Abstract

We demonstrate the first Tm-doped yttria planar waveguide laser to our knowledge, grown by pulsed laser deposition. A maximum output power of 35 mW at 1.95 μm with 9% slope efficiency was achieved from a 12 μm-thick film grown on a Y3Al5O12 substrate.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. J. I. Mackenzie, C. Li, D. P. Shepherd, R. J. Beach, and S. C. Mitchell, “Modeling of high-power continuous-wave Tm:YAG side-pumped double-clad waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38, 222–230 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. Fornasiero, N. Berner, B.-M. Dicks, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable laser emission from Tm:Y2O3and Tm:Sc2O3at 2 μm,” in Advanced Solid State LasersM. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1999), paper WD5.
  3. V. Peters, A. Bolz, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Growth of high-melting sesquioxides by the heat exchanger method,” J. Cryst. Growth237–239879–883 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, and M. Pollnau, “Single-transverse-mode Ti:sapphire rib waveguide laser,” Opt. Express13, 210–215 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. Grivas, T. C. May-Smith, D. P. Shepherd, and R. W. Eason, “Laser operation of a low loss (0.1 dBcm−1) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12thick (40 μm) planar waveguide grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.229, 355–361 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  6. T. Gun, A. Kahn, B. Ileri, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Two-dimensional growth of lattice matched Nd-doped (Gd,Lu)2O3films on Y2O3by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 053108 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. R. Smith, J. B. Gruber, P. Wellenius, J. F. Muth, and H. O. Everitt, “Spectra and energy levels of Eu3+in cubic phase Gd2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi B, 247, 1807–1813 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. P. B. W. Burmester, G. Huber, M. Kurfiss, and M. Schilling, “Crystalline growth of cubic (Eu, Nd):Y2O3thin films on α-Al2O3,” Appl. Phys. A.80, 627–360 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Huignard, A. Aron, P. Aschehoug, B. Viana, J. Théry, A. Laurent, and J. Perrière, “Growth by laser ablation of Y2O3and Tm:Y2O3thin films for optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem.10, 549–554 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Zhang and R. Xiao, “Yttrium oxide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.83, 3842–3848 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Kahn, S. Heinrich, H. Kühn, K. Petermann, J. D. B. Bradley, K. Wörhoff, M. Pollnau, and G. Huber, “Low threshold monocrystalline Nd:(Gd, Lu)2O3channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express17,(6) 4112–4118 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Kühn, S. Heinrich, A. Kahn, K. Petermann, J. D. B. Bradley, K. Wörhoff, M. Pollnau, and G. Huber, “Monocrystalline Yb3+:(Gd,Lu)2O3channel waveguide laser at 976.8 nm,” Opt. Lett.34, 2718–2720 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. C. May-Smith, A. C. Muir, M. S. B. Darby, and R. W. Eason, “Design and performance of a ZnSe tetra-prism for homogeneous substrate heating using a CO2laser for pulsed laser deposition experiments,” Appl. Optics47, 1767–1780 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. O. Pons-Y-Moll, J. Perrier, E. Millon, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, B. Vincent, A. Essahlaoui, A. Boudrioua, and W. Seiler, “Structural and optical properties of rare-earth-doped Y2O3waveguides grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 4885–4890 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Guyot, R. Moncorgé, L. D. Merkle, A. Pinto, B. McIntosh, and H. Verdun, “Luminescence properties of Y2O3single crystals doped with Pr3+or Tm3+and codoped with Yb3+, Tb3+or Ho3+ions,” Opt. Mater.5, 127–136 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. A. Anderson, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Low loss (0.5 dB/cm) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide layers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.183–186 (1997).
  22. F. S. Ermeneux, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, R. L. Hutcheson, and R. Moncorge, “Efficient CW 2 μm Tm3+:Y2O3 Laser,” in Advanced Solid State LasersM. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds.(Optical Society of America, 1999), paper TuB8.
  23. J. R. Salcedo, J. M. Sousa, and V. V. Kuzmin, “Theoretical treatment of relaxation oscillations in quasi-three-level systems,” Appl. Phys. B62, 83–85 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

