarth, M. R. R. de Planque, H. Morgan, and P. Ashburn, “Thin film polycrystalline silicon nanowire biosensors,” Nano Lett.12(4), 1868–1872 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberg, B. B.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Govorun, V. M.

Y. D. Ivanov, V. M. Govorun, V. A. Bykov, and A. I. Archakov, “Nanotechnologies in proteomics,” Proteomics6(5), 1399–1414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hachuda, S.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots −−− design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1632–1647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kita, S. Hachuda, S. Otsuka, T. Endo, Y. Imai, Y. Nishijima, H. Misawa, and T. Baba, “Super-sensitivity in label-free protein sensing using a nanoslot nanolaser,” Opt. Express19(18), 17683–17690 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kita, S. Hachuda, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Nanoslot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(16), 161108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hakim, M. M. A.

M. M. A. Hakim, M. Lombardini, K. Sun, F. Giustiniano, P. L. Roach, D. E. Davies, P. H. Howarth, M. R. R. de Planque, H. Morgan, and P. Ashburn, “Thin film polycrystalline silicon nanowire biosensors,” Nano Lett.12(4), 1868–1872 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hogan, M.

R. Wiese, Y. Belosludtsev, T. Powdrill, P. Thompson, and M. Hogan, “Simultaneous multianalyte ELISA performed on a microarray platform,” Clin. Chem.47(8), 1451–1457 (2001).
[PubMed]

Hollenbach, U.

Homola, J.

M. Piliarik, M. Bocková, and J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for parallelized detection of protein biomarkers in diluted blood plasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(4), 1656–1661 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.54(1−2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Howarth, P. H.

M. M. A. Hakim, M. Lombardini, K. Sun, F. Giustiniano, P. L. Roach, D. E. Davies, P. H. Howarth, M. R. R. de Planque, H. Morgan, and P. Ashburn, “Thin film polycrystalline silicon nanowire biosensors,” Nano Lett.12(4), 1868–1872 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hryniewicz, J.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hu, R.

Huang, M. J.

G.-J. Zhang, Z. H. H. Luo, M. J. Huang, J. J. Ang, T. G. Kang, and H. Ji, “An integrated chip for rapid, sensitive, and multiplexed detection of cardiac biomarkers from fingerprick blood,” Biosens. Bioelectron.28(1), 459–463 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ikada, Y.

N. Nakajima and Y. Ikada, “Mechanism of amide formation by carbodiimide for bioconjugation in aqueous media,” Bioconjug. Chem.6(1), 123–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imai, Y.

Ingenhoff, J.

Ishii, T.

H. Ukeda, T. Ishii, M. Sawamura, and H. Kusunose, “Dynamic analysis of the binding process of bovine serum-albumin on glutaraldehyde-activated controlled-pore glass,” Anal. Chim. Acta308(1−3), 261–268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Isono, T.

T. Isono, H. Tanaka, and T. Ogino, ““Effect of chemical modification of the substrate surface on supported lipid bilayer formation,” e-J. Surf. Sci. Nanotech.5, 99–102 (2007).

Ivanov, Y. D.

Y. D. Ivanov, V. M. Govorun, V. A. Bykov, and A. I. Archakov, “Nanotechnologies in proteomics,” Proteomics6(5), 1399–1414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ji, H.

G.-J. Zhang, Z. H. H. Luo, M. J. Huang, J. J. Ang, T. G. Kang, and H. Ji, “An integrated chip for rapid, sensitive, and multiplexed detection of cardiac biomarkers from fingerprick blood,” Biosens. Bioelectron.28(1), 459–463 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, S. Y.

M. G. von Muhlen, N. D. Brault, S. M. Knudsen, S. Y. Jiang, and S. R. Manalis, “Label-free biomarker sensing in undiluted serum with suspended microchannel resonators,” Anal. Chem.82(5), 1905–1910 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, T. G.

G.-J. Zhang, Z. H. H. Luo, M. J. Huang, J. J. Ang, T. G. Kang, and H. Ji, “An integrated chip for rapid, sensitive, and multiplexed detection of cardiac biomarkers from fingerprick blood,” Biosens. Bioelectron.28(1), 459–463 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, O.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kita, S.

M. Narimatsu, S. Kita, H. Abe, and T. Baba, “Enhancement of vertical emission in photonic crystal nanolasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 121117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kita, S. Hachuda, S. Otsuka, T. Endo, Y. Imai, Y. Nishijima, H. Misawa, and T. Baba, “Super-sensitivity in label-free protein sensing using a nanoslot nanolaser,” Opt. Express19(18), 17683–17690 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots −−− design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1632–1647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kita, S. Hachuda, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Nanoslot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(16), 161108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Knudsen, S. M.

