Abstract

We report on a straightforward way to increase the photoluminescence enhancement of nanoemitters induced by optical nanotantennas. The nanoantennas are placed above a gold film-silica bilayer, which produces a drastic increase of the scattered radiation power and near field enhancement. We demonstrate this increase via photoluminescence enhancement using an organic emitter of low quantum efficiency, Tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP). An increase of the photoluminescence enhancement by a factor larger than three is observed compared to antennas without the reflecting-layer. In addition, we study the possibility of influencing the polarization of the light emitted by utilizing asymmetry of dimer antennas.

© 2013 OSA

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  2. P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 14–17 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. A. Schuller, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Optical antenna thermal emitters,” Nat. Photonics3, 658–661 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 1–4 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 404 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J.-H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons,” Nano Lett.5, 1557–1561 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single Quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: A tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 1–4 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Rahmani, T. Tahmasebi, Y. Lin, B. Lukiyanchuk, T. Y. F. Liew, and M. H. Hong, “Influence of plasmon destructive interferences on optical properties of gold planar quadrumers,” Nanotechnology22, 245204 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Corrigan, S. Guo, R. Phaneuf, and H. Szmacinski, “Enhanced fluorescence from periodic arrays of silver nanoparticles,” J. Fluoresc.15, 777–784 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. S. Biteen, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, H. Mertens, and A. Polman, “Spectral tuning of plasmon-enhanced silicon quantum dot luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 131109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Mertens and A. Polman, “Plasmon-enhanced erbium luminescence,” Appl Phys. Lett.89, 211107 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.220, 137–141 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett.3, 1087–1090 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Sundaramurthy, K. Crozier, G. Kino, D. Fromm, P. Schuck, and W. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B72, 165409 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308, 1607–1609 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Cubukcu, E. a. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 093120 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. L. Rogobete, F. Kaminski, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Design of plasmonic nanoantennae for enhancing spontaneous emission,” Opt. Lett.32, 1623–1625 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. P. K. Jain and M. A. El-Sayed, “Universal scaling of plasmon coupling in metal nanostructures: extension from particle pairs to nanoshells,” Nano Lett.7, 2854–2858 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. M. Bakker, A. Boltasseva, Z. Liu, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field excitation of nanoantenna resonance,” Opt. Express15, 13682–13688 (2007).
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  20. S. Nie, “Probing Single Molecules and Single Nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman Scattering,” Science275, 1102–1106 (1997).
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  21. K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, and M. Feld, “Single Molecule Detection Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett.78, 1667–1670 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. G. Volpe, M. Noack, S. S. Aćimović, C. Reinhardt, and R. Quidant, “Near-field mapping of plasmonic antennas by multiphoton absorption in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Nano Lett.12, 4864–4868 (2012).
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  23. V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, T. Roschuk, R. Fernández-García, and S. A. Maier, “Controlling light localization and light-matter interactions with nanoplasmonics,” Small6, 2498–2507 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Snchez-Gil, and J. Gmez Rivas, “Strong enhancement of the radiative decay rate of emitters by single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.7, 2871–2875 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. Gerber, F. Reil, U. Hohenester, T. Schlagenhaufen, J. Krenn, and A. Leitner, “Tailoring light emission properties of fluorophores by coupling to resonance-tuned metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B75, 073404 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett.11, 637–644 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329, 930–933 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Tuning the scattering response of optical nanoantennas with nanocircuit loads,” Nat. Photonics2, 307–310 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Merlein, M. Kahl, A. Zuschlag, A. Sell, A. Halm, J. Boneberg, P. Leiderer, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Nanomechanical control of an optical antenna,” Nat. Photonics2, 230–233 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  30. L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett98, 1–4 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  31. W. Zhang, H. Fischer, T. Schmid, R. Zenobi, and O. J. F. Martin, “Mode-selective surface-snhanced Raman Spectroscopy Using nanofabricated plasmonic dipole antennas,” J. Phys. Chem C113, 14672–14675 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  32. Y. Chu and K. B. Crozier, “Experimental study of the interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons,” Opt, Lett.34, 244–246 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. G. Nielsen, D. K. Gramotnev, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Continuous layer gap plasmon resonators,” Opt. Express19, 19310–19322 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. M. G. Nielsen, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient absorption of visible radiation by gap plasmon resonators,” Opt. Express20, 13311–13319 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. D. Gramotnev, A. Pors, M. Willatzen, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap-plasmon nanoantennas and bowtie resonators,” Phys. Rev. B85, 045434 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  36. C. Ciraci, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science337, 1072–1074 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett.11, 2606–2610 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. Y. Chu, D. Wang, W. Zhu, and K. B. Crozier, “Double resonance surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates: an intuitive coupled oscillator model,” Opt. Express19, 14919–14928 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. D. Wang, W. Zhu, Y. Chu, and K. B. Crozier, “High directivity optical antenna substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Adv. Mater.24, 4376–4380 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. A. Ahmed and R. Gordon, “Single molecule directivity enhanced Raman scattering using nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12, 2625–2630 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  41. Yiyang Gong, Selçuk Yerci, Rui Li, Luca Dal Negro, and Jelena Vuckovic, Enhanced light emission from erbium doped silicon nitride in plasmonic metal-insulator-metal structures. Opt. Express17, (23)20642–20650 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  42. R. Bonnett, D. J. McGarvey, A. Harriman, E. J. Land, T. G. Truscott, and U.-J. Winfield, “Photophysical properties of meso-tetraphenylporphyrin and some meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)porphyrins,” Photochem. Photobiol.48, 271–276 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. M. Rahmani, D. Y. Lei, V. Giannini, B. Lukiyanchuk, M. Ranjbar, T. Y. F. Liew, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Subgroup decomposition of plasmonic resonances in hybrid oligomers: Modeling the resonance lineshape,” Nano Lett.12, 2101–2106 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. C. Heck, and S. a. Maier, “Plasmonic nanoantennas: fundamentals and their use in controlling the radiative properties of nanoemitters,” Chem. Rev.111, 3888–3912 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. D. Y. Lei, A. I. Fernndez-Domnguez, Y. Sonnefraud, K. Appavoo, R. F. Haglund, J. B. Pendry, and S. A. Maier, “Revealing plasmonic gap modes in particle-on-film systems using dark-field spectroscopy,” ACS. Nano.6, 1380–1386 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  46. P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. B6, 4370–4379 (1972).
  47. E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science302, 419–422 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  48. A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3, 654–657 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (8)

