Abstract

The field emission (FE) device based on quantum dot (QD) films as a cathodoluminescent (CL) material has not emerged yet due to the relatively low quantum efficiency and weak photostability of nanocrystals (NCs). Here we improve film stability and luminescence yields by preparing neat films of well-packed core–multishell QDs using spray coating method and then using low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) to infill the pores of these films with metal oxides to produce inorganic nanocomposites. The ALD coatings to protect oxidation and degradation by electrons prevent internal atomic and molecular diffusion and decrease surface trap densities of QD films. Furthermore, the CL of the core-multishell QD films is 2.4 times higher than before ALD infilling. We fabricate the FE device by combining cathode structure with carbon nanotube (CNT) emitters and anode plates with QD thin film and successfully can get brilliant images of the light-emitting FE device. Our research opens a way for developing new quantum optoelectronics with high-performance.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. Y.  Li, A.  Rizzo, R.  Cingolani, G.  Gigli, “Bright White-Light-Emitting Device from Ternary Nanocrystal Composites,” Adv. Mater. 18(19), 2545–2548 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J.  Lim, S.  Jun, E.  Jang, H.  Baik, H.  Kim, J.  Cho, “Preparation of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystals and Their Application to Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(15), 1927–1932 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. K.  Bae, J.  Kwak, J. W.  Park, K.  Char, C.  Lee, S.  Lee, “Highly Efficient Green-Light-Emitting Diodes Based on CdSe@ZnS Quantum Dots with a Chemical-Composition Gradient,” Adv. Mater. 21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. O.  Anikeeva, J. E.  Halpert, M. G.  Bawendi, V.  Bulović, “Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Devices with Electroluminescence Tunable over the Entire Visible Spectrum,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2532–2536 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E.  Jang, S.  Jun, H.  Jang, J.  Lim, B.  Kim, Y.  Kim, “White-Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Dot Color Converters for Display Backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K.  Kim, J. Y.  Woo, S.  Jeong, C.-S.  Han, “Photoenhancement of a Quantum Dot Nanocomposite via UV Annealing and Its Application to White LEDs,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 911–914 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. Y.  Woo, K.  Kim, S.  Jeong, C.-S.  Han, “Enhanced Photoluminance of Layered Quantum Dot-Phosphor Nanocomposites as Converting Materials for Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 20945–20952 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. V.  Jarosz, V. J.  Porter, B. R.  Fisher, M. A.  Kastner, M. G.  Bawendi, “Photoconductivity Studies of Treated CdSe Quantum Dot Films Exhibiting Increased Exciton Ionization Efficiency,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 195327 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. C.  Oertel, M. G.  Bawendi, A. C.  Arango, V.  Bulovic, “Photodetectors Based on Treated CdSe Quantum-Dot Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 213505 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G.  Konstantatos, I.  Howard, A.  Fischer, S.  Hoogland, J.  Clifford, E.  Klem, L.  Levina, E. H.  Sargent, “Ultrasensitive Solution-Cast Quantum Dot Photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. M.  Luther, M.  Law, M. C.  Beard, Q.  Song, M. O.  Reese, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, “Schottky Solar Cells Based on Colloidal Nanocrystal Films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. G. I.  Koleilat, L.  Levina, H.  Shukla, S. H.  Myrskog, S.  Hinds, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, E. H.  Sargent, “Efficient, Stable Infrared Photovoltaics Based on Solution-Cast Colloidal Quantum Dots,” ACS Nano 2(5), 833–840 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. J. J.  Choi, Y. F.  Lim, M. B.  Santiago-Berrios, M.  Oh, B. R.  Hyun, L.  Sun, A. C.  Bartnik, A.  Goedhart, G. G.  Malliaras, H. D.  Abruña, F. W.  Wise, T.  Hanrath, “PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3749–3755 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J.  Kramer, A. R.  Barkhouse, X.  Wang, G.  Konstantatos, R.  Debnath, L.  Levina, I.  Raabe, M. K.  Nazeeruddin, M.  Grätzel, E. H.  Sargent, “Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. M.  Luther, J.  Gao, M. T.  Lloyd, O. E.  Semonin, M. C.  Beard, A. J.  Nozik, “Stability Assessment on a 3% Bilayer PbS/ZnO Quantum Dot Heterojunction Solar Cell,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3704–3707 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J.  Gao, J. M.  Luther, O. E.  Semonin, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, M. C.  Beard, “Quantum Dot Size Dependent J-V Characteristics in Heterojunction ZnO/PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1002–1008 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. D.  Yu, C.  Wang, P.  Guyot-Sionnest, “n-Type Conducting CdSe Nanocrystal Solids,” Science 300(5623), 1277–1280 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. D. V.  Talapin C. B.  Murray, “PbSe Nanocrystal Solids for n- and p-Channel Thin Film Field-Effect Transistors,” Science 310(5745), 86–89 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. J.  Urban, D. V.  Talapin, E. V.  Shevchenko, C. R.  Kagan, C. B.  Murray, “Synergism in Binary Nanocrystal Superlattices Leads to Enhanced p-Type Conductivity in Self-Assembled PbTe/Ag2 Te Thin Films,” Nat. Mater. 6(2), 115–121 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. J.  Rodriguez-Viejo, K. F.  Jensen, H.  Mattoussi, J.  Michel, B. O.  Dabbousi, M. G.  Bawendi, “Cathodoluminescence and Photoluminescence of Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot Composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(16), 2132–2134 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. I. V.  Kucherenko, V. S.  Vinogradov, A. S.  Trushin, G.  Karczewski, “Influence of the Thickness of CdTe and ZnTe Layers on Cathodoluminescence Spectra of Strained CdTe/ZnTe Superlattices with Quantum-Dot Layers,” Phys. Solid State 51(11), 2384–2389 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S.  Bhattacharyya, Y.  Estrin, O.  Moshe, D. H.  Rich, L. A.  Solovyov, A.  Gedanken, “Highly Luminescent ZnxCd1-xSe/C Core/Shell Nanocrystals: Large Scale Synthesis, Structural and Cathodoluminescence Studies,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1864–1876 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. W. V.  Schoenfeld, C.-H.  Chen, P. M.  Petroff, E. L.  Hu, “Argon Ion Damage in Self-assembled Quantum Dots Structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2935–2937 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. G.  Piva, R. D.  Goldberg, I. V.  Mitchell, D.  Labrie, R.  Leon, S.  Charbonneau, Z. R.  Wasilewski, S.  Fafard, “Enhanced Degradation Resistance of Quantum Dot Lasers to Radiation Damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 624–626 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S.  Marcinkevicius, J.  Siegert, R.  Leon, B.  Cechavicius, B.  Magness, W.  Taylor, C.  Lobo, “Changes in luminescence Intensities and carrier dynamics induced by proton irradiation in InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 66(23), 235314 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M.  Knez, K.  Nielsch, L.  Niinisto, “Synthesis and Surface Engineering of Complex Nanostructures by Atomic Layer Deposition,” Adv. Mater. 19(21), 3425–3438 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  27. X. H.  Liang, D. M.  King, P.  Li, A. W.  Weimer, “Low-Temperature Atomic Layer-Deposited TiO2 Films with Low Photoactivity,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(3), 649–654 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K.  Lambert, J.  Dendooven, C.  Detavernier, Z.  Hens, “Embedding Quantum Dot Monolayers in Al2O3 Using Atomic Layer Deposition,” Chem. Mater. 23(2), 126–128 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J.  Tang, L.  Brzozowski, D. A. R.  Barkhouse, X. H.  Wang, R.  Debnath, R.  Wolowiec, E.  Palmiano, L.  Levina, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, D.  Jamakosmanovic, E. H.  Sargent, “Quantum Dot Photovoltaics in the Extreme Quantum Confinement Regime: The Surface-Chemical Origins of Exceptional Air- and Light-Stability,” ACS Nano 4(2), 869–878 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. M.  Sykora, A. Y.  Koposov, J. A.  McGuire, R. K.  Schulze, O.  Tretiak, J. M.  Pietryga, V. I.  Klimov, “Effect of Air Exposure on Surface Properties, Electronic Structure, and Carrier Relaxation in PbSe Nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2021–2034 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. R.  Ihly, J.  Tolentino, Y.  Liu, M.  Gibbs, M.  Law, “The Photothermal Stability of PbS Quantum Dot Solids,” ACS Nano 5(10), 8175–8186 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. J. M.  Luther, M.  Law, Q.  Song, C. L.  Perkins, M. C.  Beard, A. J.  Nozik, “Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of Self-Assembled Films of PbSe Nanocrystals Treated with 1,2-Ethanedithiol,” ACS Nano 2(2), 271–280 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