M. G. von Muhlen, N. D. Brault, S. M. Knudsen, S. Y. Jiang, and S. R. Manalis, “Label-free biomarker sensing in undiluted serum with suspended microchannel resonators,” Anal. Chem.82(5), 1905–1910 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kusunose, H.

H. Ukeda, T. Ishii, M. Sawamura, and H. Kusunose, “Dynamic analysis of the binding process of bovine serum-albumin on glutaraldehyde-activated controlled-pore glass,” Anal. Chim. Acta308(1−3), 261–268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Law, W. C.

Lee, P. T.

T. W. Lu, P. T. Lin, K. U. Sio, and P. T. Lee, “Optical sensing of square lattice photonic crystal point-shifted nanocavity for protein adsorption detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, P. T.

T. W. Lu, P. T. Lin, K. U. Sio, and P. T. Lee, “Optical sensing of square lattice photonic crystal point-shifted nanocavity for protein adsorption detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(14), 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Little, B. E.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lombardini, M.

M. M. A. Hakim, M. Lombardini, K. Sun, F. Giustiniano, P. L. Roach, D. E. Davies, P. H. Howarth, M. R. R. de Planque, H. Morgan, and P. Ashburn, “Thin film polycrystalline silicon nanowire biosensors,” Nano Lett.12(4), 1868–1872 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loncar, M.

M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(26), 4648–4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, G. H.

S. Mao, G. H. Lu, K. H. Yu, Z. Bo, and J. H. Chen, “Specific protein detection using thermally reduced graphene oxide sheet decorated with gold nanoparticle-antibody conjugates,” Adv. Mater.22(32), 3521–3526 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, T. W.

T. W. Lu, P. T. Lin, K. U. Sio, and P. T. Lee, “Optical sensing of square lattice photonic crystal point-shifted nanocavity for protein adsorption detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luff, B. J.

Luo, Z. H. H.

G.-J. Zhang, Z. H. H. Luo, M. J. Huang, J. J. Ang, T. G. Kang, and H. Ji, “An integrated chip for rapid, sensitive, and multiplexed detection of cardiac biomarkers from fingerprick blood,” Biosens. Bioelectron.28(1), 459–463 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manalis, S. R.

M. G. von Muhlen, N. D. Brault, S. M. Knudsen, S. Y. Jiang, and S. R. Manalis, “Label-free biomarker sensing in undiluted serum with suspended microchannel resonators,” Anal. Chem.82(5), 1905–1910 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manolatou, C.

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(14), 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mao, S.

S. Mao, G. H. Lu, K. H. Yu, Z. Bo, and J. H. Chen, “Specific protein detection using thermally reduced graphene oxide sheet decorated with gold nanoparticle-antibody conjugates,” Adv. Mater.22(32), 3521–3526 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Misawa, H.

Morgan, H.

M. M. A. Hakim, M. Lombardini, K. Sun, F. Giustiniano, P. L. Roach, D. E. Davies, P. H. Howarth, M. R. R. de Planque, H. Morgan, and P. Ashburn, “Thin film polycrystalline silicon nanowire biosensors,” Nano Lett.12(4), 1868–1872 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nakada, T.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots −−− design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1632–1647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, N.

N. Nakajima and Y. Ikada, “Mechanism of amide formation by carbodiimide for bioconjugation in aqueous media,” Bioconjug. Chem.6(1), 123–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narimatsu, M.

M. Narimatsu, S. Kita, H. Abe, and T. Baba, “Enhancement of vertical emission in photonic crystal nanolasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 121117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nishijima, Y.

Nozaki, K.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots −−− design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1632–1647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kita, S. Hachuda, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Nanoslot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(16), 161108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ogino, T.

T. Isono, H. Tanaka, and T. Ogino, ““Effect of chemical modification of the substrate surface on supported lipid bilayer formation,” e-J. Surf. Sci. Nanotech.5, 99–102 (2007).

Otsuka, S.

S. Kita, S. Hachuda, S. Otsuka, T. Endo, Y. Imai, Y. Nishijima, H. Misawa, and T. Baba, “Super-sensitivity in label-free protein sensing using a nanoslot nanolaser,” Opt. Express19(18), 17683–17690 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots −−− design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1632–1647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Piehler, J.

Piliarik, M.

M. Piliarik, M. Bocková, and J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for parallelized detection of protein biomarkers in diluted blood plasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(4), 1656–1661 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popat, K. C.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Powdrill, T.

R. Wiese, Y. Belosludtsev, T. Powdrill, P. Thompson, and M. Hogan, “Simultaneous multianalyte ELISA performed on a microarray platform,” Clin. Chem.47(8), 1451–1457 (2001).
[PubMed]

Prasad, P. N.