A. K. Singh, T. R. G. Kutty, and S. Sinha, “Pulsed laser deposition of corrosion protective Yttrium Oxide (Y2O3) coating,” J. Nucl. Mater.420, 374–381 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

E. R. Smith, J. B. Gruber, P. Wellenius, J. F. Muth, and H. O. Everitt, “Spectra and energy levels of Eu3+in cubic phase Gd2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi B, 247, 1807–1813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

T. C. May-Smith, A. C. Muir, M. S. B. Darby, and R. W. Eason, “Design and performance of a ZnSe tetra-prism for homogeneous substrate heating using a CO2laser for pulsed laser deposition experiments,” Appl. Optics47, 1767–1780 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Gun, A. Kahn, B. Ileri, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Two-dimensional growth of lattice matched Nd-doped (Gd,Lu)2O3films on Y2O3by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 053108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

P. B. W. Burmester, G. Huber, M. Kurfiss, and M. Schilling, “Crystalline growth of cubic (Eu, Nd):Y2O3thin films on α-Al2O3,” Appl. Phys. A.80, 627–360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, and M. Pollnau, “Single-transverse-mode Ti:sapphire rib waveguide laser,” Opt. Express13, 210–215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

C. Grivas, T. C. May-Smith, D. P. Shepherd, and R. W. Eason, “Laser operation of a low loss (0.1 dBcm−1) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12thick (40 μm) planar waveguide grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.229, 355–361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

J. I. Mackenzie, C. Li, D. P. Shepherd, R. J. Beach, and S. C. Mitchell, “Modeling of high-power continuous-wave Tm:YAG side-pumped double-clad waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38, 222–230 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. Peters, A. Bolz, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Growth of high-melting sesquioxides by the heat exchanger method,” J. Cryst. Growth237–239879–883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Pons-Y-Moll, J. Perrier, E. Millon, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, B. Vincent, A. Essahlaoui, A. Boudrioua, and W. Seiler, “Structural and optical properties of rare-earth-doped Y2O3waveguides grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 4885–4890 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

S. J. Barrington, T. Bhutta, D. P. Shepherd, and R. W. Eason, “The effect of particulate density on performance of Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide lasers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.185, 145–152 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Huignard, A. Aron, P. Aschehoug, B. Viana, J. Théry, A. Laurent, and J. Perrière, “Growth by laser ablation of Y2O3and Tm:Y2O3thin films for optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem.10, 549–554 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

A. A. Anderson, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Low loss (0.5 dB/cm) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide layers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.183–186 (1997).

1996 (2)

J. R. Salcedo, J. M. Sousa, and V. V. Kuzmin, “Theoretical treatment of relaxation oscillations in quasi-three-level systems,” Appl. Phys. B62, 83–85 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Guyot, R. Moncorgé, L. D. Merkle, A. Pinto, B. McIntosh, and H. Verdun, “Luminescence properties of Y2O3single crystals doped with Pr3+or Tm3+and codoped with Yb3+, Tb3+or Ho3+ions,” Opt. Mater.5, 127–136 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, A. A.

A. A. Anderson, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Low loss (0.5 dB/cm) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide layers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.183–186 (1997).

Aron, A.

A. Huignard, A. Aron, P. Aschehoug, B. Viana, J. Théry, A. Laurent, and J. Perrière, “Growth by laser ablation of Y2O3and Tm:Y2O3thin films for optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem.10, 549–554 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aschehoug, P.

A. Huignard, A. Aron, P. Aschehoug, B. Viana, J. Théry, A. Laurent, and J. Perrière, “Growth by laser ablation of Y2O3and Tm:Y2O3thin films for optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem.10, 549–554 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Barrington, S. J.