G. Volpe, M. Noack, S. S. Aćimović, C. Reinhardt, and R. Quidant, “Near-field mapping of plasmonic antennas by multiphoton absorption in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Nano Lett.12, 4864–4868 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Nielsen, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Efficient absorption of visible radiation by gap plasmon resonators,” Opt. Express20, 13311–13319 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Gramotnev, A. Pors, M. Willatzen, and S. Bozhevolnyi, “Gap-plasmon nanoantennas and bowtie resonators,” Phys. Rev. B85, 045434 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Ciraci, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science337, 1072–1074 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Wang, W. Zhu, Y. Chu, and K. B. Crozier, “High directivity optical antenna substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Adv. Mater.24, 4376–4380 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ahmed and R. Gordon, “Single molecule directivity enhanced Raman scattering using nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12, 2625–2630 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rahmani, D. Y. Lei, V. Giannini, B. Lukiyanchuk, M. Ranjbar, T. Y. F. Liew, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Subgroup decomposition of plasmonic resonances in hybrid oligomers: Modeling the resonance lineshape,” Nano Lett.12, 2101–2106 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Lei, A. I. Fernndez-Domnguez, Y. Sonnefraud, K. Appavoo, R. F. Haglund, J. B. Pendry, and S. A. Maier, “Revealing plasmonic gap modes in particle-on-film systems using dark-field spectroscopy,” ACS. Nano.6, 1380–1386 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. C. Heck, and S. a. Maier, “Plasmonic nanoantennas: fundamentals and their use in controlling the radiative properties of nanoemitters,” Chem. Rev.111, 3888–3912 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Nielsen, D. K. Gramotnev, A. Pors, O. Albrektsen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Continuous layer gap plasmon resonators,” Opt. Express19, 19310–19322 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett.11, 2606–2610 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chu, D. Wang, W. Zhu, and K. B. Crozier, “Double resonance surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates: an intuitive coupled oscillator model,” Opt. Express19, 14919–14928 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett.11, 637–644 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rahmani, T. Tahmasebi, Y. Lin, B. Lukiyanchuk, T. Y. F. Liew, and M. H. Hong, “Influence of plasmon destructive interferences on optical properties of gold planar quadrumers,” Nanotechnology22, 245204 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, T. Roschuk, R. Fernández-García, and S. A. Maier, “Controlling light localization and light-matter interactions with nanoplasmonics,” Small6, 2498–2507 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

