Abstract

In this article we compare the results of micromachining of fused silica and silicon with tightly focused scalar (viz., circularly and linearly polarized) and vector (viz., azimuthally and radially polarized) femtosecond laser pulses. We show that drilling with radially polarized pulses produces holes with smoother and better-delineated walls compared with the other polarizations used, whereas linearly polarized pulses can machine 20-nm wide single grooves in fused silica when the electric field of the pulse is aligned perpendicular to the cutting direction. The observed polarization-controlled micromachining is due to the formation of sub-diffraction-limited nanostructures that are optically produced in the multi-pulse irradiation regime.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  5. A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(23), 3716–3718 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Wang and C. Guo, “Ultrafast dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface pattern formation on metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(25), 251914 (2005).
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  8. Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B19(05), 225–238 (2005).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. W. C. Shen, C. W. Cheng, M. C. Yang, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Fabrication of novel structures on silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.5(3), 229–232 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Lou, S. X. Qian, X. L. Wang, Y. Li, B. Gu, C. Tu, and H. T. Wang, “Two-dimensional microstructures induced by femtosecond vector light fields on silicon,” Opt. Express20(1), 120–127 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. F. Liang, Q. Sun, D. Gingras, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “The transition from smooth modification to nanograting in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(10), 101903 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  25. V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2888–2890 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Mater.1(4), 217–224 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. S. Nolte, C. Momma, G. Kamlage, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, F. von Alvensleben, and H. Welling, “Polarization effects in ultrashort-pulse laser drilling,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.68(5), 563–567 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. N. Bärsch, K. Körber, A. Ostendorf, and K. H. Tönshoff, “Ablation and cutting of planar silicon devices using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77, 237–242 (2003).
  30. A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Femtosecond laser micromachining of grooves in indium phosphide,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(3), 521–529 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  31. O. J. Allegre, W. Perrie, S. P. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “Laser microprocessing of steel with radially and azimuthally polarized femtosecond vortex pulses,” J. Opt.14(8), 085601 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  32. A. Weck, T. H. R. Crawford, D. S. Wilkinson, H. K. Haugen, and J. S. Preston, “Ripple formation during deep hole drilling in copper with ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(4), 1001–1003 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2012

J. M. Guay, A. Villafranca, F. Baset, K. Popov, L. Ramunno, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Polarization-dependent femtosecond laser ablation of poly-methyl methacrylate,” New J. Phys.14(8), 085010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. J. Allegre, W. Perrie, S. P. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “Laser microprocessing of steel with radially and azimuthally polarized femtosecond vortex pulses,” J. Opt.14(8), 085601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Lou, S. X. Qian, X. L. Wang, Y. Li, B. Gu, C. Tu, and H. T. Wang, “Two-dimensional microstructures induced by femtosecond vector light fields on silicon,” Opt. Express20(1), 120–127 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. T. Chen, W. C. Lai, Y. J. Kao, Y. Y. Yang, and J. K. Sheu, “Laser-induced periodic structures for light extraction efficiency enhancement of GaN-based light emitting diodes,” Opt. Express20(5), 5689–5695 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization sensitive elements fabricated by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Opt. Mater. Express1(4), 783–795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(12), 123901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

W. C. Shen, C. W. Cheng, M. C. Yang, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Fabrication of novel structures on silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.5(3), 229–232 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Liang, Q. Sun, D. Gingras, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “The transition from smooth modification to nanograting in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(10), 101903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, V. G. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. V. Rode, “Materials processing with a tightly focused femtosecond laser vortex pulse,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3417–3419 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

C. H. Lin, L. Jiang, Y. H. Chai, H. Xiao, S. J. Chen, and H. L. Tsai, “One-step fabrication of nanostructures by femtosecond laser for surface-enhanced Raman scattering,” Opt. Express17(24), 21581–21589 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

A. Weck, T. H. R. Crawford, D. S. Wilkinson, H. K. Haugen, and J. S. Preston, “Ripple formation during deep hole drilling in copper with ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(4), 1001–1003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2888–2890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, “Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(23), 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Ultrafast dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface pattern formation on metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(25), 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B19(05), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Femtosecond laser micromachining of grooves in indium phosphide,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(3), 521–529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

N. Bärsch, K. Körber, A. Ostendorf, and K. H. Tönshoff, “Ablation and cutting of planar silicon devices using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77, 237–242 (2003).