S. J. Barrington, T. Bhutta, D. P. Shepherd, and R. W. Eason, “The effect of particulate density on performance of Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide lasers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.185, 145–152 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Beach, R. J.

J. I. Mackenzie, C. Li, D. P. Shepherd, R. J. Beach, and S. C. Mitchell, “Modeling of high-power continuous-wave Tm:YAG side-pumped double-clad waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38, 222–230 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Berner, N.

L. Fornasiero, N. Berner, B.-M. Dicks, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable laser emission from Tm:Y2O3and Tm:Sc2O3at 2 μm,” in Advanced Solid State LasersM. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1999), paper WD5.

Bhutta, T.

S. J. Barrington, T. Bhutta, D. P. Shepherd, and R. W. Eason, “The effect of particulate density on performance of Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide lasers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.185, 145–152 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bolz, A.

V. Peters, A. Bolz, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Growth of high-melting sesquioxides by the heat exchanger method,” J. Cryst. Growth237–239879–883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, C. L.

A. A. Anderson, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Low loss (0.5 dB/cm) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide layers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.183–186 (1997).

Boudrioua, A.

O. Pons-Y-Moll, J. Perrier, E. Millon, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, B. Vincent, A. Essahlaoui, A. Boudrioua, and W. Seiler, “Structural and optical properties of rare-earth-doped Y2O3waveguides grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 4885–4890 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, J. D. B.

Burmester, P. B. W.

P. B. W. Burmester, G. Huber, M. Kurfiss, and M. Schilling, “Crystalline growth of cubic (Eu, Nd):Y2O3thin films on α-Al2O3,” Appl. Phys. A.80, 627–360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cone, R. L.

F. S. Ermeneux, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, R. L. Hutcheson, and R. Moncorge, “Efficient CW 2 μm Tm3+:Y2O3 Laser,” in Advanced Solid State LasersM. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds.(Optical Society of America, 1999), paper TuB8.

Darby, M. S. B.

T. C. May-Smith, A. C. Muir, M. S. B. Darby, and R. W. Eason, “Design and performance of a ZnSe tetra-prism for homogeneous substrate heating using a CO2laser for pulsed laser deposition experiments,” Appl. Optics47, 1767–1780 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Defourneau, D.

O. Pons-Y-Moll, J. Perrier, E. Millon, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, B. Vincent, A. Essahlaoui, A. Boudrioua, and W. Seiler, “Structural and optical properties of rare-earth-doped Y2O3waveguides grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 4885–4890 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Defourneau, R. M.

O. Pons-Y-Moll, J. Perrier, E. Millon, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, B. Vincent, A. Essahlaoui, A. Boudrioua, and W. Seiler, “Structural and optical properties of rare-earth-doped Y2O3waveguides grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 4885–4890 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dicks, B.-M.

L. Fornasiero, N. Berner, B.-M. Dicks, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable laser emission from Tm:Y2O3and Tm:Sc2O3at 2 μm,” in Advanced Solid State LasersM. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1999), paper WD5.

Eason, R. W.

T. C. May-Smith, A. C. Muir, M. S. B. Darby, and R. W. Eason, “Design and performance of a ZnSe tetra-prism for homogeneous substrate heating using a CO2laser for pulsed laser deposition experiments,” Appl. Optics47, 1767–1780 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, and M. Pollnau, “Single-transverse-mode Ti:sapphire rib waveguide laser,” Opt. Express13, 210–215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grivas, T. C. May-Smith, D. P. Shepherd, and R. W. Eason, “Laser operation of a low loss (0.1 dBcm−1) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12thick (40 μm) planar waveguide grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.229, 355–361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Barrington, T. Bhutta, D. P. Shepherd, and R. W. Eason, “The effect of particulate density on performance of Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide lasers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.185, 145–152 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Anderson, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Low loss (0.5 dB/cm) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide layers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.183–186 (1997).