K.  Kim, J. Y.  Woo, S.  Jeong, C.-S.  Han, “Photoenhancement of a Quantum Dot Nanocomposite via UV Annealing and Its Application to White LEDs,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 911–914 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y.  Woo, K.  Kim, S.  Jeong, C.-S.  Han, “Enhanced Photoluminance of Layered Quantum Dot-Phosphor Nanocomposites as Converting Materials for Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 20945–20952 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J.  Gao, J. M.  Luther, O. E.  Semonin, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, M. C.  Beard, “Quantum Dot Size Dependent J-V Characteristics in Heterojunction ZnO/PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1002–1008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.  Lambert, J.  Dendooven, C.  Detavernier, Z.  Hens, “Embedding Quantum Dot Monolayers in Al2O3 Using Atomic Layer Deposition,” Chem. Mater. 23(2), 126–128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R.  Ihly, J.  Tolentino, Y.  Liu, M.  Gibbs, M.  Law, “The Photothermal Stability of PbS Quantum Dot Solids,” ACS Nano 5(10), 8175–8186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J.  Tang, L.  Brzozowski, D. A. R.  Barkhouse, X. H.  Wang, R.  Debnath, R.  Wolowiec, E.  Palmiano, L.  Levina, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, D.  Jamakosmanovic, E. H.  Sargent, “Quantum Dot Photovoltaics in the Extreme Quantum Confinement Regime: The Surface-Chemical Origins of Exceptional Air- and Light-Stability,” ACS Nano 4(2), 869–878 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.  Sykora, A. Y.  Koposov, J. A.  McGuire, R. K.  Schulze, O.  Tretiak, J. M.  Pietryga, V. I.  Klimov, “Effect of Air Exposure on Surface Properties, Electronic Structure, and Carrier Relaxation in PbSe Nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2021–2034 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J.  Kramer, A. R.  Barkhouse, X.  Wang, G.  Konstantatos, R.  Debnath, L.  Levina, I.  Raabe, M. K.  Nazeeruddin, M.  Grätzel, E. H.  Sargent, “Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M.  Luther, J.  Gao, M. T.  Lloyd, O. E.  Semonin, M. C.  Beard, A. J.  Nozik, “Stability Assessment on a 3% Bilayer PbS/ZnO Quantum Dot Heterojunction Solar Cell,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3704–3707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E.  Jang, S.  Jun, H.  Jang, J.  Lim, B.  Kim, Y.  Kim, “White-Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Dot Color Converters for Display Backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

W. K.  Bae, J.  Kwak, J. W.  Park, K.  Char, C.  Lee, S.  Lee, “Highly Efficient Green-Light-Emitting Diodes Based on CdSe@ZnS Quantum Dots with a Chemical-Composition Gradient,” Adv. Mater. 21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. O.  Anikeeva, J. E.  Halpert, M. G.  Bawendi, V.  Bulović, “Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Devices with Electroluminescence Tunable over the Entire Visible Spectrum,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2532–2536 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J.  Choi, Y. F.  Lim, M. B.  Santiago-Berrios, M.  Oh, B. R.  Hyun, L.  Sun, A. C.  Bartnik, A.  Goedhart, G. G.  Malliaras, H. D.  Abruña, F. W.  Wise, T.  Hanrath, “PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3749–3755 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. H.  Liang, D. M.  King, P.  Li, A. W.  Weimer, “Low-Temperature Atomic Layer-Deposited TiO2 Films with Low Photoactivity,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(3), 649–654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. V.  Kucherenko, V. S.  Vinogradov, A. S.  Trushin, G.  Karczewski, “Influence of the Thickness of CdTe and ZnTe Layers on Cathodoluminescence Spectra of Strained CdTe/ZnTe Superlattices with Quantum-Dot Layers,” Phys. Solid State 51(11), 2384–2389 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S.  Bhattacharyya, Y.  Estrin, O.  Moshe, D. H.  Rich, L. A.  Solovyov, A.  Gedanken, “Highly Luminescent ZnxCd1-xSe/C Core/Shell Nanocrystals: Large Scale Synthesis, Structural and Cathodoluminescence Studies,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1864–1876 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

J. M.  Luther, M.  Law, Q.  Song, C. L.  Perkins, M. C.  Beard, A. J.  Nozik, “Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of Self-Assembled Films of PbSe Nanocrystals Treated with 1,2-Ethanedithiol,” ACS Nano 2(2), 271–280 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M.  Luther, M.  Law, M. C.  Beard, Q.  Song, M. O.  Reese, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, “Schottky Solar Cells Based on Colloidal Nanocrystal Films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I.  Koleilat, L.  Levina, H.  Shukla, S. H.  Myrskog, S.  Hinds, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, E. H.  Sargent, “Efficient, Stable Infrared Photovoltaics Based on Solution-Cast Colloidal Quantum Dots,” ACS Nano 2(5), 833–840 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J.  Lim, S.  Jun, E.  Jang, H.  Baik, H.  Kim, J.  Cho, “Preparation of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystals and Their Application to Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(15), 1927–1932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. J.  Urban, D. V.  Talapin, E. V.  Shevchenko, C. R.  Kagan, C. B.  Murray, “Synergism in Binary Nanocrystal Superlattices Leads to Enhanced p-Type Conductivity in Self-Assembled PbTe/Ag2 Te Thin Films,” Nat. Mater. 6(2), 115–121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.  Knez, K.  Nielsch, L.  Niinisto, “Synthesis and Surface Engineering of Complex Nanostructures by Atomic Layer Deposition,” Adv. Mater. 19(21), 3425–3438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

Y.  Li, A.  Rizzo, R.  Cingolani, G.  Gigli, “Bright White-Light-Emitting Device from Ternary Nanocrystal Composites,” Adv. Mater. 18(19), 2545–2548 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G.  Konstantatos, I.  Howard, A.  Fischer, S.  Hoogland, J.  Clifford, E.  Klem, L.  Levina, E. H.  Sargent, “Ultrasensitive Solution-Cast Quantum Dot Photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

D. C.  Oertel, M. G.  Bawendi, A. C.  Arango, V.  Bulovic, “Photodetectors Based on Treated CdSe Quantum-Dot Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 213505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. V.  Talapin C. B.  Murray, “PbSe Nanocrystal Solids for n- and p-Channel Thin Film Field-Effect Transistors,” Science 310(5745), 86–89 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

M. V.  Jarosz, V. J.  Porter, B. R.  Fisher, M. A.  Kastner, M. G.  Bawendi, “Photoconductivity Studies of Treated CdSe Quantum Dot Films Exhibiting Increased Exciton Ionization Efficiency,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 195327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D.  Yu, C.  Wang, P.  Guyot-Sionnest, “n-Type Conducting CdSe Nanocrystal Solids,” Science 300(5623), 1277–1280 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

S.  Marcinkevicius, J.  Siegert, R.  Leon, B.  Cechavicius, B.  Magness, W.  Taylor, C.  Lobo, “Changes in luminescence Intensities and carrier dynamics induced by proton irradiation in InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 66(23), 235314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. G.  Piva, R. D.  Goldberg, I. V.  Mitchell, D.  Labrie, R.  Leon, S.  Charbonneau, Z. R.  Wasilewski, S.  Fafard, “Enhanced Degradation Resistance of Quantum Dot Lasers to Radiation Damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 624–626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998

W. V.  Schoenfeld, C.-H.  Chen, P. M.  Petroff, E. L.  Hu, “Argon Ion Damage in Self-assembled Quantum Dots Structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2935–2937 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

J.  Rodriguez-Viejo, K. F.  Jensen, H.  Mattoussi, J.  Michel, B. O.  Dabbousi, M. G.  Bawendi, “Cathodoluminescence and Photoluminescence of Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot Composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(16), 2132–2134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abruña, H. D.

J. J.  Choi, Y. F.  Lim, M. B.  Santiago-Berrios, M.  Oh, B. R.  Hyun, L.  Sun, A. C.  Bartnik, A.  Goedhart, G. G.  Malliaras, H. D.  Abruña, F. W.  Wise, T.  Hanrath, “PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3749–3755 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anikeeva, P. O.

P. O.  Anikeeva, J. E.  Halpert, M. G.  Bawendi, V.  Bulović, “Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Devices with Electroluminescence Tunable over the Entire Visible Spectrum,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2532–2536 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arango, A. C.

D. C.  Oertel, M. G.  Bawendi, A. C.  Arango, V.  Bulovic, “Photodetectors Based on Treated CdSe Quantum-Dot Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 213505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bae, W. K.

W. K.  Bae, J.  Kwak, J. W.  Park, K.  Char, C.  Lee, S.  Lee, “Highly Efficient Green-Light-Emitting Diodes Based on CdSe@ZnS Quantum Dots with a Chemical-Composition Gradient,” Adv. Mater. 21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baik, H.

J.  Lim, S.  Jun, E.  Jang, H.  Baik, H.  Kim, J.  Cho, “Preparation of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystals and Their Application to Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(15), 1927–1932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barkhouse, A. R.

A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J.  Kramer, A. R.  Barkhouse, X.  Wang, G.  Konstantatos, R.  Debnath, L.  Levina, I.  Raabe, M. K.  Nazeeruddin, M.  Grätzel, E. H.  Sargent, “Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barkhouse, D. A. R.

J.  Tang, L.  Brzozowski, D. A. R.  Barkhouse, X. H.  Wang, R.  Debnath, R.  Wolowiec, E.  Palmiano, L.  Levina, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, D.  Jamakosmanovic, E. H.  Sargent, “Quantum Dot Photovoltaics in the Extreme Quantum Confinement Regime: The Surface-Chemical Origins of Exceptional Air- and Light-Stability,” ACS Nano 4(2), 869–878 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartnik, A. C.

J. J.  Choi, Y. F.  Lim, M. B.  Santiago-Berrios, M.  Oh, B. R.  Hyun, L.  Sun, A. C.  Bartnik, A.  Goedhart, G. G.  Malliaras, H. D.  Abruña, F. W.  Wise, T.  Hanrath, “PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3749–3755 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bawendi, M. G.

