Abstract

Lens-free holographic on-chip imaging is an emerging approach that offers both wide field-of-view (FOV) and high spatial resolution in a cost-effective and compact design using source shifting based pixel super-resolution. However, color imaging has remained relatively immature for lens-free on-chip imaging, since a ‘rainbow’ like color artifact appears in reconstructed holographic images. To provide a solution for pixel super-resolved color imaging on a chip, here we introduce and compare the performances of two computational methods based on (1) YUV color space averaging, and (2) Dijkstra’s shortest path, both of which eliminate color artifacts in reconstructed images, without compromising the spatial resolution or the wide FOV of lens-free on-chip microscopes. To demonstrate the potential of this lens-free color microscope we imaged stained Papanicolaou (Pap) smears over a wide FOV of ~14 mm2 with sub-micron spatial resolution.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (3)

O. Mudanyali, E. McLeod, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. F. Coskun, Y. Hennequin, C. Allier, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field optical detection of nano-particles using on-chip microscopy and self-assembled nano-lenses,” Nat. Photonics7, 247–254 (2013).

A. Uzan, Y. Rivenson, and A. Stern, “Speckle denoising in digital holography by non-local means filtering,” Appl. Opt.52(1), A195–A200 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Rivenson, A. Stern, and B. Javidi, “Overview of compressive sensing techniques applied in holography [Invited],” Appl. Opt.52(1), A423–A432 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (13)

S. Pang, C. Han, M. Kato, P. W. Sternberg, and C. Yang, “Wide and scalable field-of-view Talbot-grid-based fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett.37(23), 5018–5020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Memmolo, M. Iannone, M. Ventre, P. A. Netti, A. Finizio, M. Paturzo, and P. Ferraro, “On the holographic 3D tracking of in vitro cells characterized by a highly-morphological change,” Opt. Express20(27), 28485–28493 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Yu, M. Cross, C. Liu, D. C. Clark, D. T. Haynie, and M. K. Kim, “Measurement of the traction force of biological cells by digital holography,” Biomed. Opt. Express3(1), 153–159 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Greenbaum and A. Ozcan, “Maskless imaging of dense samples using pixel super-resolution based multi-height lensfree on-chip microscopy,” Opt. Express20(3), 3129–3143 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Garcia-Sucerquia, “Color lensless digital holographic microscopy with micrometer resolution,” Opt. Lett.37(10), 1724–1726 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Rivenson, A. Rot, S. Balber, A. Stern, and J. Rosen, “Recovery of partially occluded objects by applying compressive Fresnel holography,” Opt. Lett.37(10), 1757–1759 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. K. Kim, “Adaptive optics by incoherent digital holography,” Opt. Lett.37(13), 2694–2696 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Su, L. Xue, and A. Ozcan, “High-throughput lensfree 3D tracking of human sperms reveals rare statistics of helical trajectories,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.109(40), 16018–16022 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods9(9), 889–895 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Giga-pixel lensfree holographic microscopy and tomography using color image sensors,” PLoS ONE7(9), e45044 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Shaffer, N. Pavillon, and C. Depeursinge, “Single-shot, simultaneous incoherent and holographic microscopy,” J. Microsc.245(1), 49–62 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Jin, I. H. Yoo, S. P. Pack, J. W. Yang, U. H. Ha, S. H. Paek, and S. Seo, “Lens-free shadow image based high-throughput continuous cell monitoring technique,” Biosens. Bioelectron.38(1), 126–131 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Greenbaum, U. Sikora, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable wide-field microscopy of dense samples using multi-height pixel super-resolution based lensfree imaging,” Lab Chip12(7), 1242–1245 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (8)

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, L. Millet, M. Mir, H. Ding, S. Unarunotai, J. Rogers, M. U. Gillette, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference microscopy (SLIM),” Opt. Express19(2), 1016–1026 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Paturzo, A. Finizio, and P. Ferraro, “Simultaneous multiplane imaging in digital holographic microscopy,” J. Display Technol.7(1), 24–28 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, F. Zhang, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Superresolution imaging via ptychography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A28(4), 604–612 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Hahn, S. Lim, K. Choi, R. Horisaki, and D. J. Brady, “Video-rate compressive holographic microscopic tomography,” Opt. Express19(8), 7289–7298 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, D. L. Marks, P. S. Carney, L. J. Millet, M. U. Gillette, A. Mihi, P. V. Braun, Z. Shen, S. G. Prasanth, and G. Popescu, “Spatial light interference tomography (SLIT),” Opt. Express19(21), 19907–19918 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Xia, Y. Shimozato, Y. Ito, T. Tahara, T. Kakue, Y. Awatsuji, K. Nishio, S. Ura, T. Kubota, and O. Matoba, “Improvement of color reproduction in color digital holography by using spectral estimation technique,” Appl. Opt.50(34), H177–H182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (12)