W. Zhang, H. Fischer, T. Schmid, R. Zenobi, and O. J. F. Martin, “Mode-selective surface-snhanced Raman Spectroscopy Using nanofabricated plasmonic dipole antennas,” J. Phys. Chem C113, 14672–14675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chu and K. B. Crozier, “Experimental study of the interaction between localized and propagating surface plasmons,” Opt, Lett.34, 244–246 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Schuller, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Optical antenna thermal emitters,” Nat. Photonics3, 658–661 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yiyang Gong, Selçuk Yerci, Rui Li, Luca Dal Negro, and Jelena Vuckovic, Enhanced light emission from erbium doped silicon nitride in plasmonic metal-insulator-metal structures. Opt. Express17, (23)20642–20650 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3, 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Tuning the scattering response of optical nanoantennas with nanocircuit loads,” Nat. Photonics2, 307–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Merlein, M. Kahl, A. Zuschlag, A. Sell, A. Halm, J. Boneberg, P. Leiderer, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Nanomechanical control of an optical antenna,” Nat. Photonics2, 230–233 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett98, 1–4 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Snchez-Gil, and J. Gmez Rivas, “Strong enhancement of the radiative decay rate of emitters by single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.7, 2871–2875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gerber, F. Reil, U. Hohenester, T. Schlagenhaufen, J. Krenn, and A. Leitner, “Tailoring light emission properties of fluorophores by coupling to resonance-tuned metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B75, 073404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Rogobete, F. Kaminski, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Design of plasmonic nanoantennae for enhancing spontaneous emission,” Opt. Lett.32, 1623–1625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. K. Jain and M. A. El-Sayed, “Universal scaling of plasmon coupling in metal nanostructures: extension from particle pairs to nanoshells,” Nano Lett.7, 2854–2858 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Bakker, A. Boltasseva, Z. Liu, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. V. Kildishev, V. P. Drachev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Near-field excitation of nanoantenna resonance,” Opt. Express15, 13682–13688 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (4)

J. S. Biteen, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, H. Mertens, and A. Polman, “Spectral tuning of plasmon-enhanced silicon quantum dot luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 131109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Mertens and A. Polman, “Plasmon-enhanced erbium luminescence,” Appl Phys. Lett.89, 211107 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 1–4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Cubukcu, E. a. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (6)

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 14–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Corrigan, S. Guo, R. Phaneuf, and H. Szmacinski, “Enhanced fluorescence from periodic arrays of silver nanoparticles,” J. Fluoresc.15, 777–784 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons,” Nano Lett.5, 1557–1561 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single Quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: A tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 1–4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Sundaramurthy, K. Crozier, G. Kino, D. Fromm, P. Schuck, and W. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B72, 165409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.220, 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett.3, 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science302, 419–422 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

S. Nie, “Probing Single Molecules and Single Nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman Scattering,” Science275, 1102–1106 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, and M. Feld, “Single Molecule Detection Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett.78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. Bonnett, D. J. McGarvey, A. Harriman, E. J. Land, T. G. Truscott, and U.-J. Winfield, “Photophysical properties of meso-tetraphenylporphyrin and some meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)porphyrins,” Photochem. Photobiol.48, 271–276 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. B6, 4370–4379 (1972).

Acimovic, S. S.

G. Volpe, M. Noack, S. S. Aćimović, C. Reinhardt, and R. Quidant, “Near-field mapping of plasmonic antennas by multiphoton absorption in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Nano Lett.12, 4864–4868 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Agio, M.

Ahmed, A.

A. Ahmed and R. Gordon, “Single molecule directivity enhanced Raman scattering using nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.12, 2625–2630 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albrektsen, O.

Alù, A.

A. Alù and N. Engheta, “Tuning the scattering response of optical nanoantennas with nanocircuit loads,” Nat. Photonics2, 307–310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Aouani, H.

H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett.11, 637–644 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appavoo, K.

D. Y. Lei, A. I. Fernndez-Domnguez, Y. Sonnefraud, K. Appavoo, R. F. Haglund, J. B. Pendry, and S. A. Maier, “Revealing plasmonic gap modes in particle-on-film systems using dark-field spectroscopy,” ACS. Nano.6, 1380–1386 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atay, T.

J.-H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons,” Nano Lett.5, 1557–1561 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atwater, H. A.

J. S. Biteen, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, H. Mertens, and A. Polman, “Spectral tuning of plasmon-enhanced silicon quantum dot luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 131109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F.

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.220, 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Aussenegg, F. R.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Avlasevich, Y.