Qiu, Y. M.

M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(26), 4648–4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roach, P. L.

M. M. A. Hakim, M. Lombardini, K. Sun, F. Giustiniano, P. L. Roach, D. E. Davies, P. H. Howarth, M. R. R. de Planque, H. Morgan, and P. Ashburn, “Thin film polycrystalline silicon nanowire biosensors,” Nano Lett.12(4), 1868–1872 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. T.

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(14), 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saito, Y.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots −−− design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1632–1647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sawamura, M.

H. Ukeda, T. Ishii, M. Sawamura, and H. Kusunose, “Dynamic analysis of the binding process of bovine serum-albumin on glutaraldehyde-activated controlled-pore glass,” Anal. Chim. Acta308(1−3), 261–268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schacht, E.

Scherer, A.

M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(26), 4648–4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sio, K. U.

T. W. Lu, P. T. Lin, K. U. Sio, and P. T. Lee, “Optical sensing of square lattice photonic crystal point-shifted nanocavity for protein adsorption detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, K.

M. M. A. Hakim, M. Lombardini, K. Sun, F. Giustiniano, P. L. Roach, D. E. Davies, P. H. Howarth, M. R. R. de Planque, H. Morgan, and P. Ashburn, “Thin film polycrystalline silicon nanowire biosensors,” Nano Lett.12(4), 1868–1872 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, H.

T. Isono, H. Tanaka, and T. Ogino, ““Effect of chemical modification of the substrate surface on supported lipid bilayer formation,” e-J. Surf. Sci. Nanotech.5, 99–102 (2007).

Thompson, P.

R. Wiese, Y. Belosludtsev, T. Powdrill, P. Thompson, and M. Hogan, “Simultaneous multianalyte ELISA performed on a microarray platform,” Clin. Chem.47(8), 1451–1457 (2001).
[PubMed]

Ukeda, H.

H. Ukeda, T. Ishii, M. Sawamura, and H. Kusunose, “Dynamic analysis of the binding process of bovine serum-albumin on glutaraldehyde-activated controlled-pore glass,” Anal. Chim. Acta308(1−3), 261–268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Unlu, M. S.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van, V.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, F.

F. Vollmer and L. Yang, “Label-free detection with high-Q microcavities: a review of biosensing mechanisms for integrated devices,” Nanophotonics1(3–4), 267–291 (2012).

von Muhlen, M. G.

M. G. von Muhlen, N. D. Brault, S. M. Knudsen, S. Y. Jiang, and S. R. Manalis, “Label-free biomarker sensing in undiluted serum with suspended microchannel resonators,” Anal. Chem.82(5), 1905–1910 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, H.

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots −−− design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1632–1647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wiese, R.

R. Wiese, Y. Belosludtsev, T. Powdrill, P. Thompson, and M. Hogan, “Simultaneous multianalyte ELISA performed on a microarray platform,” Clin. Chem.47(8), 1451–1457 (2001).
[PubMed]

Wilkinson, J. S.

Yalcin, A.

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

F. Vollmer and L. Yang, “Label-free detection with high-Q microcavities: a review of biosensing mechanisms for integrated devices,” Nanophotonics1(3–4), 267–291 (2012).

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.54(1−2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yong, K. T.

Yu, K. H.

S. Mao, G. H. Lu, K. H. Yu, Z. Bo, and J. H. Chen, “Specific protein detection using thermally reduced graphene oxide sheet decorated with gold nanoparticle-antibody conjugates,” Adv. Mater.22(32), 3521–3526 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, G.-J.

G.-J. Zhang, Z. H. H. Luo, M. J. Huang, J. J. Ang, T. G. Kang, and H. Ji, “An integrated chip for rapid, sensitive, and multiplexed detection of cardiac biomarkers from fingerprick blood,” Biosens. Bioelectron.28(1), 459–463 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Mao, G. H. Lu, K. H. Yu, Z. Bo, and J. H. Chen, “Specific protein detection using thermally reduced graphene oxide sheet decorated with gold nanoparticle-antibody conjugates,” Adv. Mater.22(32), 3521–3526 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

M. G. von Muhlen, N. D. Brault, S. M. Knudsen, S. Y. Jiang, and S. R. Manalis, “Label-free biomarker sensing in undiluted serum with suspended microchannel resonators,” Anal. Chem.82(5), 1905–1910 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chim. Acta (1)