M. Paturzo, F. Merola, and P. Ferraro, “Multi-imaging capabilities of a 2D diffraction grating in combination with digital holography,” Opt. Lett.35(7), 1010–1012 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kikuchi, D. Barada, T. Kiire, and T. Yatagai, “Doppler phase-shifting digital holography and its application to surface shape measurement,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1548–1550 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Bishara, T. W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Waller, L. Tian, and G. Barbastathis, “Transport of Intensity phase-amplitude imaging with higher order intensity derivatives,” Opt. Express18(12), 12552–12561 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Choi, R. Horisaki, J. Hahn, S. Lim, D. L. Marks, T. J. Schulz, and D. J. Brady, “Compressive holography of diffuse objects,” Appl. Opt.49(34), H1–H10 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Maiden, J. M. Rodenburg, and M. J. Humphry, “Optical ptychography: a practical implementation with useful resolution,” Opt. Lett.35(15), 2585–2587 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pang, X. Cui, J. DeModena, Y. M. Wang, P. Sternberg, and C. Yang, “Implementation of a color-capable optofluidic microscope on a RGB CMOS color sensor chip substrate,” Lab Chip10(4), 411–414 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. W. Su, A. Erlinger, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Compact and light-weight automated semen analysis platform using lensfree on-chip microscopy,” Anal. Chem.82(19), 8307–8312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, and A. Ozcan, “Color and monochrome lensless on-chip imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans over a wide field-of-view,” Lab Chip10(9), 1109–1112 (2010).
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Z. Göröcs, L. Orzó, M. Kiss, V. Tóth, and S. Tőkés, “In-line color digital holographic microscope for water quality measurements,” Proc. SPIE7376, 737614, 737614-10 (2010).
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2009 (4)

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A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Space-bandwidth conditions for efficient phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A25(3), 736–741 (2008).
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X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
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H. Toge, H. Fujiwara, and K. Sato, “One-shot digital holography for recording color 3-D images,” Proc. SPIE6912, 69120U, 69120U-8 (2008).
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2007 (1)

M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, J. Jeronimo, A. C. Rodriguez, and S. Wacholder, “Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer,” Lancet370(9590), 890–907 (2007).
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2006 (6)

S. Farsiu, M. Elad, and P. Milanfar, “Multiframe demosaicing and super-resolution of color images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.15(1), 141–159 (2006).
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L. Yatziv and G. Sapiro, “Fast image and video colorization using chrominance blending,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.15(5), 1120–1129 (2006).
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E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
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2005 (3)

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A. Levin, D. Lischinski, and Y. Weiss, “Colorization using optimization,” ACM Trans. Graph.23(3), 689–694 (2004).
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2003 (2)

2002 (3)

2001 (3)

M. Elad and Y. Hel-Or, “A fast super-resolution reconstruction algorithm for pure translational motion and common space-invariant blur,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.10(8), 1187–1193 (2001).
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1998 (1)

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Almoro, P.

Armstrong, E. E.

R. C. Hardie, K. J. Barnard, J. G. Bognar, E. E. Armstrong, and E. A. Watson, “High resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of rotated and translated frames and its application to an infrared imaging system,” Opt. Eng.37(1), 247 (1998).
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E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
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Bishara, W.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
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W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
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S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, and A. Ozcan, “Color and monochrome lensless on-chip imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans over a wide field-of-view,” Lab Chip10(9), 1109–1112 (2010).
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O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
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W. Bishara, T. W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
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S. R. P. Pavani, M. A. Thompson, J. S. Biteen, S. J. Lord, N. Liu, R. J. Twieg, R. Piestun, and W. E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional, single-molecule fluorescence imaging beyond the diffraction limit by using a double-helix point spread function,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(9), 2995–2999 (2009).
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R. C. Hardie, K. J. Barnard, J. G. Bognar, E. E. Armstrong, and E. A. Watson, “High resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of rotated and translated frames and its application to an infrared imaging system,” Opt. Eng.37(1), 247 (1998).
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E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
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J. Rosen and G. Brooker, “Non-scanning motionless fluorescence three-dimensional holographic microscopy,” Nat. Photonics2(3), 190–195 (2008).
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M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, J. Jeronimo, A. C. Rodriguez, and S. Wacholder, “Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer,” Lancet370(9590), 890–907 (2007).
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Clark, D. C.