P. O.  Anikeeva, J. E.  Halpert, M. G.  Bawendi, V.  Bulović, “Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Devices with Electroluminescence Tunable over the Entire Visible Spectrum,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2532–2536 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C.  Oertel, M. G.  Bawendi, A. C.  Arango, V.  Bulovic, “Photodetectors Based on Treated CdSe Quantum-Dot Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 213505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. V.  Jarosz, V. J.  Porter, B. R.  Fisher, M. A.  Kastner, M. G.  Bawendi, “Photoconductivity Studies of Treated CdSe Quantum Dot Films Exhibiting Increased Exciton Ionization Efficiency,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 195327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J.  Rodriguez-Viejo, K. F.  Jensen, H.  Mattoussi, J.  Michel, B. O.  Dabbousi, M. G.  Bawendi, “Cathodoluminescence and Photoluminescence of Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot Composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(16), 2132–2134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Beard, M. C.

J.  Gao, J. M.  Luther, O. E.  Semonin, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, M. C.  Beard, “Quantum Dot Size Dependent J-V Characteristics in Heterojunction ZnO/PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1002–1008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M.  Luther, J.  Gao, M. T.  Lloyd, O. E.  Semonin, M. C.  Beard, A. J.  Nozik, “Stability Assessment on a 3% Bilayer PbS/ZnO Quantum Dot Heterojunction Solar Cell,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3704–3707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M.  Luther, M.  Law, M. C.  Beard, Q.  Song, M. O.  Reese, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, “Schottky Solar Cells Based on Colloidal Nanocrystal Films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M.  Luther, M.  Law, Q.  Song, C. L.  Perkins, M. C.  Beard, A. J.  Nozik, “Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of Self-Assembled Films of PbSe Nanocrystals Treated with 1,2-Ethanedithiol,” ACS Nano 2(2), 271–280 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhattacharyya, S.

S.  Bhattacharyya, Y.  Estrin, O.  Moshe, D. H.  Rich, L. A.  Solovyov, A.  Gedanken, “Highly Luminescent ZnxCd1-xSe/C Core/Shell Nanocrystals: Large Scale Synthesis, Structural and Cathodoluminescence Studies,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1864–1876 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brzozowski, L.

J.  Tang, L.  Brzozowski, D. A. R.  Barkhouse, X. H.  Wang, R.  Debnath, R.  Wolowiec, E.  Palmiano, L.  Levina, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, D.  Jamakosmanovic, E. H.  Sargent, “Quantum Dot Photovoltaics in the Extreme Quantum Confinement Regime: The Surface-Chemical Origins of Exceptional Air- and Light-Stability,” ACS Nano 4(2), 869–878 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bulovic, V.

P. O.  Anikeeva, J. E.  Halpert, M. G.  Bawendi, V.  Bulović, “Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Devices with Electroluminescence Tunable over the Entire Visible Spectrum,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2532–2536 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C.  Oertel, M. G.  Bawendi, A. C.  Arango, V.  Bulovic, “Photodetectors Based on Treated CdSe Quantum-Dot Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 213505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cechavicius, B.

S.  Marcinkevicius, J.  Siegert, R.  Leon, B.  Cechavicius, B.  Magness, W.  Taylor, C.  Lobo, “Changes in luminescence Intensities and carrier dynamics induced by proton irradiation in InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 66(23), 235314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Char, K.

W. K.  Bae, J.  Kwak, J. W.  Park, K.  Char, C.  Lee, S.  Lee, “Highly Efficient Green-Light-Emitting Diodes Based on CdSe@ZnS Quantum Dots with a Chemical-Composition Gradient,” Adv. Mater. 21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Charbonneau, S.

P. G.  Piva, R. D.  Goldberg, I. V.  Mitchell, D.  Labrie, R.  Leon, S.  Charbonneau, Z. R.  Wasilewski, S.  Fafard, “Enhanced Degradation Resistance of Quantum Dot Lasers to Radiation Damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 624–626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-H.

W. V.  Schoenfeld, C.-H.  Chen, P. M.  Petroff, E. L.  Hu, “Argon Ion Damage in Self-assembled Quantum Dots Structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2935–2937 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

J.  Lim, S.  Jun, E.  Jang, H.  Baik, H.  Kim, J.  Cho, “Preparation of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystals and Their Application to Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(15), 1927–1932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, J. J.

J. J.  Choi, Y. F.  Lim, M. B.  Santiago-Berrios, M.  Oh, B. R.  Hyun, L.  Sun, A. C.  Bartnik, A.  Goedhart, G. G.  Malliaras, H. D.  Abruña, F. W.  Wise, T.  Hanrath, “PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3749–3755 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cingolani, R.

Y.  Li, A.  Rizzo, R.  Cingolani, G.  Gigli, “Bright White-Light-Emitting Device from Ternary Nanocrystal Composites,” Adv. Mater. 18(19), 2545–2548 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Clifford, J.

G.  Konstantatos, I.  Howard, A.  Fischer, S.  Hoogland, J.  Clifford, E.  Klem, L.  Levina, E. H.  Sargent, “Ultrasensitive Solution-Cast Quantum Dot Photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dabbousi, B. O.

J.  Rodriguez-Viejo, K. F.  Jensen, H.  Mattoussi, J.  Michel, B. O.  Dabbousi, M. G.  Bawendi, “Cathodoluminescence and Photoluminescence of Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot Composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(16), 2132–2134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Debnath, R.

J.  Tang, L.  Brzozowski, D. A. R.  Barkhouse, X. H.  Wang, R.  Debnath, R.  Wolowiec, E.  Palmiano, L.  Levina, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, D.  Jamakosmanovic, E. H.  Sargent, “Quantum Dot Photovoltaics in the Extreme Quantum Confinement Regime: The Surface-Chemical Origins of Exceptional Air- and Light-Stability,” ACS Nano 4(2), 869–878 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J.  Kramer, A. R.  Barkhouse, X.  Wang, G.  Konstantatos, R.  Debnath, L.  Levina, I.  Raabe, M. K.  Nazeeruddin, M.  Grätzel, E. H.  Sargent, “Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dendooven, J.

K.  Lambert, J.  Dendooven, C.  Detavernier, Z.  Hens, “Embedding Quantum Dot Monolayers in Al2O3 Using Atomic Layer Deposition,” Chem. Mater. 23(2), 126–128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Detavernier, C.

K.  Lambert, J.  Dendooven, C.  Detavernier, Z.  Hens, “Embedding Quantum Dot Monolayers in Al2O3 Using Atomic Layer Deposition,” Chem. Mater. 23(2), 126–128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ellingson, R. J.

J.  Gao, J. M.  Luther, O. E.  Semonin, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, M. C.  Beard, “Quantum Dot Size Dependent J-V Characteristics in Heterojunction ZnO/PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1002–1008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M.  Luther, M.  Law, M. C.  Beard, Q.  Song, M. O.  Reese, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, “Schottky Solar Cells Based on Colloidal Nanocrystal Films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Estrin, Y.

S.  Bhattacharyya, Y.  Estrin, O.  Moshe, D. H.  Rich, L. A.  Solovyov, A.  Gedanken, “Highly Luminescent ZnxCd1-xSe/C Core/Shell Nanocrystals: Large Scale Synthesis, Structural and Cathodoluminescence Studies,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1864–1876 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fafard, S.

P. G.  Piva, R. D.  Goldberg, I. V.  Mitchell, D.  Labrie, R.  Leon, S.  Charbonneau, Z. R.  Wasilewski, S.  Fafard, “Enhanced Degradation Resistance of Quantum Dot Lasers to Radiation Damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 624–626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A.

G.  Konstantatos, I.  Howard, A.  Fischer, S.  Hoogland, J.  Clifford, E.  Klem, L.  Levina, E. H.  Sargent, “Ultrasensitive Solution-Cast Quantum Dot Photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fisher, B. R.

M. V.  Jarosz, V. J.  Porter, B. R.  Fisher, M. A.  Kastner, M. G.  Bawendi, “Photoconductivity Studies of Treated CdSe Quantum Dot Films Exhibiting Increased Exciton Ionization Efficiency,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 195327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gao, J.

J.  Gao, J. M.  Luther, O. E.  Semonin, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, M. C.  Beard, “Quantum Dot Size Dependent J-V Characteristics in Heterojunction ZnO/PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1002–1008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M.  Luther, J.  Gao, M. T.  Lloyd, O. E.  Semonin, M. C.  Beard, A. J.  Nozik, “Stability Assessment on a 3% Bilayer PbS/ZnO Quantum Dot Heterojunction Solar Cell,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3704–3707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gedanken, A.

S.  Bhattacharyya, Y.  Estrin, O.  Moshe, D. H.  Rich, L. A.  Solovyov, A.  Gedanken, “Highly Luminescent ZnxCd1-xSe/C Core/Shell Nanocrystals: Large Scale Synthesis, Structural and Cathodoluminescence Studies,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1864–1876 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibbs, M.

R.  Ihly, J.  Tolentino, Y.  Liu, M.  Gibbs, M.  Law, “The Photothermal Stability of PbS Quantum Dot Solids,” ACS Nano 5(10), 8175–8186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gigli, G.

Y.  Li, A.  Rizzo, R.  Cingolani, G.  Gigli, “Bright White-Light-Emitting Device from Ternary Nanocrystal Composites,” Adv. Mater. 18(19), 2545–2548 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Goedhart, A.

J. J.  Choi, Y. F.  Lim, M. B.  Santiago-Berrios, M.  Oh, B. R.  Hyun, L.  Sun, A. C.  Bartnik, A.  Goedhart, G. G.  Malliaras, H. D.  Abruña, F. W.  Wise, T.  Hanrath, “PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3749–3755 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldberg, R. D.

P. G.  Piva, R. D.  Goldberg, I. V.  Mitchell, D.  Labrie, R.  Leon, S.  Charbonneau, Z. R.  Wasilewski, S.  Fafard, “Enhanced Degradation Resistance of Quantum Dot Lasers to Radiation Damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 624–626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grätzel, M.