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Mater.1(4), 217–224 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

1999

S. Nolte, C. Momma, G. Kamlage, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, F. von Alvensleben, and H. Welling, “Polarization effects in ultrashort-pulse laser drilling,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.68(5), 563–567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Baudach, J. Bonse, and W. Kautek, “Ablation experiments on polyimide with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.69(7), S395–S398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(23), 3716–3718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, H. Varel, M. Wähmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser processing of sapphire with picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci.120(1-2), 65–80 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1969

Allegre, O. J.

O. J. Allegre, W. Perrie, S. P. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “Laser microprocessing of steel with radially and azimuthally polarized femtosecond vortex pulses,” J. Opt.14(8), 085601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ashkenasi, D.

D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, H. Varel, M. Wähmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser processing of sapphire with picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci.120(1-2), 65–80 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bärsch, N.

N. Bärsch, K. Körber, A. Ostendorf, and K. H. Tönshoff, “Ablation and cutting of planar silicon devices using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77, 237–242 (2003).

Baset, F.

J. M. Guay, A. Villafranca, F. Baset, K. Popov, L. Ramunno, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Polarization-dependent femtosecond laser ablation of poly-methyl methacrylate,” New J. Phys.14(8), 085010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baudach, S.

S. Baudach, J. Bonse, and W. Kautek, “Ablation experiments on polyimide with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.69(7), S395–S398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Beresna, M.

Bhardwaj, V. R.

J. M. Guay, A. Villafranca, F. Baset, K. Popov, L. Ramunno, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Polarization-dependent femtosecond laser ablation of poly-methyl methacrylate,” New J. Phys.14(8), 085010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonse, J.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Baudach, J. Bonse, and W. Kautek, “Ablation experiments on polyimide with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.69(7), S395–S398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Borowiec, A.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Femtosecond laser micromachining of grooves in indium phosphide,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(3), 521–529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brandt, N.

Brown, T. G.

Brown, W. D.

A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(23), 3716–3718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, E. E. B.

D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, H. Varel, M. Wähmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser processing of sapphire with picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci.120(1-2), 65–80 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chai, Y. H.

Chen, J. T.

Chen, S. J.

Cheng, C. W.

W. C. Shen, C. W. Cheng, M. C. Yang, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Fabrication of novel structures on silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.5(3), 229–232 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chin, S. L.

F. Liang, Q. Sun, D. Gingras, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “The transition from smooth modification to nanograting in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(10), 101903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2888–2890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crawford, T. H. R.

A. Weck, T. H. R. Crawford, D. S. Wilkinson, H. K. Haugen, and J. S. Preston, “Ripple formation during deep hole drilling in copper with ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(4), 1001–1003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Das, S. K.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dearden, G.

O. J. Allegre, W. Perrie, S. P. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “Laser microprocessing of steel with radially and azimuthally polarized femtosecond vortex pulses,” J. Opt.14(8), 085601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Döring, S.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, R.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dufft, D.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Edwardson, S. P.

O. J. Allegre, W. Perrie, S. P. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “Laser microprocessing of steel with radially and azimuthally polarized femtosecond vortex pulses,” J. Opt.14(8), 085601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

El-Khamhawy, A.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, “Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(23), 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fallnich, C.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, G. Kamlage, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, F. von Alvensleben, and H. Welling, “Polarization effects in ultrashort-pulse laser drilling,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.68(5), 563–567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Freiberg, R. J.

Gecevicius, M.

Gingras, D.

F. Liang, Q. Sun, D. Gingras, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “The transition from smooth modification to nanograting in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(10), 101903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gottmann, J.

Grunwald, R.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gu, B.

Guay, J. M.

J. M. Guay, A. Villafranca, F. Baset, K. Popov, L. Ramunno, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Polarization-dependent femtosecond laser ablation of poly-methyl methacrylate,” New J. Phys.14(8), 085010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C.

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Ultrafast dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface pattern formation on metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(25), 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Halsted, A. S.

Haugen, H. K.

A. Weck, T. H. R. Crawford, D. S. Wilkinson, H. K. Haugen, and J. S. Preston, “Ripple formation during deep hole drilling in copper with ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(4), 1001–1003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Femtosecond laser micromachining of grooves in indium phosphide,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(3), 521–529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, M.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hirao, K.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B19(05), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hnatovsky, C.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(12), 123901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, V. G. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. V. Rode, “Materials processing with a tightly focused femtosecond laser vortex pulse,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3417–3419 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, and C. Hnatovsky, “Creation of chiral structures inside fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett.33(12), 1312–1314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2888–2890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horn-Solle, H.