A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3, 654–657 (2009).
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J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single Quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: A tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 1–4 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, S. C. Heck, and S. a. Maier, “Plasmonic nanoantennas: fundamentals and their use in controlling the radiative properties of nanoemitters,” Chem. Rev.111, 3888–3912 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

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P. K. Jain and M. A. El-Sayed, “Universal scaling of plasmon coupling in metal nanostructures: extension from particle pairs to nanoshells,” Nano Lett.7, 2854–2858 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett.11, 2606–2610 (2011).
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Kildishev, A. V.

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T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett.11, 2606–2610 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3, 654–657 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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A. Sundaramurthy, K. Crozier, G. Kino, D. Fromm, P. Schuck, and W. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B72, 165409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 14–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneipp, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. Dasari, and M. Feld, “Single Molecule Detection Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS),” Phys. Rev. Lett.78, 1667–1670 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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E. Cubukcu, E. a. Kort, K. B. Crozier, and F. Capasso, “Plasmonic laser antenna,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89, 093120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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S. Gerber, F. Reil, U. Hohenester, T. Schlagenhaufen, J. Krenn, and A. Leitner, “Tailoring light emission properties of fluorophores by coupling to resonance-tuned metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B75, 073404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.220, 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krenn, J. R.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 1–4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett.11, 2606–2610 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.220, 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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R. Bonnett, D. J. McGarvey, A. Harriman, E. J. Land, T. G. Truscott, and U.-J. Winfield, “Photophysical properties of meso-tetraphenylporphyrin and some meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)porphyrins,” Photochem. Photobiol.48, 271–276 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Rahmani, D. Y. Lei, V. Giannini, B. Lukiyanchuk, M. Ranjbar, T. Y. F. Liew, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Subgroup decomposition of plasmonic resonances in hybrid oligomers: Modeling the resonance lineshape,” Nano Lett.12, 2101–2106 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Y. Lei, A. I. Fernndez-Domnguez, Y. Sonnefraud, K. Appavoo, R. F. Haglund, J. B. Pendry, and S. A. Maier, “Revealing plasmonic gap modes in particle-on-film systems using dark-field spectroscopy,” ACS. Nano.6, 1380–1386 (2012).
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J. Merlein, M. Kahl, A. Zuschlag, A. Sell, A. Halm, J. Boneberg, P. Leiderer, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Nanomechanical control of an optical antenna,” Nat. Photonics2, 230–233 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

J. Merlein, M. Kahl, A. Zuschlag, A. Sell, A. Halm, J. Boneberg, P. Leiderer, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Nanomechanical control of an optical antenna,” Nat. Photonics2, 230–233 (2008).
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S. Gerber, F. Reil, U. Hohenester, T. Schlagenhaufen, J. Krenn, and A. Leitner, “Tailoring light emission properties of fluorophores by coupling to resonance-tuned metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B75, 073404 (2007).
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W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.220, 137–141 (2003).
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H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 404 (2002).
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J. S. Biteen, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, H. Mertens, and A. Polman, “Spectral tuning of plasmon-enhanced silicon quantum dot luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 131109 (2006).
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Li, Rui

Liew, T. Y. F.

M. Rahmani, D. Y. Lei, V. Giannini, B. Lukiyanchuk, M. Ranjbar, T. Y. F. Liew, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Subgroup decomposition of plasmonic resonances in hybrid oligomers: Modeling the resonance lineshape,” Nano Lett.12, 2101–2106 (2012).
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M. Rahmani, T. Tahmasebi, Y. Lin, B. Lukiyanchuk, T. Y. F. Liew, and M. H. Hong, “Influence of plasmon destructive interferences on optical properties of gold planar quadrumers,” Nanotechnology22, 245204 (2011).
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Lin, Y.

M. Rahmani, T. Tahmasebi, Y. Lin, B. Lukiyanchuk, T. Y. F. Liew, and M. H. Hong, “Influence of plasmon destructive interferences on optical properties of gold planar quadrumers,” Nanotechnology22, 245204 (2011).
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Lukiyanchuk, B.