A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J.  Kramer, A. R.  Barkhouse, X.  Wang, G.  Konstantatos, R.  Debnath, L.  Levina, I.  Raabe, M. K.  Nazeeruddin, M.  Grätzel, E. H.  Sargent, “Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guyot-Sionnest, P.

D.  Yu, C.  Wang, P.  Guyot-Sionnest, “n-Type Conducting CdSe Nanocrystal Solids,” Science 300(5623), 1277–1280 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Halpert, J. E.

P. O.  Anikeeva, J. E.  Halpert, M. G.  Bawendi, V.  Bulović, “Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Devices with Electroluminescence Tunable over the Entire Visible Spectrum,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2532–2536 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, C.-S.

K.  Kim, J. Y.  Woo, S.  Jeong, C.-S.  Han, “Photoenhancement of a Quantum Dot Nanocomposite via UV Annealing and Its Application to White LEDs,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 911–914 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y.  Woo, K.  Kim, S.  Jeong, C.-S.  Han, “Enhanced Photoluminance of Layered Quantum Dot-Phosphor Nanocomposites as Converting Materials for Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 20945–20952 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hanrath, T.

J. J.  Choi, Y. F.  Lim, M. B.  Santiago-Berrios, M.  Oh, B. R.  Hyun, L.  Sun, A. C.  Bartnik, A.  Goedhart, G. G.  Malliaras, H. D.  Abruña, F. W.  Wise, T.  Hanrath, “PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3749–3755 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hens, Z.

K.  Lambert, J.  Dendooven, C.  Detavernier, Z.  Hens, “Embedding Quantum Dot Monolayers in Al2O3 Using Atomic Layer Deposition,” Chem. Mater. 23(2), 126–128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hinds, S.

G. I.  Koleilat, L.  Levina, H.  Shukla, S. H.  Myrskog, S.  Hinds, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, E. H.  Sargent, “Efficient, Stable Infrared Photovoltaics Based on Solution-Cast Colloidal Quantum Dots,” ACS Nano 2(5), 833–840 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoogland, S.

G.  Konstantatos, I.  Howard, A.  Fischer, S.  Hoogland, J.  Clifford, E.  Klem, L.  Levina, E. H.  Sargent, “Ultrasensitive Solution-Cast Quantum Dot Photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howard, I.

G.  Konstantatos, I.  Howard, A.  Fischer, S.  Hoogland, J.  Clifford, E.  Klem, L.  Levina, E. H.  Sargent, “Ultrasensitive Solution-Cast Quantum Dot Photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, E. L.

W. V.  Schoenfeld, C.-H.  Chen, P. M.  Petroff, E. L.  Hu, “Argon Ion Damage in Self-assembled Quantum Dots Structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2935–2937 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hyun, B. R.

J. J.  Choi, Y. F.  Lim, M. B.  Santiago-Berrios, M.  Oh, B. R.  Hyun, L.  Sun, A. C.  Bartnik, A.  Goedhart, G. G.  Malliaras, H. D.  Abruña, F. W.  Wise, T.  Hanrath, “PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3749–3755 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ihly, R.

R.  Ihly, J.  Tolentino, Y.  Liu, M.  Gibbs, M.  Law, “The Photothermal Stability of PbS Quantum Dot Solids,” ACS Nano 5(10), 8175–8186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jamakosmanovic, D.

J.  Tang, L.  Brzozowski, D. A. R.  Barkhouse, X. H.  Wang, R.  Debnath, R.  Wolowiec, E.  Palmiano, L.  Levina, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, D.  Jamakosmanovic, E. H.  Sargent, “Quantum Dot Photovoltaics in the Extreme Quantum Confinement Regime: The Surface-Chemical Origins of Exceptional Air- and Light-Stability,” ACS Nano 4(2), 869–878 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, E.

E.  Jang, S.  Jun, H.  Jang, J.  Lim, B.  Kim, Y.  Kim, “White-Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Dot Color Converters for Display Backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.  Lim, S.  Jun, E.  Jang, H.  Baik, H.  Kim, J.  Cho, “Preparation of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystals and Their Application to Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(15), 1927–1932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jang, H.

E.  Jang, S.  Jun, H.  Jang, J.  Lim, B.  Kim, Y.  Kim, “White-Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Dot Color Converters for Display Backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jarosz, M. V.

M. V.  Jarosz, V. J.  Porter, B. R.  Fisher, M. A.  Kastner, M. G.  Bawendi, “Photoconductivity Studies of Treated CdSe Quantum Dot Films Exhibiting Increased Exciton Ionization Efficiency,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 195327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, K. F.

J.  Rodriguez-Viejo, K. F.  Jensen, H.  Mattoussi, J.  Michel, B. O.  Dabbousi, M. G.  Bawendi, “Cathodoluminescence and Photoluminescence of Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot Composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(16), 2132–2134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, S.

J. Y.  Woo, K.  Kim, S.  Jeong, C.-S.  Han, “Enhanced Photoluminance of Layered Quantum Dot-Phosphor Nanocomposites as Converting Materials for Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 20945–20952 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.  Kim, J. Y.  Woo, S.  Jeong, C.-S.  Han, “Photoenhancement of a Quantum Dot Nanocomposite via UV Annealing and Its Application to White LEDs,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 911–914 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jun, S.

E.  Jang, S.  Jun, H.  Jang, J.  Lim, B.  Kim, Y.  Kim, “White-Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Dot Color Converters for Display Backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.  Lim, S.  Jun, E.  Jang, H.  Baik, H.  Kim, J.  Cho, “Preparation of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystals and Their Application to Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(15), 1927–1932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kagan, C. R.

J. J.  Urban, D. V.  Talapin, E. V.  Shevchenko, C. R.  Kagan, C. B.  Murray, “Synergism in Binary Nanocrystal Superlattices Leads to Enhanced p-Type Conductivity in Self-Assembled PbTe/Ag2 Te Thin Films,” Nat. Mater. 6(2), 115–121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karczewski, G.

I. V.  Kucherenko, V. S.  Vinogradov, A. S.  Trushin, G.  Karczewski, “Influence of the Thickness of CdTe and ZnTe Layers on Cathodoluminescence Spectra of Strained CdTe/ZnTe Superlattices with Quantum-Dot Layers,” Phys. Solid State 51(11), 2384–2389 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kastner, M. A.

M. V.  Jarosz, V. J.  Porter, B. R.  Fisher, M. A.  Kastner, M. G.  Bawendi, “Photoconductivity Studies of Treated CdSe Quantum Dot Films Exhibiting Increased Exciton Ionization Efficiency,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 195327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.

E.  Jang, S.  Jun, H.  Jang, J.  Lim, B.  Kim, Y.  Kim, “White-Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Dot Color Converters for Display Backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

J.  Lim, S.  Jun, E.  Jang, H.  Baik, H.  Kim, J.  Cho, “Preparation of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystals and Their Application to Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(15), 1927–1932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K.

K.  Kim, J. Y.  Woo, S.  Jeong, C.-S.  Han, “Photoenhancement of a Quantum Dot Nanocomposite via UV Annealing and Its Application to White LEDs,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 911–914 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y.  Woo, K.  Kim, S.  Jeong, C.-S.  Han, “Enhanced Photoluminance of Layered Quantum Dot-Phosphor Nanocomposites as Converting Materials for Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 20945–20952 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

E.  Jang, S.  Jun, H.  Jang, J.  Lim, B.  Kim, Y.  Kim, “White-Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Dot Color Converters for Display Backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, D. M.

X. H.  Liang, D. M.  King, P.  Li, A. W.  Weimer, “Low-Temperature Atomic Layer-Deposited TiO2 Films with Low Photoactivity,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(3), 649–654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Klem, E.

G.  Konstantatos, I.  Howard, A.  Fischer, S.  Hoogland, J.  Clifford, E.  Klem, L.  Levina, E. H.  Sargent, “Ultrasensitive Solution-Cast Quantum Dot Photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klimov, V. I.

M.  Sykora, A. Y.  Koposov, J. A.  McGuire, R. K.  Schulze, O.  Tretiak, J. M.  Pietryga, V. I.  Klimov, “Effect of Air Exposure on Surface Properties, Electronic Structure, and Carrier Relaxation in PbSe Nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2021–2034 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knez, M.

M.  Knez, K.  Nielsch, L.  Niinisto, “Synthesis and Surface Engineering of Complex Nanostructures by Atomic Layer Deposition,” Adv. Mater. 19(21), 3425–3438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koleilat, G. I.

G. I.  Koleilat, L.  Levina, H.  Shukla, S. H.  Myrskog, S.  Hinds, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, E. H.  Sargent, “Efficient, Stable Infrared Photovoltaics Based on Solution-Cast Colloidal Quantum Dots,” ACS Nano 2(5), 833–840 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konstantatos, G.

A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J.  Kramer, A. R.  Barkhouse, X.  Wang, G.  Konstantatos, R.  Debnath, L.  Levina, I.  Raabe, M. K.  Nazeeruddin, M.  Grätzel, E. H.  Sargent, “Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.  Konstantatos, I.  Howard, A.  Fischer, S.  Hoogland, J.  Clifford, E.  Klem, L.  Levina, E. H.  Sargent, “Ultrasensitive Solution-Cast Quantum Dot Photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koposov, A. Y.

M.  Sykora, A. Y.  Koposov, J. A.  McGuire, R. K.  Schulze, O.  Tretiak, J. M.  Pietryga, V. I.  Klimov, “Effect of Air Exposure on Surface Properties, Electronic Structure, and Carrier Relaxation in PbSe Nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2021–2034 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kramer, I. J.