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O. Mudanyali, E. McLeod, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. F. Coskun, Y. Hennequin, C. Allier, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field optical detection of nano-particles using on-chip microscopy and self-assembled nano-lenses,” Nat. Photonics7, 247–254 (2013).

A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods9(9), 889–895 (2012).
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S. O. Isikman, A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Giga-pixel lensfree holographic microscopy and tomography using color image sensors,” PLoS ONE7(9), e45044 (2012).
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W. Bishara, T. W. Su, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Lensfree on-chip microscopy over a wide field-of-view using pixel super-resolution,” Opt. Express18(11), 11181–11191 (2010).
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S. Pang, X. Cui, J. DeModena, Y. M. Wang, P. Sternberg, and C. Yang, “Implementation of a color-capable optofluidic microscope on a RGB CMOS color sensor chip substrate,” Lab Chip10(4), 411–414 (2010).
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X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
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E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
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DeModena, J.

S. Pang, X. Cui, J. DeModena, Y. M. Wang, P. Sternberg, and C. Yang, “Implementation of a color-capable optofluidic microscope on a RGB CMOS color sensor chip substrate,” Lab Chip10(4), 411–414 (2010).
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S. Farsiu, M. Elad, and P. Milanfar, “Multiframe demosaicing and super-resolution of color images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.15(1), 141–159 (2006).
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M. Elad and Y. Hel-Or, “A fast super-resolution reconstruction algorithm for pure translational motion and common space-invariant blur,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.10(8), 1187–1193 (2001).
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Erlinger, A.

T. W. Su, A. Erlinger, D. Tseng, and A. Ozcan, “Compact and light-weight automated semen analysis platform using lensfree on-chip microscopy,” Anal. Chem.82(19), 8307–8312 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, C. Oztoprak, D. Tseng, A. Erlinger, and A. Ozcan, “Detection of waterborne parasites using field-portable and cost-effective lensfree microscopy,” Lab Chip10(18), 2419–2423 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Farsiu, S.

S. Farsiu, M. Elad, and P. Milanfar, “Multiframe demosaicing and super-resolution of color images,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.15(1), 141–159 (2006).
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S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
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Finizio, A.

Fujiwara, H.

H. Toge, H. Fujiwara, and K. Sato, “One-shot digital holography for recording color 3-D images,” Proc. SPIE6912, 69120U, 69120U-8 (2008).
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Gillette, M. U.

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A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods9(9), 889–895 (2012).
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Z. Göröcs, L. Orzó, M. Kiss, V. Tóth, and S. Tőkés, “In-line color digital holographic microscope for water quality measurements,” Proc. SPIE7376, 737614, 737614-10 (2010).
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Greenbaum, A.

O. Mudanyali, E. McLeod, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. F. Coskun, Y. Hennequin, C. Allier, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field optical detection of nano-particles using on-chip microscopy and self-assembled nano-lenses,” Nat. Photonics7, 247–254 (2013).

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A. Greenbaum, U. Sikora, and A. Ozcan, “Field-portable wide-field microscopy of dense samples using multi-height pixel super-resolution based lensfree imaging,” Lab Chip12(7), 1242–1245 (2012).
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S. O. Isikman, A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Giga-pixel lensfree holographic microscopy and tomography using color image sensors,” PLoS ONE7(9), e45044 (2012).
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M. G. L. Gustafsson, “Nonlinear structured-illumination microscopy: wide-field fluorescence imaging with theoretically unlimited resolution,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.102(37), 13081–13086 (2005).
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G. Jin, I. H. Yoo, S. P. Pack, J. W. Yang, U. H. Ha, S. H. Paek, and S. Seo, “Lens-free shadow image based high-throughput continuous cell monitoring technique,” Biosens. Bioelectron.38(1), 126–131 (2012).
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Han, C.

Hardie, R. C.

R. C. Hardie, K. J. Barnard, J. G. Bognar, E. E. Armstrong, and E. A. Watson, “High resolution image reconstruction from a sequence of rotated and translated frames and its application to an infrared imaging system,” Opt. Eng.37(1), 247 (1998).
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Hel-Or, Y.