Equall, R. W.

F. S. Ermeneux, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, R. L. Hutcheson, and R. Moncorge, “Efficient CW 2 μm Tm3+:Y2O3 Laser,” in Advanced Solid State LasersM. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds.(Optical Society of America, 1999), paper TuB8.

Ermeneux, F. S.

F. S. Ermeneux, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, R. L. Hutcheson, and R. Moncorge, “Efficient CW 2 μm Tm3+:Y2O3 Laser,” in Advanced Solid State LasersM. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds.(Optical Society of America, 1999), paper TuB8.

Essahlaoui, A.

O. Pons-Y-Moll, J. Perrier, E. Millon, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, B. Vincent, A. Essahlaoui, A. Boudrioua, and W. Seiler, “Structural and optical properties of rare-earth-doped Y2O3waveguides grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 4885–4890 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Everitt, H. O.

E. R. Smith, J. B. Gruber, P. Wellenius, J. F. Muth, and H. O. Everitt, “Spectra and energy levels of Eu3+in cubic phase Gd2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi B, 247, 1807–1813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fornasiero, L.

L. Fornasiero, N. Berner, B.-M. Dicks, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable laser emission from Tm:Y2O3and Tm:Sc2O3at 2 μm,” in Advanced Solid State LasersM. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1999), paper WD5.

Gill, D. S.

A. A. Anderson, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Low loss (0.5 dB/cm) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide layers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.183–186 (1997).

Grivas, C.

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, and M. Pollnau, “Single-transverse-mode Ti:sapphire rib waveguide laser,” Opt. Express13, 210–215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grivas, T. C. May-Smith, D. P. Shepherd, and R. W. Eason, “Laser operation of a low loss (0.1 dBcm−1) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12thick (40 μm) planar waveguide grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.229, 355–361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Anderson, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Low loss (0.5 dB/cm) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide layers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.183–186 (1997).

Gruber, J. B.

E. R. Smith, J. B. Gruber, P. Wellenius, J. F. Muth, and H. O. Everitt, “Spectra and energy levels of Eu3+in cubic phase Gd2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi B, 247, 1807–1813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gun, T.

T. Gun, A. Kahn, B. Ileri, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Two-dimensional growth of lattice matched Nd-doped (Gd,Lu)2O3films on Y2O3by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 053108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guyot, Y.

Y. Guyot, R. Moncorgé, L. D. Merkle, A. Pinto, B. McIntosh, and H. Verdun, “Luminescence properties of Y2O3single crystals doped with Pr3+or Tm3+and codoped with Yb3+, Tb3+or Ho3+ions,” Opt. Mater.5, 127–136 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heinrich, S.

Huber, G.

A. Kahn, S. Heinrich, H. Kühn, K. Petermann, J. D. B. Bradley, K. Wörhoff, M. Pollnau, and G. Huber, “Low threshold monocrystalline Nd:(Gd, Lu)2O3channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express17,(6) 4112–4118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Kühn, S. Heinrich, A. Kahn, K. Petermann, J. D. B. Bradley, K. Wörhoff, M. Pollnau, and G. Huber, “Monocrystalline Yb3+:(Gd,Lu)2O3channel waveguide laser at 976.8 nm,” Opt. Lett.34, 2718–2720 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Gun, A. Kahn, B. Ileri, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Two-dimensional growth of lattice matched Nd-doped (Gd,Lu)2O3films on Y2O3by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 053108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. B. W. Burmester, G. Huber, M. Kurfiss, and M. Schilling, “Crystalline growth of cubic (Eu, Nd):Y2O3thin films on α-Al2O3,” Appl. Phys. A.80, 627–360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Peters, A. Bolz, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Growth of high-melting sesquioxides by the heat exchanger method,” J. Cryst. Growth237–239879–883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Fornasiero, N. Berner, B.-M. Dicks, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable laser emission from Tm:Y2O3and Tm:Sc2O3at 2 μm,” in Advanced Solid State LasersM. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1999), paper WD5.