M. Rahmani, D. Y. Lei, V. Giannini, B. Lukiyanchuk, M. Ranjbar, T. Y. F. Liew, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Subgroup decomposition of plasmonic resonances in hybrid oligomers: Modeling the resonance lineshape,” Nano Lett.12, 2101–2106 (2012).
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M. Rahmani, T. Tahmasebi, Y. Lin, B. Lukiyanchuk, T. Y. F. Liew, and M. H. Hong, “Influence of plasmon destructive interferences on optical properties of gold planar quadrumers,” Nanotechnology22, 245204 (2011).
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H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett.11, 637–644 (2011).
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C. Ciraci, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science337, 1072–1074 (2012).
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M. Rahmani, D. Y. Lei, V. Giannini, B. Lukiyanchuk, M. Ranjbar, T. Y. F. Liew, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Subgroup decomposition of plasmonic resonances in hybrid oligomers: Modeling the resonance lineshape,” Nano Lett.12, 2101–2106 (2012).
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D. Y. Lei, A. I. Fernndez-Domnguez, Y. Sonnefraud, K. Appavoo, R. F. Haglund, J. B. Pendry, and S. A. Maier, “Revealing plasmonic gap modes in particle-on-film systems using dark-field spectroscopy,” ACS. Nano.6, 1380–1386 (2012).
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V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, T. Roschuk, R. Fernández-García, and S. A. Maier, “Controlling light localization and light-matter interactions with nanoplasmonics,” Small6, 2498–2507 (2010).
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W. Zhang, H. Fischer, T. Schmid, R. Zenobi, and O. J. F. Martin, “Mode-selective surface-snhanced Raman Spectroscopy Using nanofabricated plasmonic dipole antennas,” J. Phys. Chem C113, 14672–14675 (2009).
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P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308, 1607–1609 (2005).
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R. Bonnett, D. J. McGarvey, A. Harriman, E. J. Land, T. G. Truscott, and U.-J. Winfield, “Photophysical properties of meso-tetraphenylporphyrin and some meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)porphyrins,” Photochem. Photobiol.48, 271–276 (1988).
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J. Merlein, M. Kahl, A. Zuschlag, A. Sell, A. Halm, J. Boneberg, P. Leiderer, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Nanomechanical control of an optical antenna,” Nat. Photonics2, 230–233 (2008).
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J. S. Biteen, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, H. Mertens, and A. Polman, “Spectral tuning of plasmon-enhanced silicon quantum dot luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 131109 (2006).
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H. Mertens and A. Polman, “Plasmon-enhanced erbium luminescence,” Appl Phys. Lett.89, 211107 (2006).
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C. Ciraci, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science337, 1072–1074 (2012).
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K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett.3, 1087–1090 (2003).
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A. Sundaramurthy, K. Crozier, G. Kino, D. Fromm, P. Schuck, and W. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B72, 165409 (2005).
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A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3, 654–657 (2009).
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P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 14–17 (2005).
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P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308, 1607–1609 (2005).
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A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3, 654–657 (2009).
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O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Snchez-Gil, and J. Gmez Rivas, “Strong enhancement of the radiative decay rate of emitters by single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.7, 2871–2875 (2007).
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E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science302, 419–422 (2003).
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L. Novotny, “Effective wavelength scaling for optical antennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett98, 1–4 (2007).
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J.-H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons,” Nano Lett.5, 1557–1561 (2005).
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Pendry, J. B.

C. Ciraci, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science337, 1072–1074 (2012).
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D. Y. Lei, A. I. Fernndez-Domnguez, Y. Sonnefraud, K. Appavoo, R. F. Haglund, J. B. Pendry, and S. A. Maier, “Revealing plasmonic gap modes in particle-on-film systems using dark-field spectroscopy,” ACS. Nano.6, 1380–1386 (2012).
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J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, and B. Hecht, “Single Quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: A tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 1–4 (2005).
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P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308, 1607–1609 (2005).
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H. Mertens and A. Polman, “Plasmon-enhanced erbium luminescence,” Appl Phys. Lett.89, 211107 (2006).
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J. S. Biteen, N. S. Lewis, H. A. Atwater, H. Mertens, and A. Polman, “Spectral tuning of plasmon-enhanced silicon quantum dot luminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 131109 (2006).
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H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett.11, 637–644 (2011).
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K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 4632 (2003).
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G. Volpe, M. Noack, S. S. Aćimović, C. Reinhardt, and R. Quidant, “Near-field mapping of plasmonic antennas by multiphoton absorption in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Nano Lett.12, 4864–4868 (2012).
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A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329, 930–933 (2010).
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E. Prodan, C. Radloff, N. Halas, and P. Nordlander, “A hybridization model for the plasmon response of complex nanostructures,” Science302, 419–422 (2003).
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M. Rahmani, D. Y. Lei, V. Giannini, B. Lukiyanchuk, M. Ranjbar, T. Y. F. Liew, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Subgroup decomposition of plasmonic resonances in hybrid oligomers: Modeling the resonance lineshape,” Nano Lett.12, 2101–2106 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rahmani, T. Tahmasebi, Y. Lin, B. Lukiyanchuk, T. Y. F. Liew, and M. H. Hong, “Influence of plasmon destructive interferences on optical properties of gold planar quadrumers,” Nanotechnology22, 245204 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Rahmani, D. Y. Lei, V. Giannini, B. Lukiyanchuk, M. Ranjbar, T. Y. F. Liew, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Subgroup decomposition of plasmonic resonances in hybrid oligomers: Modeling the resonance lineshape,” Nano Lett.12, 2101–2106 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. Rechberger, A. Hohenau, A. Leitner, J. Krenn, B. Lamprecht, and F. Aussenegg, “Optical properties of two interacting gold nanoparticles,” Opt. Commun.220, 137–141 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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S. Gerber, F. Reil, U. Hohenester, T. Schlagenhaufen, J. Krenn, and A. Leitner, “Tailoring light emission properties of fluorophores by coupling to resonance-tuned metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B75, 073404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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G. Volpe, M. Noack, S. S. Aćimović, C. Reinhardt, and R. Quidant, “Near-field mapping of plasmonic antennas by multiphoton absorption in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Nano Lett.12, 4864–4868 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Aouani, O. Mahboub, N. Bonod, E. Devaux, E. Popov, H. Rigneault, T. W. Ebbesen, and J. Wenger, “Bright unidirectional fluorescence emission of molecules in a nanoaperture with plasmonic corrugations,” Nano Lett.11, 637–644 (2011).
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S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 1–4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, T. Roschuk, R. Fernández-García, and S. A. Maier, “Controlling light localization and light-matter interactions with nanoplasmonics,” Small6, 2498–2507 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salerno, M.