A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J.  Kramer, A. R.  Barkhouse, X.  Wang, G.  Konstantatos, R.  Debnath, L.  Levina, I.  Raabe, M. K.  Nazeeruddin, M.  Grätzel, E. H.  Sargent, “Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kucherenko, I. V.

I. V.  Kucherenko, V. S.  Vinogradov, A. S.  Trushin, G.  Karczewski, “Influence of the Thickness of CdTe and ZnTe Layers on Cathodoluminescence Spectra of Strained CdTe/ZnTe Superlattices with Quantum-Dot Layers,” Phys. Solid State 51(11), 2384–2389 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, J.

W. K.  Bae, J.  Kwak, J. W.  Park, K.  Char, C.  Lee, S.  Lee, “Highly Efficient Green-Light-Emitting Diodes Based on CdSe@ZnS Quantum Dots with a Chemical-Composition Gradient,” Adv. Mater. 21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Labrie, D.

P. G.  Piva, R. D.  Goldberg, I. V.  Mitchell, D.  Labrie, R.  Leon, S.  Charbonneau, Z. R.  Wasilewski, S.  Fafard, “Enhanced Degradation Resistance of Quantum Dot Lasers to Radiation Damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 624–626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, K.

K.  Lambert, J.  Dendooven, C.  Detavernier, Z.  Hens, “Embedding Quantum Dot Monolayers in Al2O3 Using Atomic Layer Deposition,” Chem. Mater. 23(2), 126–128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Law, M.

R.  Ihly, J.  Tolentino, Y.  Liu, M.  Gibbs, M.  Law, “The Photothermal Stability of PbS Quantum Dot Solids,” ACS Nano 5(10), 8175–8186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M.  Luther, M.  Law, M. C.  Beard, Q.  Song, M. O.  Reese, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, “Schottky Solar Cells Based on Colloidal Nanocrystal Films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M.  Luther, M.  Law, Q.  Song, C. L.  Perkins, M. C.  Beard, A. J.  Nozik, “Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of Self-Assembled Films of PbSe Nanocrystals Treated with 1,2-Ethanedithiol,” ACS Nano 2(2), 271–280 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, C.

W. K.  Bae, J.  Kwak, J. W.  Park, K.  Char, C.  Lee, S.  Lee, “Highly Efficient Green-Light-Emitting Diodes Based on CdSe@ZnS Quantum Dots with a Chemical-Composition Gradient,” Adv. Mater. 21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

W. K.  Bae, J.  Kwak, J. W.  Park, K.  Char, C.  Lee, S.  Lee, “Highly Efficient Green-Light-Emitting Diodes Based on CdSe@ZnS Quantum Dots with a Chemical-Composition Gradient,” Adv. Mater. 21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Leon, R.

S.  Marcinkevicius, J.  Siegert, R.  Leon, B.  Cechavicius, B.  Magness, W.  Taylor, C.  Lobo, “Changes in luminescence Intensities and carrier dynamics induced by proton irradiation in InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 66(23), 235314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. G.  Piva, R. D.  Goldberg, I. V.  Mitchell, D.  Labrie, R.  Leon, S.  Charbonneau, Z. R.  Wasilewski, S.  Fafard, “Enhanced Degradation Resistance of Quantum Dot Lasers to Radiation Damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 624–626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Levina, L.

A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J.  Kramer, A. R.  Barkhouse, X.  Wang, G.  Konstantatos, R.  Debnath, L.  Levina, I.  Raabe, M. K.  Nazeeruddin, M.  Grätzel, E. H.  Sargent, “Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.  Tang, L.  Brzozowski, D. A. R.  Barkhouse, X. H.  Wang, R.  Debnath, R.  Wolowiec, E.  Palmiano, L.  Levina, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, D.  Jamakosmanovic, E. H.  Sargent, “Quantum Dot Photovoltaics in the Extreme Quantum Confinement Regime: The Surface-Chemical Origins of Exceptional Air- and Light-Stability,” ACS Nano 4(2), 869–878 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I.  Koleilat, L.  Levina, H.  Shukla, S. H.  Myrskog, S.  Hinds, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, E. H.  Sargent, “Efficient, Stable Infrared Photovoltaics Based on Solution-Cast Colloidal Quantum Dots,” ACS Nano 2(5), 833–840 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.  Konstantatos, I.  Howard, A.  Fischer, S.  Hoogland, J.  Clifford, E.  Klem, L.  Levina, E. H.  Sargent, “Ultrasensitive Solution-Cast Quantum Dot Photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, P.

X. H.  Liang, D. M.  King, P.  Li, A. W.  Weimer, “Low-Temperature Atomic Layer-Deposited TiO2 Films with Low Photoactivity,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(3), 649–654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y.  Li, A.  Rizzo, R.  Cingolani, G.  Gigli, “Bright White-Light-Emitting Device from Ternary Nanocrystal Composites,” Adv. Mater. 18(19), 2545–2548 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liang, X. H.

X. H.  Liang, D. M.  King, P.  Li, A. W.  Weimer, “Low-Temperature Atomic Layer-Deposited TiO2 Films with Low Photoactivity,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(3), 649–654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J.

E.  Jang, S.  Jun, H.  Jang, J.  Lim, B.  Kim, Y.  Kim, “White-Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Dot Color Converters for Display Backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.  Lim, S.  Jun, E.  Jang, H.  Baik, H.  Kim, J.  Cho, “Preparation of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystals and Their Application to Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(15), 1927–1932 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, Y. F.

J. J.  Choi, Y. F.  Lim, M. B.  Santiago-Berrios, M.  Oh, B. R.  Hyun, L.  Sun, A. C.  Bartnik, A.  Goedhart, G. G.  Malliaras, H. D.  Abruña, F. W.  Wise, T.  Hanrath, “PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3749–3755 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

R.  Ihly, J.  Tolentino, Y.  Liu, M.  Gibbs, M.  Law, “The Photothermal Stability of PbS Quantum Dot Solids,” ACS Nano 5(10), 8175–8186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lloyd, M. T.

J. M.  Luther, J.  Gao, M. T.  Lloyd, O. E.  Semonin, M. C.  Beard, A. J.  Nozik, “Stability Assessment on a 3% Bilayer PbS/ZnO Quantum Dot Heterojunction Solar Cell,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3704–3707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lobo, C.

S.  Marcinkevicius, J.  Siegert, R.  Leon, B.  Cechavicius, B.  Magness, W.  Taylor, C.  Lobo, “Changes in luminescence Intensities and carrier dynamics induced by proton irradiation in InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 66(23), 235314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Luther, J. M.

J.  Gao, J. M.  Luther, O. E.  Semonin, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, M. C.  Beard, “Quantum Dot Size Dependent J-V Characteristics in Heterojunction ZnO/PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1002–1008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M.  Luther, J.  Gao, M. T.  Lloyd, O. E.  Semonin, M. C.  Beard, A. J.  Nozik, “Stability Assessment on a 3% Bilayer PbS/ZnO Quantum Dot Heterojunction Solar Cell,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3704–3707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M.  Luther, M.  Law, Q.  Song, C. L.  Perkins, M. C.  Beard, A. J.  Nozik, “Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of Self-Assembled Films of PbSe Nanocrystals Treated with 1,2-Ethanedithiol,” ACS Nano 2(2), 271–280 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M.  Luther, M.  Law, M. C.  Beard, Q.  Song, M. O.  Reese, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, “Schottky Solar Cells Based on Colloidal Nanocrystal Films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Magness, B.

S.  Marcinkevicius, J.  Siegert, R.  Leon, B.  Cechavicius, B.  Magness, W.  Taylor, C.  Lobo, “Changes in luminescence Intensities and carrier dynamics induced by proton irradiation in InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 66(23), 235314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Malliaras, G. G.

J. J.  Choi, Y. F.  Lim, M. B.  Santiago-Berrios, M.  Oh, B. R.  Hyun, L.  Sun, A. C.  Bartnik, A.  Goedhart, G. G.  Malliaras, H. D.  Abruña, F. W.  Wise, T.  Hanrath, “PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3749–3755 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcinkevicius, S.

S.  Marcinkevicius, J.  Siegert, R.  Leon, B.  Cechavicius, B.  Magness, W.  Taylor, C.  Lobo, “Changes in luminescence Intensities and carrier dynamics induced by proton irradiation in InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 66(23), 235314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mattoussi, H.

J.  Rodriguez-Viejo, K. F.  Jensen, H.  Mattoussi, J.  Michel, B. O.  Dabbousi, M. G.  Bawendi, “Cathodoluminescence and Photoluminescence of Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot Composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(16), 2132–2134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McGuire, J. A.

M.  Sykora, A. Y.  Koposov, J. A.  McGuire, R. K.  Schulze, O.  Tretiak, J. M.  Pietryga, V. I.  Klimov, “Effect of Air Exposure on Surface Properties, Electronic Structure, and Carrier Relaxation in PbSe Nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2021–2034 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michel, J.

J.  Rodriguez-Viejo, K. F.  Jensen, H.  Mattoussi, J.  Michel, B. O.  Dabbousi, M. G.  Bawendi, “Cathodoluminescence and Photoluminescence of Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot Composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(16), 2132–2134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, I. V.

P. G.  Piva, R. D.  Goldberg, I. V.  Mitchell, D.  Labrie, R.  Leon, S.  Charbonneau, Z. R.  Wasilewski, S.  Fafard, “Enhanced Degradation Resistance of Quantum Dot Lasers to Radiation Damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 624–626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moshe, O.