Huignard, A.

A. Huignard, A. Aron, P. Aschehoug, B. Viana, J. Théry, A. Laurent, and J. Perrière, “Growth by laser ablation of Y2O3and Tm:Y2O3thin films for optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem.10, 549–554 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hutcheson, R. L.

F. S. Ermeneux, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, R. L. Hutcheson, and R. Moncorge, “Efficient CW 2 μm Tm3+:Y2O3 Laser,” in Advanced Solid State LasersM. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds.(Optical Society of America, 1999), paper TuB8.

Ileri, B.

T. Gun, A. Kahn, B. Ileri, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Two-dimensional growth of lattice matched Nd-doped (Gd,Lu)2O3films on Y2O3by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 053108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kahn, A.

Kühn, H.

Kurfiss, M.

P. B. W. Burmester, G. Huber, M. Kurfiss, and M. Schilling, “Crystalline growth of cubic (Eu, Nd):Y2O3thin films on α-Al2O3,” Appl. Phys. A.80, 627–360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kutty, T. R. G.

A. K. Singh, T. R. G. Kutty, and S. Sinha, “Pulsed laser deposition of corrosion protective Yttrium Oxide (Y2O3) coating,” J. Nucl. Mater.420, 374–381 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kuzmin, V. V.

J. R. Salcedo, J. M. Sousa, and V. V. Kuzmin, “Theoretical treatment of relaxation oscillations in quasi-three-level systems,” Appl. Phys. B62, 83–85 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Laurent, A.

A. Huignard, A. Aron, P. Aschehoug, B. Viana, J. Théry, A. Laurent, and J. Perrière, “Growth by laser ablation of Y2O3and Tm:Y2O3thin films for optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem.10, 549–554 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

J. I. Mackenzie, C. Li, D. P. Shepherd, R. J. Beach, and S. C. Mitchell, “Modeling of high-power continuous-wave Tm:YAG side-pumped double-clad waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38, 222–230 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mackenzie, J. I.

J. I. Mackenzie, C. Li, D. P. Shepherd, R. J. Beach, and S. C. Mitchell, “Modeling of high-power continuous-wave Tm:YAG side-pumped double-clad waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38, 222–230 (2002).
[CrossRef]

May-Smith, T. C.

T. C. May-Smith, A. C. Muir, M. S. B. Darby, and R. W. Eason, “Design and performance of a ZnSe tetra-prism for homogeneous substrate heating using a CO2laser for pulsed laser deposition experiments,” Appl. Optics47, 1767–1780 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, and M. Pollnau, “Single-transverse-mode Ti:sapphire rib waveguide laser,” Opt. Express13, 210–215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grivas, T. C. May-Smith, D. P. Shepherd, and R. W. Eason, “Laser operation of a low loss (0.1 dBcm−1) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12thick (40 μm) planar waveguide grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.229, 355–361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, B.

Y. Guyot, R. Moncorgé, L. D. Merkle, A. Pinto, B. McIntosh, and H. Verdun, “Luminescence properties of Y2O3single crystals doped with Pr3+or Tm3+and codoped with Yb3+, Tb3+or Ho3+ions,” Opt. Mater.5, 127–136 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Merkle, L. D.

Y. Guyot, R. Moncorgé, L. D. Merkle, A. Pinto, B. McIntosh, and H. Verdun, “Luminescence properties of Y2O3single crystals doped with Pr3+or Tm3+and codoped with Yb3+, Tb3+or Ho3+ions,” Opt. Mater.5, 127–136 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Millon, E.

O. Pons-Y-Moll, J. Perrier, E. Millon, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, B. Vincent, A. Essahlaoui, A. Boudrioua, and W. Seiler, “Structural and optical properties of rare-earth-doped Y2O3waveguides grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 4885–4890 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, S. C.