H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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L. Rogobete, F. Kaminski, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Design of plasmonic nanoantennae for enhancing spontaneous emission,” Opt. Lett.32, 1623–1625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, and V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett.97, 1–4 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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H. Ditlbacher, J. R. Krenn, N. Felidj, B. Lamprecht, G. Schider, M. Salerno, A. Leitner, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Fluorescence imaging of surface plasmon fields,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80, 404 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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S. Gerber, F. Reil, U. Hohenester, T. Schlagenhaufen, J. Krenn, and A. Leitner, “Tailoring light emission properties of fluorophores by coupling to resonance-tuned metallic nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. B75, 073404 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, T.

W. Zhang, H. Fischer, T. Schmid, R. Zenobi, and O. J. F. Martin, “Mode-selective surface-snhanced Raman Spectroscopy Using nanofabricated plasmonic dipole antennas,” J. Phys. Chem C113, 14672–14675 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P.

A. Sundaramurthy, K. Crozier, G. Kino, D. Fromm, P. Schuck, and W. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B72, 165409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett.11, 2606–2610 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 14–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Optical antenna thermal emitters,” Nat. Photonics3, 658–661 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schultz, S.

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett.3, 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schwartzberg, A. M.

T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett.11, 2606–2610 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sell, A.

J. Merlein, M. Kahl, A. Zuschlag, A. Sell, A. Halm, J. Boneberg, P. Leiderer, A. Leitenstorfer, and R. Bratschitsch, “Nanomechanical control of an optical antenna,” Nat. Photonics2, 230–233 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett.11, 2606–2610 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

Shi, S.

J.-H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons,” Nano Lett.5, 1557–1561 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, D. R.

C. Ciraci, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science337, 1072–1074 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett.3, 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Snchez-Gil, J. A.

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Snchez-Gil, and J. Gmez Rivas, “Strong enhancement of the radiative decay rate of emitters by single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett.7, 2871–2875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, J.-H.

J.-H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons,” Nano Lett.5, 1557–1561 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonnefraud, Y.

D. Y. Lei, A. I. Fernndez-Domnguez, Y. Sonnefraud, K. Appavoo, R. F. Haglund, J. B. Pendry, and S. A. Maier, “Revealing plasmonic gap modes in particle-on-film systems using dark-field spectroscopy,” ACS. Nano.6, 1380–1386 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, T. Roschuk, R. Fernández-García, and S. A. Maier, “Controlling light localization and light-matter interactions with nanoplasmonics,” Small6, 2498–2507 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Su, K.-H.

K.-H. Su, Q.-H. Wei, X. Zhang, J. J. Mock, D. R. Smith, and S. Schultz, “Interparticle Coupling effects on plasmon resonances of nanogold Particles,” Nano Lett.3, 1087–1090 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sundaramurthy, A.