S.  Bhattacharyya, Y.  Estrin, O.  Moshe, D. H.  Rich, L. A.  Solovyov, A.  Gedanken, “Highly Luminescent ZnxCd1-xSe/C Core/Shell Nanocrystals: Large Scale Synthesis, Structural and Cathodoluminescence Studies,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1864–1876 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murray, C. B.

J. J.  Urban, D. V.  Talapin, E. V.  Shevchenko, C. R.  Kagan, C. B.  Murray, “Synergism in Binary Nanocrystal Superlattices Leads to Enhanced p-Type Conductivity in Self-Assembled PbTe/Ag2 Te Thin Films,” Nat. Mater. 6(2), 115–121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V.  Talapin C. B.  Murray, “PbSe Nanocrystal Solids for n- and p-Channel Thin Film Field-Effect Transistors,” Science 310(5745), 86–89 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myrskog, S. H.

G. I.  Koleilat, L.  Levina, H.  Shukla, S. H.  Myrskog, S.  Hinds, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, E. H.  Sargent, “Efficient, Stable Infrared Photovoltaics Based on Solution-Cast Colloidal Quantum Dots,” ACS Nano 2(5), 833–840 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nazeeruddin, M. K.

A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J.  Kramer, A. R.  Barkhouse, X.  Wang, G.  Konstantatos, R.  Debnath, L.  Levina, I.  Raabe, M. K.  Nazeeruddin, M.  Grätzel, E. H.  Sargent, “Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nielsch, K.

M.  Knez, K.  Nielsch, L.  Niinisto, “Synthesis and Surface Engineering of Complex Nanostructures by Atomic Layer Deposition,” Adv. Mater. 19(21), 3425–3438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Niinisto, L.

M.  Knez, K.  Nielsch, L.  Niinisto, “Synthesis and Surface Engineering of Complex Nanostructures by Atomic Layer Deposition,” Adv. Mater. 19(21), 3425–3438 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nozik, A. J.

J.  Gao, J. M.  Luther, O. E.  Semonin, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, M. C.  Beard, “Quantum Dot Size Dependent J-V Characteristics in Heterojunction ZnO/PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1002–1008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M.  Luther, J.  Gao, M. T.  Lloyd, O. E.  Semonin, M. C.  Beard, A. J.  Nozik, “Stability Assessment on a 3% Bilayer PbS/ZnO Quantum Dot Heterojunction Solar Cell,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3704–3707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M.  Luther, M.  Law, Q.  Song, C. L.  Perkins, M. C.  Beard, A. J.  Nozik, “Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of Self-Assembled Films of PbSe Nanocrystals Treated with 1,2-Ethanedithiol,” ACS Nano 2(2), 271–280 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M.  Luther, M.  Law, M. C.  Beard, Q.  Song, M. O.  Reese, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, “Schottky Solar Cells Based on Colloidal Nanocrystal Films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oertel, D. C.

D. C.  Oertel, M. G.  Bawendi, A. C.  Arango, V.  Bulovic, “Photodetectors Based on Treated CdSe Quantum-Dot Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 213505 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Oh, M.

J. J.  Choi, Y. F.  Lim, M. B.  Santiago-Berrios, M.  Oh, B. R.  Hyun, L.  Sun, A. C.  Bartnik, A.  Goedhart, G. G.  Malliaras, H. D.  Abruña, F. W.  Wise, T.  Hanrath, “PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3749–3755 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Palmiano, E.

J.  Tang, L.  Brzozowski, D. A. R.  Barkhouse, X. H.  Wang, R.  Debnath, R.  Wolowiec, E.  Palmiano, L.  Levina, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, D.  Jamakosmanovic, E. H.  Sargent, “Quantum Dot Photovoltaics in the Extreme Quantum Confinement Regime: The Surface-Chemical Origins of Exceptional Air- and Light-Stability,” ACS Nano 4(2), 869–878 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J. W.

W. K.  Bae, J.  Kwak, J. W.  Park, K.  Char, C.  Lee, S.  Lee, “Highly Efficient Green-Light-Emitting Diodes Based on CdSe@ZnS Quantum Dots with a Chemical-Composition Gradient,” Adv. Mater. 21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pattantyus-Abraham, A. G.

J.  Tang, L.  Brzozowski, D. A. R.  Barkhouse, X. H.  Wang, R.  Debnath, R.  Wolowiec, E.  Palmiano, L.  Levina, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, D.  Jamakosmanovic, E. H.  Sargent, “Quantum Dot Photovoltaics in the Extreme Quantum Confinement Regime: The Surface-Chemical Origins of Exceptional Air- and Light-Stability,” ACS Nano 4(2), 869–878 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J.  Kramer, A. R.  Barkhouse, X.  Wang, G.  Konstantatos, R.  Debnath, L.  Levina, I.  Raabe, M. K.  Nazeeruddin, M.  Grätzel, E. H.  Sargent, “Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I.  Koleilat, L.  Levina, H.  Shukla, S. H.  Myrskog, S.  Hinds, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, E. H.  Sargent, “Efficient, Stable Infrared Photovoltaics Based on Solution-Cast Colloidal Quantum Dots,” ACS Nano 2(5), 833–840 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perkins, C. L.

J. M.  Luther, M.  Law, Q.  Song, C. L.  Perkins, M. C.  Beard, A. J.  Nozik, “Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of Self-Assembled Films of PbSe Nanocrystals Treated with 1,2-Ethanedithiol,” ACS Nano 2(2), 271–280 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petroff, P. M.

W. V.  Schoenfeld, C.-H.  Chen, P. M.  Petroff, E. L.  Hu, “Argon Ion Damage in Self-assembled Quantum Dots Structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2935–2937 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pietryga, J. M.

M.  Sykora, A. Y.  Koposov, J. A.  McGuire, R. K.  Schulze, O.  Tretiak, J. M.  Pietryga, V. I.  Klimov, “Effect of Air Exposure on Surface Properties, Electronic Structure, and Carrier Relaxation in PbSe Nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2021–2034 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piva, P. G.

P. G.  Piva, R. D.  Goldberg, I. V.  Mitchell, D.  Labrie, R.  Leon, S.  Charbonneau, Z. R.  Wasilewski, S.  Fafard, “Enhanced Degradation Resistance of Quantum Dot Lasers to Radiation Damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 624–626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Porter, V. J.

M. V.  Jarosz, V. J.  Porter, B. R.  Fisher, M. A.  Kastner, M. G.  Bawendi, “Photoconductivity Studies of Treated CdSe Quantum Dot Films Exhibiting Increased Exciton Ionization Efficiency,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 195327 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raabe, I.

A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J.  Kramer, A. R.  Barkhouse, X.  Wang, G.  Konstantatos, R.  Debnath, L.  Levina, I.  Raabe, M. K.  Nazeeruddin, M.  Grätzel, E. H.  Sargent, “Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reese, M. O.

J. M.  Luther, M.  Law, M. C.  Beard, Q.  Song, M. O.  Reese, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, “Schottky Solar Cells Based on Colloidal Nanocrystal Films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rich, D. H.

S.  Bhattacharyya, Y.  Estrin, O.  Moshe, D. H.  Rich, L. A.  Solovyov, A.  Gedanken, “Highly Luminescent ZnxCd1-xSe/C Core/Shell Nanocrystals: Large Scale Synthesis, Structural and Cathodoluminescence Studies,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1864–1876 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rizzo, A.

Y.  Li, A.  Rizzo, R.  Cingolani, G.  Gigli, “Bright White-Light-Emitting Device from Ternary Nanocrystal Composites,” Adv. Mater. 18(19), 2545–2548 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez-Viejo, J.

J.  Rodriguez-Viejo, K. F.  Jensen, H.  Mattoussi, J.  Michel, B. O.  Dabbousi, M. G.  Bawendi, “Cathodoluminescence and Photoluminescence of Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot Composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(16), 2132–2134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Santiago-Berrios, M. B.

J. J.  Choi, Y. F.  Lim, M. B.  Santiago-Berrios, M.  Oh, B. R.  Hyun, L.  Sun, A. C.  Bartnik, A.  Goedhart, G. G.  Malliaras, H. D.  Abruña, F. W.  Wise, T.  Hanrath, “PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3749–3755 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sargent, E. H.

J.  Tang, L.  Brzozowski, D. A. R.  Barkhouse, X. H.  Wang, R.  Debnath, R.  Wolowiec, E.  Palmiano, L.  Levina, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, D.  Jamakosmanovic, E. H.  Sargent, “Quantum Dot Photovoltaics in the Extreme Quantum Confinement Regime: The Surface-Chemical Origins of Exceptional Air- and Light-Stability,” ACS Nano 4(2), 869–878 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J.  Kramer, A. R.  Barkhouse, X.  Wang, G.  Konstantatos, R.  Debnath, L.  Levina, I.  Raabe, M. K.  Nazeeruddin, M.  Grätzel, E. H.  Sargent, “Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. I.  Koleilat, L.  Levina, H.  Shukla, S. H.  Myrskog, S.  Hinds, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, E. H.  Sargent, “Efficient, Stable Infrared Photovoltaics Based on Solution-Cast Colloidal Quantum Dots,” ACS Nano 2(5), 833–840 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G.  Konstantatos, I.  Howard, A.  Fischer, S.  Hoogland, J.  Clifford, E.  Klem, L.  Levina, E. H.  Sargent, “Ultrasensitive Solution-Cast Quantum Dot Photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoenfeld, W. V.

W. V.  Schoenfeld, C.-H.  Chen, P. M.  Petroff, E. L.  Hu, “Argon Ion Damage in Self-assembled Quantum Dots Structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2935–2937 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schulze, R. K.