Jiang, L.

Kamlage, G.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, G. Kamlage, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, F. von Alvensleben, and H. Welling, “Polarization effects in ultrashort-pulse laser drilling,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.68(5), 563–567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kao, Y. J.

Kautek, W.

S. Baudach, J. Bonse, and W. Kautek, “Ablation experiments on polyimide with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.69(7), S395–S398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization sensitive elements fabricated by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Opt. Mater. Express1(4), 783–795 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B19(05), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Körber, K.

N. Bärsch, K. Körber, A. Ostendorf, and K. H. Tönshoff, “Ablation and cutting of planar silicon devices using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77, 237–242 (2003).

Kozawa, Y.

W. C. Shen, C. W. Cheng, M. C. Yang, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Fabrication of novel structures on silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.5(3), 229–232 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krolikowski, W.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(12), 123901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, V. G. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. V. Rode, “Materials processing with a tightly focused femtosecond laser vortex pulse,” Opt. Lett.35(20), 3417–3419 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, W. C.

Leuchs, G.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Liang, F.

F. Liang, Q. Sun, D. Gingras, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “The transition from smooth modification to nanograting in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(10), 101903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

Lou, K.

Malshe, A. P.

A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(23), 3716–3718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Mater.1(4), 217–224 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molian, P. A.

A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(23), 3716–3718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Momma, C.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, G. Kamlage, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, F. von Alvensleben, and H. Welling, “Polarization effects in ultrashort-pulse laser drilling,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.68(5), 563–567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, C. Momma, G. Kamlage, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, F. von Alvensleben, and H. Welling, “Polarization effects in ultrashort-pulse laser drilling,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.68(5), 563–567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ostendorf, A.

N. Bärsch, K. Körber, A. Ostendorf, and K. H. Tönshoff, “Ablation and cutting of planar silicon devices using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77, 237–242 (2003).

S. Nolte, C. Momma, G. Kamlage, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, F. von Alvensleben, and H. Welling, “Polarization effects in ultrashort-pulse laser drilling,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.68(5), 563–567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ozkan, A. M.

A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(23), 3716–3718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perrie, W.

O. J. Allegre, W. Perrie, S. P. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “Laser microprocessing of steel with radially and azimuthally polarized femtosecond vortex pulses,” J. Opt.14(8), 085601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, U.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Popov, K.

J. M. Guay, A. Villafranca, F. Baset, K. Popov, L. Ramunno, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Polarization-dependent femtosecond laser ablation of poly-methyl methacrylate,” New J. Phys.14(8), 085010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Preston, J. S.

A. Weck, T. H. R. Crawford, D. S. Wilkinson, H. K. Haugen, and J. S. Preston, “Ripple formation during deep hole drilling in copper with ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(4), 1001–1003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qian, S. X.

Qiu, J.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B19(05), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Quabis, S.

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Railkar, T. A.

A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(23), 3716–3718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rajeev, P. P.

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2888–2890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramunno, L.

J. M. Guay, A. Villafranca, F. Baset, K. Popov, L. Ramunno, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Polarization-dependent femtosecond laser ablation of poly-methyl methacrylate,” New J. Phys.14(8), 085010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2888–2890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richter, S.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(12), 123901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rode, A. V.

Rosenfeld, A.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, H. Varel, M. Wähmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser processing of sapphire with picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci.120(1-2), 65–80 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sato, S.

W. C. Shen, C. W. Cheng, M. C. Yang, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Fabrication of novel structures on silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.5(3), 229–232 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shen, W. C.

W. C. Shen, C. W. Cheng, M. C. Yang, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Fabrication of novel structures on silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.5(3), 229–232 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B19(05), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shirk, M. D.

A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(23), 3716–3718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shvedov, V.

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(12), 123901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shvedov, V. G.

Simova, E.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Taylor, E. Simova, and C. Hnatovsky, “Creation of chiral structures inside fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett.33(12), 1312–1314 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. S. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Femtosecond laser erasing and rewriting of self-organized planar nanocracks in fused silica glass,” Opt. Lett.32(19), 2888–2890 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sokolowski-Tinten, K.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, “Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(23), 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, Q.

F. Liang, Q. Sun, D. Gingras, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “The transition from smooth modification to nanograting in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(10), 101903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sundaram, S. K.