A. Sundaramurthy, K. Crozier, G. Kino, D. Fromm, P. Schuck, and W. Moerner, “Field enhancement and gap-dependent resonance in a system of two opposing tip-to-tip Au nanotriangles,” Phys. Rev. B72, 165409 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 14–17 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Crozier, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and C. F. Quate, “Optical antennas: Resonators for local field enhancement,” J. Appl. Phys.94, 4632 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Szmacinski, H.

T. Corrigan, S. Guo, R. Phaneuf, and H. Szmacinski, “Enhanced fluorescence from periodic arrays of silver nanoparticles,” J. Fluoresc.15, 777–784 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tahmasebi, T.

M. Rahmani, T. Tahmasebi, Y. Lin, B. Lukiyanchuk, T. Y. F. Liew, and M. H. Hong, “Influence of plasmon destructive interferences on optical properties of gold planar quadrumers,” Nanotechnology22, 245204 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taminiau, T. H.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taubner, T.

J. A. Schuller, T. Taubner, and M. L. Brongersma, “Optical antenna thermal emitters,” Nat. Photonics3, 658–661 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Truscott, T. G.

R. Bonnett, D. J. McGarvey, A. Harriman, E. J. Land, T. G. Truscott, and U.-J. Winfield, “Photophysical properties of meso-tetraphenylporphyrin and some meso-tetra(hydroxyphenyl)porphyrins,” Photochem. Photobiol.48, 271–276 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urabe, H.

J.-H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons,” Nano Lett.5, 1557–1561 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Urzhumov, Y.

C. Ciraci, R. T. Hill, J. J. Mock, Y. Urzhumov, A. I. Fernandez-Dominguez, S. A. Maier, J. B. Pendry, A. Chilkoti, and D. R. Smith, “Probing the ultimate limits of plasmonic enhancement,” Science337, 1072–1074 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. F.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329, 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volpe, G.

G. Volpe, M. Noack, S. S. Aćimović, C. Reinhardt, and R. Quidant, “Near-field mapping of plasmonic antennas by multiphoton absorption in poly(methyl methacrylate),” Nano Lett.12, 4864–4868 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329, 930–933 (2010).
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D. Wang, W. Zhu, Y. Chu, and K. B. Crozier, “High directivity optical antenna substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Adv. Mater.24, 4376–4380 (2012).
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D. Wang, W. Zhu, Y. Chu, and K. B. Crozier, “High directivity optical antenna substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering,” Adv. Mater.24, 4376–4380 (2012).
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W. Zhang, H. Fischer, T. Schmid, R. Zenobi, and O. J. F. Martin, “Mode-selective surface-snhanced Raman Spectroscopy Using nanofabricated plasmonic dipole antennas,” J. Phys. Chem C113, 14672–14675 (2009).
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Nano Lett. (9)

T. J. Seok, A. Jamshidi, M. Kim, S. Dhuey, A. Lakhani, H. Choo, P. J. Schuck, S. Cabrini, A. M. Schwartzberg, J. Bokor, E. Yablonovitch, and M. C. Wu, “Radiation engineering of optical antennas for maximum field enhancement,” Nano Lett.11, 2606–2610 (2011).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Song, T. Atay, S. Shi, H. Urabe, and A. V. Nurmikko, “Large enhancement of fluorescence efficiency from CdSe/ZnS quantum dots induced by resonant coupling to spatially controlled surface plasmons,” Nano Lett.5, 1557–1561 (2005).
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M. Rahmani, D. Y. Lei, V. Giannini, B. Lukiyanchuk, M. Ranjbar, T. Y. F. Liew, M. Hong, and S. A. Maier, “Subgroup decomposition of plasmonic resonances in hybrid oligomers: Modeling the resonance lineshape,” Nano Lett.12, 2101–2106 (2012).
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Nanotechnology (1)

M. Rahmani, T. Tahmasebi, Y. Lin, B. Lukiyanchuk, T. Y. F. Liew, and M. H. Hong, “Influence of plasmon destructive interferences on optical properties of gold planar quadrumers,” Nanotechnology22, 245204 (2011).
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A. Kinkhabwala, Z. Yu, S. Fan, Y. Avlasevich, K. Müllen, and W. E. Moerner, “Large single-molecule fluorescence enhancements produced by a bowtie nanoantenna,” Nat. Photonics3, 654–657 (2009).
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Opt, Lett. (1)

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Small (1)