M.  Sykora, A. Y.  Koposov, J. A.  McGuire, R. K.  Schulze, O.  Tretiak, J. M.  Pietryga, V. I.  Klimov, “Effect of Air Exposure on Surface Properties, Electronic Structure, and Carrier Relaxation in PbSe Nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2021–2034 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semonin, O. E.

J.  Gao, J. M.  Luther, O. E.  Semonin, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, M. C.  Beard, “Quantum Dot Size Dependent J-V Characteristics in Heterojunction ZnO/PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1002–1008 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M.  Luther, J.  Gao, M. T.  Lloyd, O. E.  Semonin, M. C.  Beard, A. J.  Nozik, “Stability Assessment on a 3% Bilayer PbS/ZnO Quantum Dot Heterojunction Solar Cell,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3704–3707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shevchenko, E. V.

J. J.  Urban, D. V.  Talapin, E. V.  Shevchenko, C. R.  Kagan, C. B.  Murray, “Synergism in Binary Nanocrystal Superlattices Leads to Enhanced p-Type Conductivity in Self-Assembled PbTe/Ag2 Te Thin Films,” Nat. Mater. 6(2), 115–121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shukla, H.

G. I.  Koleilat, L.  Levina, H.  Shukla, S. H.  Myrskog, S.  Hinds, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, E. H.  Sargent, “Efficient, Stable Infrared Photovoltaics Based on Solution-Cast Colloidal Quantum Dots,” ACS Nano 2(5), 833–840 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegert, J.

S.  Marcinkevicius, J.  Siegert, R.  Leon, B.  Cechavicius, B.  Magness, W.  Taylor, C.  Lobo, “Changes in luminescence Intensities and carrier dynamics induced by proton irradiation in InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 66(23), 235314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Solovyov, L. A.

S.  Bhattacharyya, Y.  Estrin, O.  Moshe, D. H.  Rich, L. A.  Solovyov, A.  Gedanken, “Highly Luminescent ZnxCd1-xSe/C Core/Shell Nanocrystals: Large Scale Synthesis, Structural and Cathodoluminescence Studies,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1864–1876 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, Q.

J. M.  Luther, M.  Law, Q.  Song, C. L.  Perkins, M. C.  Beard, A. J.  Nozik, “Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of Self-Assembled Films of PbSe Nanocrystals Treated with 1,2-Ethanedithiol,” ACS Nano 2(2), 271–280 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M.  Luther, M.  Law, M. C.  Beard, Q.  Song, M. O.  Reese, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, “Schottky Solar Cells Based on Colloidal Nanocrystal Films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, L.

J. J.  Choi, Y. F.  Lim, M. B.  Santiago-Berrios, M.  Oh, B. R.  Hyun, L.  Sun, A. C.  Bartnik, A.  Goedhart, G. G.  Malliaras, H. D.  Abruña, F. W.  Wise, T.  Hanrath, “PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3749–3755 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sykora, M.

M.  Sykora, A. Y.  Koposov, J. A.  McGuire, R. K.  Schulze, O.  Tretiak, J. M.  Pietryga, V. I.  Klimov, “Effect of Air Exposure on Surface Properties, Electronic Structure, and Carrier Relaxation in PbSe Nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2021–2034 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talapin, D. V.

J. J.  Urban, D. V.  Talapin, E. V.  Shevchenko, C. R.  Kagan, C. B.  Murray, “Synergism in Binary Nanocrystal Superlattices Leads to Enhanced p-Type Conductivity in Self-Assembled PbTe/Ag2 Te Thin Films,” Nat. Mater. 6(2), 115–121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V.  Talapin C. B.  Murray, “PbSe Nanocrystal Solids for n- and p-Channel Thin Film Field-Effect Transistors,” Science 310(5745), 86–89 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, J.

J.  Tang, L.  Brzozowski, D. A. R.  Barkhouse, X. H.  Wang, R.  Debnath, R.  Wolowiec, E.  Palmiano, L.  Levina, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, D.  Jamakosmanovic, E. H.  Sargent, “Quantum Dot Photovoltaics in the Extreme Quantum Confinement Regime: The Surface-Chemical Origins of Exceptional Air- and Light-Stability,” ACS Nano 4(2), 869–878 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taylor, W.

S.  Marcinkevicius, J.  Siegert, R.  Leon, B.  Cechavicius, B.  Magness, W.  Taylor, C.  Lobo, “Changes in luminescence Intensities and carrier dynamics induced by proton irradiation in InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 66(23), 235314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tolentino, J.

R.  Ihly, J.  Tolentino, Y.  Liu, M.  Gibbs, M.  Law, “The Photothermal Stability of PbS Quantum Dot Solids,” ACS Nano 5(10), 8175–8186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tretiak, O.

M.  Sykora, A. Y.  Koposov, J. A.  McGuire, R. K.  Schulze, O.  Tretiak, J. M.  Pietryga, V. I.  Klimov, “Effect of Air Exposure on Surface Properties, Electronic Structure, and Carrier Relaxation in PbSe Nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2021–2034 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trushin, A. S.

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Urban, J. J.

J. J.  Urban, D. V.  Talapin, E. V.  Shevchenko, C. R.  Kagan, C. B.  Murray, “Synergism in Binary Nanocrystal Superlattices Leads to Enhanced p-Type Conductivity in Self-Assembled PbTe/Ag2 Te Thin Films,” Nat. Mater. 6(2), 115–121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vinogradov, V. S.

I. V.  Kucherenko, V. S.  Vinogradov, A. S.  Trushin, G.  Karczewski, “Influence of the Thickness of CdTe and ZnTe Layers on Cathodoluminescence Spectra of Strained CdTe/ZnTe Superlattices with Quantum-Dot Layers,” Phys. Solid State 51(11), 2384–2389 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

D.  Yu, C.  Wang, P.  Guyot-Sionnest, “n-Type Conducting CdSe Nanocrystal Solids,” Science 300(5623), 1277–1280 (2003).
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Wang, X.

A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J.  Kramer, A. R.  Barkhouse, X.  Wang, G.  Konstantatos, R.  Debnath, L.  Levina, I.  Raabe, M. K.  Nazeeruddin, M.  Grätzel, E. H.  Sargent, “Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
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Wang, X. H.

J.  Tang, L.  Brzozowski, D. A. R.  Barkhouse, X. H.  Wang, R.  Debnath, R.  Wolowiec, E.  Palmiano, L.  Levina, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, D.  Jamakosmanovic, E. H.  Sargent, “Quantum Dot Photovoltaics in the Extreme Quantum Confinement Regime: The Surface-Chemical Origins of Exceptional Air- and Light-Stability,” ACS Nano 4(2), 869–878 (2010).
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Wasilewski, Z. R.

P. G.  Piva, R. D.  Goldberg, I. V.  Mitchell, D.  Labrie, R.  Leon, S.  Charbonneau, Z. R.  Wasilewski, S.  Fafard, “Enhanced Degradation Resistance of Quantum Dot Lasers to Radiation Damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 624–626 (2000).
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Weimer, A. W.

X. H.  Liang, D. M.  King, P.  Li, A. W.  Weimer, “Low-Temperature Atomic Layer-Deposited TiO2 Films with Low Photoactivity,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(3), 649–654 (2009).
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J. J.  Choi, Y. F.  Lim, M. B.  Santiago-Berrios, M.  Oh, B. R.  Hyun, L.  Sun, A. C.  Bartnik, A.  Goedhart, G. G.  Malliaras, H. D.  Abruña, F. W.  Wise, T.  Hanrath, “PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3749–3755 (2009).
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Wolowiec, R.

J.  Tang, L.  Brzozowski, D. A. R.  Barkhouse, X. H.  Wang, R.  Debnath, R.  Wolowiec, E.  Palmiano, L.  Levina, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, D.  Jamakosmanovic, E. H.  Sargent, “Quantum Dot Photovoltaics in the Extreme Quantum Confinement Regime: The Surface-Chemical Origins of Exceptional Air- and Light-Stability,” ACS Nano 4(2), 869–878 (2010).
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Woo, J. Y.

J. Y.  Woo, K.  Kim, S.  Jeong, C.-S.  Han, “Enhanced Photoluminance of Layered Quantum Dot-Phosphor Nanocomposites as Converting Materials for Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 20945–20952 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K.  Kim, J. Y.  Woo, S.  Jeong, C.-S.  Han, “Photoenhancement of a Quantum Dot Nanocomposite via UV Annealing and Its Application to White LEDs,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 911–914 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, D.