H. Ukeda, T. Ishii, M. Sawamura, and H. Kusunose, “Dynamic analysis of the binding process of bovine serum-albumin on glutaraldehyde-activated controlled-pore glass,” Anal. Chim. Acta308(1−3), 261–268 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Lončar, A. Scherer, and Y. M. Qiu, “Photonic crystal laser sources for chemical detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(26), 4648–4650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Lu, P. T. Lin, K. U. Sio, and P. T. Lee, “Optical sensing of square lattice photonic crystal point-shifted nanocavity for protein adsorption detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(21), 213702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Kita, S. Hachuda, K. Nozaki, and T. Baba, “Nanoslot laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(16), 161108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Narimatsu, S. Kita, H. Abe, and T. Baba, “Enhancement of vertical emission in photonic crystal nanolasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(12), 121117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bioconjug. Chem. (1)

N. Nakajima and Y. Ikada, “Mechanism of amide formation by carbodiimide for bioconjugation in aqueous media,” Bioconjug. Chem.6(1), 123–130 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (2)

G.-J. Zhang, Z. H. H. Luo, M. J. Huang, J. J. Ang, T. G. Kang, and H. Ji, “An integrated chip for rapid, sensitive, and multiplexed detection of cardiac biomarkers from fingerprick blood,” Biosens. Bioelectron.28(1), 459–463 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Piliarik, M. Bocková, and J. Homola, “Surface plasmon resonance biosensor for parallelized detection of protein biomarkers in diluted blood plasma,” Biosens. Bioelectron.26(4), 1656–1661 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clin. Chem. (1)

R. Wiese, Y. Belosludtsev, T. Powdrill, P. Thompson, and M. Hogan, “Simultaneous multianalyte ELISA performed on a microarray platform,” Clin. Chem.47(8), 1451–1457 (2001).
[PubMed]

e-J. Surf. Sci. Nanotech. (1)

T. Isono, H. Tanaka, and T. Ogino, ““Effect of chemical modification of the substrate surface on supported lipid bilayer formation,” e-J. Surf. Sci. Nanotech.5, 99–102 (2007).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. Kita, K. Nozaki, S. Hachuda, H. Watanabe, Y. Saito, S. Otsuka, T. Nakada, Y. Arita, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal point-shift nanolaser with and without nanoslots −−− design, fabrication, lasing and sensing characteristics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(6), 1632–1647 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Yalcin, K. C. Popat, J. C. Aldridge, T. A. Desai, J. Hryniewicz, N. Chbouki, B. E. Little, O. King, V. Van, S. Chu, D. Gill, M. Anthes-Washburn, M. S. Unlu, and B. B. Goldberg, “Optical sensing of biomolecules using microring resonators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(1), 148–155 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

M. M. A. Hakim, M. Lombardini, K. Sun, F. Giustiniano, P. L. Roach, D. E. Davies, P. H. Howarth, M. R. R. de Planque, H. Morgan, and P. Ashburn, “Thin film polycrystalline silicon nanowire biosensors,” Nano Lett.12(4), 1868–1872 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanophotonics (1)

F. Vollmer and L. Yang, “Label-free detection with high-Q microcavities: a review of biosensing mechanisms for integrated devices,” Nanophotonics1(3–4), 267–291 (2012).

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. T. Robinson, C. Manolatou, L. Chen, and M. Lipson, “Ultrasmall mode volumes in dielectric optical microcavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95(14), 143901 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proteomics (1)

Y. D. Ivanov, V. M. Govorun, V. A. Bykov, and A. I. Archakov, “Nanotechnologies in proteomics,” Proteomics6(5), 1399–1414 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-free, single-molecule detection with optical microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, and G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.54(1−2), 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

K. Watanabe, S. Hachuda, T. Isono, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal nanolaser sensors with ALD coating”, Conference on Laser & Electro-Opt. Pacific Rim (CLEO) and Optoelectronic & Commun. Conf. / Photonics Switching (2013), paper TuJ2–2.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical micrograph (left) and scanning electron micrograph (right) of GaInAsP NS PC nanolasers. Dark and bright areas of the left picture are those with lower InP removed and remained. Diameter of airholes inside dotted lines in the right picture is reduced from 2r to 2r’.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of biotin-SA binding in impure sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Wavelength shifts due to adsorption of protein in pure samples. (a) Example laser spectra at different SA concentrations. (b) Δλ with SA concentration for six devices with different wNS. (c) Comparison of average Δλ for devices with NS (closed circles) and without NS (open circles). Data for SA were obtained in this study, while those for BSA are from Ref [18].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength shifts due to adsorption of SA in impure samples. (a) Laser spectra of 16 devices under three different conditions. Some spectra for #6 and #10 were missing in the automatic measurement, which might be due to position errors of pump light and weak emission intensity from nanolasers. (b) Average Δλ due to the adsorption of SA in impure samples with three different concentration BSA as impurities. Red and blue plots show those with and without biotin, respectively. Error bars indicate the range for 95% confidence interval.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fitting parameters and DL evaluated from each solid line.

Metrics