V. Giannini, A. I. Fernández-Domínguez, Y. Sonnefraud, T. Roschuk, R. Fernández-García, and S. A. Maier, “Controlling light localization and light-matter interactions with nanoplasmonics,” Small6, 2498–2507 (2010).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental setup for TPP fluorescence measurement. The excitation laser at a wavelength of 405 nm is coupled into a 40× reflective objective that focuses the laser beam on the sample and collects the emitted light. The fluorescence light is filtered using a dichroic mirror (DM) and a high pass filter (HP) at 420 nm in order to cut off the incident light scattered from the sample. The beam can be either sent to a spectrometer (SPEC) combined with a CCD camera, or to a pair of detectors. In the latter case, a 50 μm-pinhole PH selects the fluorescent light coming from the focal spot only. Lens L2 collimates the light transmitted through PH, which is then directed to a polarising beam splitter (PBS) that splits the two polarization components. Finally the light is focused on two APDs (avalanche photodiode) detectors that collect simultaneously both polarizations along x and y axes. (b) Schematic sample cross section. A film of TPP embedded in a PMMA matrix is deposited on top of the antennas at a thickness approximately equal to that of the antennas (40 nm). (c) Measured absorption and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra from a film of TPP into a PMMA host matrix.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effect of a gold underlayer on the antenna properties. The nanoantennas are composed of two 75 nm long arms with a 30 nm gap on a glass substrate and surrounded with air (n=1). (a) Comparison between the near field (NF) enhacement, integrated over a volume of 300 nm × 200 nm × 100 nm surrounding the antenna, of dimer antennas placed on a glass substrate with (black line) and without (red line) gold underlayer. For this comparison, the polarization is selected parallel to the antenna axis, X-pol. Dotted red line: antenna with ≈ 95 nm long arms, without gold layer, to match the resonance at 655 nm. Inset: simulated power radiated by a dipole placed at the antenna gap for different values of SiO2 thickness. The dipole is placed at the center of the gap cavity with polarization parallel to the antenna main axis in order to maximize the coupling. (b) Comparison between the simulated scattering cross section (continuous lines) and dark field scattering (dotted lines), for an incident polarisation along the main axis of the antenna. Experimental and simulated data in black refers to dimer antennas placed on a glass substrate and red data to dimmer antennas without gold underlayer. Inset: scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of one nanoantenna being considered.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spectral overlap between the emission band of TPP and simulated NF resonances with and without gold underlayer, for the polarization parallel to the dimer main axis. (b) (resp. (c)) Photoluminescence intensity around single resonant antennas for polarization of the detected light parallel to the antenna axis without (resp. with) the gold underlayer (scale bars 2 μm). Only light in the range 640–680 nm is collected, which corresponds to the first emission peak of TPP. The PL intensity I is normalized to the intensity measured away from the nanoantennas, I0. Bottom: horizontal profiles as indicated on the images above. The antennas without the Au underlayer induced a 10% PL enhancement, while antennas with the gold underlayer reach up to 50% PL enhancement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Influence of the polarization on the scattering of a gold dimer consisting of two elongated disks with the dimensions 105×60×40 nm3 (long axis × short axis × thickness) separated by a 30 nm gap. (a) Dark field spectra (solid lines) and simulation of the scattering cross section (dotted lines) of the nanoantenna for X and Y polarizations In all cases the values are normalised to the value at the peak for the X polarisation. Inset: SEM image of the gold antenna considered (scale bar: 100 nm). (b) Near field intensity distribution of the antenna for illumination of polarization perpendicular (Y direction) and (c) parallel (X direction) to the antenna axis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Spectral overlap between the emission bands of TPP (blue curve) and the simulated near field resonances for the X and Y polarizations, black curve and red curve respectively. The PL collected is filtered either in the area highlighted in blue (640–680 nm) or in green (700–740 nm). (b) TPP emission spectra collected from one antenna (black curve) and on the plain TPP film (red) without a filter. (c) Filtered photoluminescence intensity images around single resonant antennas: filtering for the first emission peak at 640–680 nm (top) and for the second emission peak at 700–740 nm (bottom). Note that here no particular polarisation is selected for the PL. Scale bars: 2μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Study of the influence of the nanoantenna on the polarisation properties of the PL emitted. (a) Top: PL intensity around single nanoantennas for polarization of the detected light parallel to the nanoantenna axis, filtered at around 640–680 nm and 700–740 nm. Scale bars: 1μm. Bottom: horizontal profiles comparing the PL of the two emission peaks for X-polarised detected light. The TPP emission peak in the 700–740 nm range is preferentially enhanced over the peak at 640–680 nm. The inset is an SEM image of the antenna considered, scale bar 100 nm. (b) PL intensity for polarization of the detected light perpendicular to the antenna axis. The peak around 640–680 nm is preferentially enhanced in this case.

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