J. I. Mackenzie, C. Li, D. P. Shepherd, R. J. Beach, and S. C. Mitchell, “Modeling of high-power continuous-wave Tm:YAG side-pumped double-clad waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38, 222–230 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mix, E.

L. Fornasiero, N. Berner, B.-M. Dicks, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable laser emission from Tm:Y2O3and Tm:Sc2O3at 2 μm,” in Advanced Solid State LasersM. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1999), paper WD5.

Moncorge, R.

F. S. Ermeneux, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, R. L. Hutcheson, and R. Moncorge, “Efficient CW 2 μm Tm3+:Y2O3 Laser,” in Advanced Solid State LasersM. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds.(Optical Society of America, 1999), paper TuB8.

Moncorgé, R.

Y. Guyot, R. Moncorgé, L. D. Merkle, A. Pinto, B. McIntosh, and H. Verdun, “Luminescence properties of Y2O3single crystals doped with Pr3+or Tm3+and codoped with Yb3+, Tb3+or Ho3+ions,” Opt. Mater.5, 127–136 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Muir, A. C.

T. C. May-Smith, A. C. Muir, M. S. B. Darby, and R. W. Eason, “Design and performance of a ZnSe tetra-prism for homogeneous substrate heating using a CO2laser for pulsed laser deposition experiments,” Appl. Optics47, 1767–1780 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Muth, J. F.

E. R. Smith, J. B. Gruber, P. Wellenius, J. F. Muth, and H. O. Everitt, “Spectra and energy levels of Eu3+in cubic phase Gd2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi B, 247, 1807–1813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Page, R.

Perrier, J.

O. Pons-Y-Moll, J. Perrier, E. Millon, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, B. Vincent, A. Essahlaoui, A. Boudrioua, and W. Seiler, “Structural and optical properties of rare-earth-doped Y2O3waveguides grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 4885–4890 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Perrière, J.

A. Huignard, A. Aron, P. Aschehoug, B. Viana, J. Théry, A. Laurent, and J. Perrière, “Growth by laser ablation of Y2O3and Tm:Y2O3thin films for optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem.10, 549–554 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

A. Kahn, S. Heinrich, H. Kühn, K. Petermann, J. D. B. Bradley, K. Wörhoff, M. Pollnau, and G. Huber, “Low threshold monocrystalline Nd:(Gd, Lu)2O3channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express17,(6) 4112–4118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Kühn, S. Heinrich, A. Kahn, K. Petermann, J. D. B. Bradley, K. Wörhoff, M. Pollnau, and G. Huber, “Monocrystalline Yb3+:(Gd,Lu)2O3channel waveguide laser at 976.8 nm,” Opt. Lett.34, 2718–2720 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Gun, A. Kahn, B. Ileri, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Two-dimensional growth of lattice matched Nd-doped (Gd,Lu)2O3films on Y2O3by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 053108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Peters, A. Bolz, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Growth of high-melting sesquioxides by the heat exchanger method,” J. Cryst. Growth237–239879–883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Fornasiero, N. Berner, B.-M. Dicks, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable laser emission from Tm:Y2O3and Tm:Sc2O3at 2 μm,” in Advanced Solid State LasersM. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1999), paper WD5.

Peters, V.

V. Peters, A. Bolz, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Growth of high-melting sesquioxides by the heat exchanger method,” J. Cryst. Growth237–239879–883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Fornasiero, N. Berner, B.-M. Dicks, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable laser emission from Tm:Y2O3and Tm:Sc2O3at 2 μm,” in Advanced Solid State LasersM. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1999), paper WD5.

Pinto, A.

Y. Guyot, R. Moncorgé, L. D. Merkle, A. Pinto, B. McIntosh, and H. Verdun, “Luminescence properties of Y2O3single crystals doped with Pr3+or Tm3+and codoped with Yb3+, Tb3+or Ho3+ions,” Opt. Mater.5, 127–136 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

Pons-Y-Moll, O.