D.  Yu, C.  Wang, P.  Guyot-Sionnest, “n-Type Conducting CdSe Nanocrystal Solids,” Science 300(5623), 1277–1280 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano

G. I.  Koleilat, L.  Levina, H.  Shukla, S. H.  Myrskog, S.  Hinds, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, E. H.  Sargent, “Efficient, Stable Infrared Photovoltaics Based on Solution-Cast Colloidal Quantum Dots,” ACS Nano 2(5), 833–840 (2008).
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A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, I. J.  Kramer, A. R.  Barkhouse, X.  Wang, G.  Konstantatos, R.  Debnath, L.  Levina, I.  Raabe, M. K.  Nazeeruddin, M.  Grätzel, E. H.  Sargent, “Depleted-Heterojunction Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3374–3380 (2010).
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S.  Bhattacharyya, Y.  Estrin, O.  Moshe, D. H.  Rich, L. A.  Solovyov, A.  Gedanken, “Highly Luminescent ZnxCd1-xSe/C Core/Shell Nanocrystals: Large Scale Synthesis, Structural and Cathodoluminescence Studies,” ACS Nano 3(7), 1864–1876 (2009).
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J.  Tang, L.  Brzozowski, D. A. R.  Barkhouse, X. H.  Wang, R.  Debnath, R.  Wolowiec, E.  Palmiano, L.  Levina, A. G.  Pattantyus-Abraham, D.  Jamakosmanovic, E. H.  Sargent, “Quantum Dot Photovoltaics in the Extreme Quantum Confinement Regime: The Surface-Chemical Origins of Exceptional Air- and Light-Stability,” ACS Nano 4(2), 869–878 (2010).
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M.  Sykora, A. Y.  Koposov, J. A.  McGuire, R. K.  Schulze, O.  Tretiak, J. M.  Pietryga, V. I.  Klimov, “Effect of Air Exposure on Surface Properties, Electronic Structure, and Carrier Relaxation in PbSe Nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 4(4), 2021–2034 (2010).
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R.  Ihly, J.  Tolentino, Y.  Liu, M.  Gibbs, M.  Law, “The Photothermal Stability of PbS Quantum Dot Solids,” ACS Nano 5(10), 8175–8186 (2011).
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J. M.  Luther, M.  Law, Q.  Song, C. L.  Perkins, M. C.  Beard, A. J.  Nozik, “Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of Self-Assembled Films of PbSe Nanocrystals Treated with 1,2-Ethanedithiol,” ACS Nano 2(2), 271–280 (2008).
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Adv. Mater.

M.  Knez, K.  Nielsch, L.  Niinisto, “Synthesis and Surface Engineering of Complex Nanostructures by Atomic Layer Deposition,” Adv. Mater. 19(21), 3425–3438 (2007).
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J. M.  Luther, J.  Gao, M. T.  Lloyd, O. E.  Semonin, M. C.  Beard, A. J.  Nozik, “Stability Assessment on a 3% Bilayer PbS/ZnO Quantum Dot Heterojunction Solar Cell,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3704–3707 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.  Li, A.  Rizzo, R.  Cingolani, G.  Gigli, “Bright White-Light-Emitting Device from Ternary Nanocrystal Composites,” Adv. Mater. 18(19), 2545–2548 (2006).
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J.  Lim, S.  Jun, E.  Jang, H.  Baik, H.  Kim, J.  Cho, “Preparation of Highly Luminescent Nanocrystals and Their Application to Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 19(15), 1927–1932 (2007).
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W. K.  Bae, J.  Kwak, J. W.  Park, K.  Char, C.  Lee, S.  Lee, “Highly Efficient Green-Light-Emitting Diodes Based on CdSe@ZnS Quantum Dots with a Chemical-Composition Gradient,” Adv. Mater. 21(17), 1690–1694 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E.  Jang, S.  Jun, H.  Jang, J.  Lim, B.  Kim, Y.  Kim, “White-Light-Emitting Diodes with Quantum Dot Color Converters for Display Backlights,” Adv. Mater. 22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.  Kim, J. Y.  Woo, S.  Jeong, C.-S.  Han, “Photoenhancement of a Quantum Dot Nanocomposite via UV Annealing and Its Application to White LEDs,” Adv. Mater. 23(7), 911–914 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. C.  Oertel, M. G.  Bawendi, A. C.  Arango, V.  Bulovic, “Photodetectors Based on Treated CdSe Quantum-Dot Films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(21), 213505 (2005).
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W. V.  Schoenfeld, C.-H.  Chen, P. M.  Petroff, E. L.  Hu, “Argon Ion Damage in Self-assembled Quantum Dots Structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(20), 2935–2937 (1998).
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P. G.  Piva, R. D.  Goldberg, I. V.  Mitchell, D.  Labrie, R.  Leon, S.  Charbonneau, Z. R.  Wasilewski, S.  Fafard, “Enhanced Degradation Resistance of Quantum Dot Lasers to Radiation Damage,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(5), 624–626 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J.  Rodriguez-Viejo, K. F.  Jensen, H.  Mattoussi, J.  Michel, B. O.  Dabbousi, M. G.  Bawendi, “Cathodoluminescence and Photoluminescence of Highly Luminescent CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dot Composites,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(16), 2132–2134 (1997).
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Chem. Mater.

K.  Lambert, J.  Dendooven, C.  Detavernier, Z.  Hens, “Embedding Quantum Dot Monolayers in Al2O3 Using Atomic Layer Deposition,” Chem. Mater. 23(2), 126–128 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc.

X. H.  Liang, D. M.  King, P.  Li, A. W.  Weimer, “Low-Temperature Atomic Layer-Deposited TiO2 Films with Low Photoactivity,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 92(3), 649–654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

J. Y.  Woo, K.  Kim, S.  Jeong, C.-S.  Han, “Enhanced Photoluminance of Layered Quantum Dot-Phosphor Nanocomposites as Converting Materials for Light Emitting Diodes,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(43), 20945–20952 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

P. O.  Anikeeva, J. E.  Halpert, M. G.  Bawendi, V.  Bulović, “Quantum Dot Light-Emitting Devices with Electroluminescence Tunable over the Entire Visible Spectrum,” Nano Lett. 9(7), 2532–2536 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J.  Choi, Y. F.  Lim, M. B.  Santiago-Berrios, M.  Oh, B. R.  Hyun, L.  Sun, A. C.  Bartnik, A.  Goedhart, G. G.  Malliaras, H. D.  Abruña, F. W.  Wise, T.  Hanrath, “PbSe Nanocrystal Excitonic Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 9(11), 3749–3755 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.  Gao, J. M.  Luther, O. E.  Semonin, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, M. C.  Beard, “Quantum Dot Size Dependent J-V Characteristics in Heterojunction ZnO/PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 11(3), 1002–1008 (2011).
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J. M.  Luther, M.  Law, M. C.  Beard, Q.  Song, M. O.  Reese, R. J.  Ellingson, A. J.  Nozik, “Schottky Solar Cells Based on Colloidal Nanocrystal Films,” Nano Lett. 8(10), 3488–3492 (2008).
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Nat. Mater.

J. J.  Urban, D. V.  Talapin, E. V.  Shevchenko, C. R.  Kagan, C. B.  Murray, “Synergism in Binary Nanocrystal Superlattices Leads to Enhanced p-Type Conductivity in Self-Assembled PbTe/Ag2 Te Thin Films,” Nat. Mater. 6(2), 115–121 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

G.  Konstantatos, I.  Howard, A.  Fischer, S.  Hoogland, J.  Clifford, E.  Klem, L.  Levina, E. H.  Sargent, “Ultrasensitive Solution-Cast Quantum Dot Photodetectors,” Nature 442(7099), 180–183 (2006).
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Phys. Rev. B

M. V.  Jarosz, V. J.  Porter, B. R.  Fisher, M. A.  Kastner, M. G.  Bawendi, “Photoconductivity Studies of Treated CdSe Quantum Dot Films Exhibiting Increased Exciton Ionization Efficiency,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 195327 (2004).
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S.  Marcinkevicius, J.  Siegert, R.  Leon, B.  Cechavicius, B.  Magness, W.  Taylor, C.  Lobo, “Changes in luminescence Intensities and carrier dynamics induced by proton irradiation in InxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. B 66(23), 235314 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Solid State

I. V.  Kucherenko, V. S.  Vinogradov, A. S.  Trushin, G.  Karczewski, “Influence of the Thickness of CdTe and ZnTe Layers on Cathodoluminescence Spectra of Strained CdTe/ZnTe Superlattices with Quantum-Dot Layers,” Phys. Solid State 51(11), 2384–2389 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Science

D.  Yu, C.  Wang, P.  Guyot-Sionnest, “n-Type Conducting CdSe Nanocrystal Solids,” Science 300(5623), 1277–1280 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. V.  Talapin C. B.  Murray, “PbSe Nanocrystal Solids for n- and p-Channel Thin Film Field-Effect Transistors,” Science 310(5745), 86–89 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) TEM images of CdSe/CdS/ZnS core-multishell QDs (scale bar: 50 nm). The inset shows high resolution TEM images for QDs (scale bar: 5 nm). (b) UV-vis optical absorption spectra and corresponding PL emission spectra of core-multishell QD solutions in hexane. (c) Pictures of the QD thin films on ITO glass using spray method under daylight and at 352 nm UV irradiation. (d) Cross-sectional TEM images of QD films before ALD treatment (scale bar: 100 nm). The inset shows cross-sectional TEM images with high resolution for QD layers (scale bar: 20 nm). (e) EDX profile of QD layers at P1 region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic illustration of the fabrication of QD films infilled with alumina by low-temperature ALD process. (b) Cross-sectional TEM images of QD films after ALD treatment (10 nm alumina deposited at 100 °C) (scale bar: 50 nm). (c) Al element EDX mapping of QD films after ALD treatment. (d) EDX profile of QD layers infilled with ALD alumina at P2 region.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Characterization of the QD films used in this study. (a) Optical absorption spectra, (b) PL emission spectra and (c) QY of the QD films before and after ALD treatment. The ALD deposition thickness was 5, 10, and 20 nm, respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic illustration of the emission mechanism of QD and the energy transfer in the region of electron injection. CL spectra of the QD films as a function of the ALD deposition thickness. The accelerating voltage was equal to 3 kV, the current density was (b) 1 μA•cm−2 and (c) 2 μA•cm−2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic diagram of the cross-section of the device structure used in this study. Display images of (b) an as-prepared FE device and (c) a light emitting FE device operating at an accelerating voltage of 1.6 kV and current density of 150 μA•cm−2.

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