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Mater.1(4), 217–224 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, R.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

Temnov, V. V.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, “Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(23), 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tönshoff, K. H.

N. Bärsch, K. Körber, A. Ostendorf, and K. H. Tönshoff, “Ablation and cutting of planar silicon devices using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77, 237–242 (2003).

Tsai, H. L.

Tu, C.

Tünnermann, A.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vallée, R.

F. Liang, Q. Sun, D. Gingras, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “The transition from smooth modification to nanograting in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(10), 101903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Varel, H.

D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, H. Varel, M. Wähmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser processing of sapphire with picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci.120(1-2), 65–80 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Villafranca, A.

J. M. Guay, A. Villafranca, F. Baset, K. Popov, L. Ramunno, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Polarization-dependent femtosecond laser ablation of poly-methyl methacrylate,” New J. Phys.14(8), 085010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

von Alvensleben, F.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, G. Kamlage, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, F. von Alvensleben, and H. Welling, “Polarization effects in ultrashort-pulse laser drilling,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.68(5), 563–567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

von der Linde, D.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, “Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(23), 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wähmer, M.

D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, H. Varel, M. Wähmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser processing of sapphire with picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci.120(1-2), 65–80 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. T.

Wang, J.

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Ultrafast dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface pattern formation on metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(25), 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

Watkins, K. G.

O. J. Allegre, W. Perrie, S. P. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “Laser microprocessing of steel with radially and azimuthally polarized femtosecond vortex pulses,” J. Opt.14(8), 085601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weck, A.

A. Weck, T. H. R. Crawford, D. S. Wilkinson, H. K. Haugen, and J. S. Preston, “Ripple formation during deep hole drilling in copper with ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(4), 1001–1003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Welling, H.

S. Nolte, C. Momma, G. Kamlage, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, F. von Alvensleben, and H. Welling, “Polarization effects in ultrashort-pulse laser drilling,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.68(5), 563–567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, D. S.

A. Weck, T. H. R. Crawford, D. S. Wilkinson, H. K. Haugen, and J. S. Preston, “Ripple formation during deep hole drilling in copper with ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(4), 1001–1003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wortmann, D.

Xiao, H.

Yang, M. C.

W. C. Shen, C. W. Cheng, M. C. Yang, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Fabrication of novel structures on silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.5(3), 229–232 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. Y.

Youngworth, K. S.

Zhou, P.

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, “Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(23), 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Liang, Q. Sun, D. Gingras, R. Vallée, and S. L. Chin, “The transition from smooth modification to nanograting in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(10), 101903 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Ozkan, A. P. Malshe, T. A. Railkar, W. D. Brown, M. D. Shirk, and P. A. Molian, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic structure writing on diamond crystals and microclusters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(23), 3716–3718 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang and C. Guo, “Ultrafast dynamics of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface pattern formation on metals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(25), 251914 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

S. Baudach, J. Bonse, and W. Kautek, “Ablation experiments on polyimide with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.69(7), S395–S398 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, C. Momma, G. Kamlage, A. Ostendorf, C. Fallnich, F. von Alvensleben, and H. Welling, “Polarization effects in ultrashort-pulse laser drilling,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.68(5), 563–567 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. Bärsch, K. Körber, A. Ostendorf, and K. H. Tönshoff, “Ablation and cutting of planar silicon devices using femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77, 237–242 (2003).

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Femtosecond laser micromachining of grooves in indium phosphide,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.79(3), 521–529 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Weck, T. H. R. Crawford, D. S. Wilkinson, H. K. Haugen, and J. S. Preston, “Ripple formation during deep hole drilling in copper with ultrashort laser pulses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.89(4), 1001–1003 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

D. Ashkenasi, A. Rosenfeld, H. Varel, M. Wähmer, and E. E. B. Campbell, “Laser processing of sapphire with picosecond and sub-picosecond pulses,” Appl. Surf. Sci.120(1-2), 65–80 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

D. Dufft, A. Rosenfeld, S. K. Das, R. Grunwald, and J. Bonse, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures revisited: A comparative study on ZnO,” J. Appl. Phys.105(3), 034908 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Laser Appl.

S. Richter, M. Heinrich, S. Döring, A. Tünnermann, S. Nolte, and U. Peschel, “Nanogratings in fused silica: Formation, control, and applications,” J. Laser Appl.24(4), 042008 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.