M. Elad and Y. Hel-Or, “A fast super-resolution reconstruction algorithm for pure translational motion and common space-invariant blur,” IEEE Trans. Image Process.10(8), 1187–1193 (2001).
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Heng, X.

X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
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O. Mudanyali, E. McLeod, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. F. Coskun, Y. Hennequin, C. Allier, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field optical detection of nano-particles using on-chip microscopy and self-assembled nano-lenses,” Nat. Photonics7, 247–254 (2013).

Hess, H. F.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
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Horisaki, R.

Hsieh, C. L.

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S. O. Isikman, A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, A. F. Coskun, and A. Ozcan, “Giga-pixel lensfree holographic microscopy and tomography using color image sensors,” PLoS ONE7(9), e45044 (2012).
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A. Greenbaum, W. Luo, T. W. Su, Z. Göröcs, L. Xue, S. O. Isikman, A. F. Coskun, O. Mudanyali, and A. Ozcan, “Imaging without lenses: achievements and remaining challenges of wide-field on-chip microscopy,” Nat. Methods9(9), 889–895 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Mudanyali, D. Tseng, C. Oh, S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, S. Seo, B. Khademhosseini, and A. Ozcan, “Compact, light-weight and cost-effective microscope based on lensless incoherent holography for telemedicine applications,” Lab Chip10(11), 1417–1428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. O. Isikman, I. Sencan, O. Mudanyali, W. Bishara, C. Oztoprak, and A. Ozcan, “Color and monochrome lensless on-chip imaging of Caenorhabditis elegans over a wide field-of-view,” Lab Chip10(9), 1109–1112 (2010).
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Javidi, B.

Jericho, M. H.

Jericho, S. K.

Jeronimo, J.

M. Schiffman, P. E. Castle, J. Jeronimo, A. C. Rodriguez, and S. Wacholder, “Human papillomavirus and cervical cancer,” Lancet370(9590), 890–907 (2007).
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Jin, G.

G. Jin, I. H. Yoo, S. P. Pack, J. W. Yang, U. H. Ha, S. H. Paek, and S. Seo, “Lens-free shadow image based high-throughput continuous cell monitoring technique,” Biosens. Bioelectron.38(1), 126–131 (2012).
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Kikuchi, Y.

Kim, M. K.

Kiss, M.

Z. Göröcs, L. Orzó, M. Kiss, V. Tóth, and S. Tőkés, “In-line color digital holographic microscope for water quality measurements,” Proc. SPIE7376, 737614, 737614-10 (2010).
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Klages, P.

Kreuzer, H. J.

Kubota, T.

Lai, G.

Lau, R.

S. O. Isikman, W. Bishara, S. Mavandadi, F. W. Yu, S. Feng, R. Lau, and A. Ozcan, “Lens-free optical tomographic microscope with a large imaging volume on a chip,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.108(18), 7296–7301 (2011).
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Lee, L. M.

X. Cui, L. M. Lee, X. Heng, W. Zhong, P. W. Sternberg, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, “Lensless high-resolution on-chip optofluidic microscopes for Caenorhabditis elegans and cell imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.105(31), 10670–10675 (2008).
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A. Levin, D. Lischinski, and Y. Weiss, “Colorization using optimization,” ACM Trans. Graph.23(3), 689–694 (2004).
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Lindwasser, O. W.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
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Lippincott-Schwartz, J.

E. Betzig, G. H. Patterson, R. Sougrat, O. W. Lindwasser, S. Olenych, J. S. Bonifacino, M. W. Davidson, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, and H. F. Hess, “Imaging intracellular fluorescent proteins at nanometer resolution,” Science313(5793), 1642–1645 (2006).
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Lischinski, D.

A. Levin, D. Lischinski, and Y. Weiss, “Colorization using optimization,” ACM Trans. Graph.23(3), 689–694 (2004).
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Liu, N.

S. R. P. Pavani, M. A. Thompson, J. S. Biteen, S. J. Lord, N. Liu, R. J. Twieg, R. Piestun, and W. E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional, single-molecule fluorescence imaging beyond the diffraction limit by using a double-helix point spread function,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(9), 2995–2999 (2009).
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Lord, S. J.