W. C. Shen, C. W. Cheng, M. C. Yang, Y. Kozawa, and S. Sato, “Fabrication of novel structures on silicon with femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Laser Micro Nanoeng.5(3), 229–232 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

O. J. Allegre, W. Perrie, S. P. Edwardson, G. Dearden, and K. G. Watkins, “Laser microprocessing of steel with radially and azimuthally polarized femtosecond vortex pulses,” J. Opt.14(8), 085601 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Laser Photon. Rev.

R. Taylor, C. Hnatovsky, and E. Simova, “Applications of femtosecond laser induced self-organized planar nanocracks inside fused silica glass,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(1-2), 26–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mod. Phys. Lett. B

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and P. G. Kazansky, “Nano-modification inside transparent materials by femtosecond laser single beam,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B19(05), 225–238 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

S. K. Sundaram and E. Mazur, “Inducing and probing non-thermal transitions in semiconductors using femtosecond laser pulses,” Nat. Mater.1(4), 217–224 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys.

J. M. Guay, A. Villafranca, F. Baset, K. Popov, L. Ramunno, and V. R. Bhardwaj, “Polarization-dependent femtosecond laser ablation of poly-methyl methacrylate,” New J. Phys.14(8), 085010 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

V. R. Bhardwaj, E. Simova, P. P. Rajeev, C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Optically produced arrays of planar nanostructures inside fused silica,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(5), 057404 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Temnov, K. Sokolowski-Tinten, P. Zhou, A. El-Khamhawy, and D. von der Linde, “Multiphoton ionization in dielectrics: comparison of circular and linear polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97(23), 237403 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hnatovsky, V. Shvedov, W. Krolikowski, and A. Rode, “Revealing local field structure of focused ultrashort pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106(12), 123901 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Dorn, S. Quabis, and G. Leuchs, “Sharper focus for a radially polarized light beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(23), 233901 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Laser micromachining with vector and scalar femtosecond pulses. (a) experimental setup. M, segmented phase mask; λ ∕4, quarter-wave plate; λ ∕2, half-wave plate; CR, c-cut 10 mm-long CaCO3 crystal; L1 and L2 constitute a 2.5 × Galilean telescope; P, pinhole; L, collimating lens; C, corrector lens of focal distance −200 mm; O, microscope objective (NikonMPlan 100 × , 210/0, NA = 0.9); S, sample. (b) and (c) schematically show the intensity and electric field distributions before O of the three scalar and two doughnut vector modes used in the experiments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Micromachining of SiO2 with vector and scalar pulses. (a) azimuthally and (b) radially polarized pulses. (a-b) show drilling using 1250 25 nJ pulses (left-hand panels) and scribing using 25 nJ and 12 nJ pulses (respectively middle and right-hand panels). (c) left-handed circularly polarized pulses. (d) linearly polarized pulses (horizontal polarization; the electric vector is directed along the x-axis). (e) linearly polarized pulses (vertical polarization; the electric vector is directed along the y-axis). (c-e) show drilling using 2500 8 nJ pulses (left-hand panels) and scribing using 8 nJ and 4 nJ pulses (respectively middle and right-hand panels). A pulse repetition rate of 250 Hz was used for both the drilling and scribing. The scribing in (a-e) was carried out at a 0.5 μm/s speed. The scale is the same for (a-e), except for the bottom image in (e). After micromachining the samples were ultrasonically cleaned and coated with ~5 nm of Pt for SEM characterization. The polarization state for each situation is shown schematically with arrows.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Micromachining of Si with vector and scalar pulses. (a) azimuthally and (b) radially polarized pulses. (a-b) show drilling using 750 1 nJ pulses (left-hand panels) and scribing using 1 nJ pulses (right-hand panels). (c) left-handed (top) and right-handed (bottom) circularly polarized pulses. (d) linearly polarized pulses (horizontal polarization). (e) linearly polarized pulses (vertical polarization). (c-e) show drilling using 2500 0.3 nJ pulses (left-hand panels) and scribing using 0.3 nJ (right-hand panels). A pulse repetition rate of 250 Hz was used for both the drilling and scribing. The scribing in (a-e) was carried out at a 0.5 μm/s speed. The scale is the same for (a-e). (f) The transition from uniform ablation to nanostructures for linearly polarized pulses (horizontal polarization). The scribing in (f) was carried out at a 1 μm/s speed. After micromachining the samples shown in (a-f) were ultrasonically cleaned.

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