S. R. P. Pavani, M. A. Thompson, J. S. Biteen, S. J. Lord, N. Liu, R. J. Twieg, R. Piestun, and W. E. Moerner, “Three-dimensional, single-molecule fluorescence imaging beyond the diffraction limit by using a double-helix point spread function,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.106(9), 2995–2999 (2009).
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Luckhart, S.

W. Bishara, U. Sikora, O. Mudanyali, T. W. Su, O. Yaglidere, S. Luckhart, and A. Ozcan, “Holographic pixel super-resolution in portable lensless on-chip microscopy using a fiber-optic array,” Lab Chip11(7), 1276–1279 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luo, W.

O. Mudanyali, E. McLeod, W. Luo, A. Greenbaum, A. F. Coskun, Y. Hennequin, C. Allier, and A. Ozcan, “Wide-field optical detection of nano-particles using on-chip microscopy and self-assembled nano-lenses,” Nat. Photonics7, 247–254 (2013).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Lens-free color on-chip imaging set-up. A monochromator that is coupled to a multi-mode fiber (0.1 mm core size) serves as the light source. In this geometry, an optoelectronic image sensor (pixel-pitch of 1.12 μm) samples an in-line hologram over the active area of the image sensor. Since Z1 >> Z2 the FOV of the reconstructed image equals to the entire active area of the sensor chip. To improve the spatial resolution of this lens-free color microscope, pixel super resolution is implemented by shifting the source (see the upper left inset). Furthermore, multi-height phase-recovery is implemented by acquiring pixel super-resolved holograms at different object-to-sensor distances (i.e., by varying Z2). Raw color images are obtained by sequential acquisition of red, green and blue in-line holograms.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) A lens-free color image that was created by three high-resolution reconstructed holograms, where each hologram was acquired with a different illumination wavelength (λ = 460 nm, 530 nm and 630 nm). The ‘rainbow’ color artifact is evident. (b) Object-support based phase-recovery was applied on each of the three high-resolution holograms, and then the resulting super-resolved images were combined into one RGB color image, where the ‘rainbow’ color artifact is still apparent. (c) The result of colorization method #1 (YUV color space averaging). (d) The result of colorization method #2 that is based on Dijkstra’s shortest path. For both (c) and (d), the ‘rainbow’ color artifact is clearly eliminated, while the spatial resolution is maintained. (e) A 20 × objective (0.5 NA) microscope image of the same sample.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The computational flowchart for acquiring and obtaining a high-resolution (i.e., pixel super-resolved) gray scale image using a single illumination wavelength (λ = 530 nm). (b) The computational flowchart for acquiring and obtaining one lower-resolution color image. This RGB image is then converted into YUV color space, where the color or chrominance channels (UV) are averaged. (c) The high-resolution brightness component from (a) is added to the averaged color components (UV) in (b), and the resulting image is converted into RGB color space to obtain a high-resolution lens-free color image, which provides decent color reproduction without sacrificing spatial resolution.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

A block-diagram that describes the computational steps that are preformed in the colorization approach (method #2) based on Dijkstra’s shortest path algorithm. This process automatically assigns color patches, which are later propagated to the entire image FOV.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) A lens-free amplitude image of a 1951 USAF resolution test chart, which was acquired using the computational flowchart described in Fig. 3. In this experiment, three high-resolution holograms at different heights (Z2 = 270 μm, 392 μm and 440 μm) were recorded. (b) Zoomed in region of (a) reveals that the entire USAF test chart was resolved. The third element in-group nine corresponds to a grating with a line width of ~0.78 μm. (c), (d) Cross-sections of the vertical and horizontal gratings of element three in group nine, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wide FOV (~14 mm2) lens-free color image of a Pap smear sample (ThinPrep® preparation [75]). The color image was obtained using colorization method #1, i.e., averaging in the YUV color space. Three digitally zoomed in regions are provided and are compared to 10 × objective lens (0.25 NA) microscope images. To mitigate the twin image noise three heights (Z2 = 449 μm, 550 μm and 592 μm) were used for multi-height phase-recovery. The large blue spots are permanent marker spots that were scribed on the sample for 2D mapping and image comparison purposes.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

A comparison between the YUV color space averaging method (#1) and the method (#2) that is based on Dijkstra’s shortest path. The yellow arrows indicate locations where the YUV color space-averaging method successfully colorized the image, while the Dijkstra’s shortest path based algorithm was less successful for the same arrow locations. A confluent region and a sparse region of the Pap smear sample are shown in (a) and (b), respectively.

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