O. Pons-Y-Moll, J. Perrier, E. Millon, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, B. Vincent, A. Essahlaoui, A. Boudrioua, and W. Seiler, “Structural and optical properties of rare-earth-doped Y2O3waveguides grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 4885–4890 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rogala, E. W.

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and E. W. Rogala, “Properties of crystals and glasses,” in Handbook of Optics, 3rd editionM. Bass, ed. (McGraw Hill Professional, 2010).

Salcedo, J. R.

J. R. Salcedo, J. M. Sousa, and V. V. Kuzmin, “Theoretical treatment of relaxation oscillations in quasi-three-level systems,” Appl. Phys. B62, 83–85 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, M.

P. B. W. Burmester, G. Huber, M. Kurfiss, and M. Schilling, “Crystalline growth of cubic (Eu, Nd):Y2O3thin films on α-Al2O3,” Appl. Phys. A.80, 627–360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Seiler, W.

O. Pons-Y-Moll, J. Perrier, E. Millon, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, B. Vincent, A. Essahlaoui, A. Boudrioua, and W. Seiler, “Structural and optical properties of rare-earth-doped Y2O3waveguides grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 4885–4890 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, D. P.

C. Grivas, D. P. Shepherd, T. C. May-Smith, R. W. Eason, and M. Pollnau, “Single-transverse-mode Ti:sapphire rib waveguide laser,” Opt. Express13, 210–215 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Grivas, T. C. May-Smith, D. P. Shepherd, and R. W. Eason, “Laser operation of a low loss (0.1 dBcm−1) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12thick (40 μm) planar waveguide grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.229, 355–361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. I. Mackenzie, C. Li, D. P. Shepherd, R. J. Beach, and S. C. Mitchell, “Modeling of high-power continuous-wave Tm:YAG side-pumped double-clad waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38, 222–230 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Barrington, T. Bhutta, D. P. Shepherd, and R. W. Eason, “The effect of particulate density on performance of Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide lasers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.185, 145–152 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Anderson, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Low loss (0.5 dB/cm) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide layers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.183–186 (1997).

Singh, A. K.

A. K. Singh, T. R. G. Kutty, and S. Sinha, “Pulsed laser deposition of corrosion protective Yttrium Oxide (Y2O3) coating,” J. Nucl. Mater.420, 374–381 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sinha, S.

A. K. Singh, T. R. G. Kutty, and S. Sinha, “Pulsed laser deposition of corrosion protective Yttrium Oxide (Y2O3) coating,” J. Nucl. Mater.420, 374–381 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Small, D. L.

Smith, E. R.

E. R. Smith, J. B. Gruber, P. Wellenius, J. F. Muth, and H. O. Everitt, “Spectra and energy levels of Eu3+in cubic phase Gd2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi B, 247, 1807–1813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sousa, J. M.

J. R. Salcedo, J. M. Sousa, and V. V. Kuzmin, “Theoretical treatment of relaxation oscillations in quasi-three-level systems,” Appl. Phys. B62, 83–85 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

F. S. Ermeneux, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, R. L. Hutcheson, and R. Moncorge, “Efficient CW 2 μm Tm3+:Y2O3 Laser,” in Advanced Solid State LasersM. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds.(Optical Society of America, 1999), paper TuB8.

Théry, J.

A. Huignard, A. Aron, P. Aschehoug, B. Viana, J. Théry, A. Laurent, and J. Perrière, “Growth by laser ablation of Y2O3and Tm:Y2O3thin films for optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem.10, 549–554 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, M. E.

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and E. W. Rogala, “Properties of crystals and glasses,” in Handbook of Optics, 3rd editionM. Bass, ed. (McGraw Hill Professional, 2010).

Tropf, W. J.

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and E. W. Rogala, “Properties of crystals and glasses,” in Handbook of Optics, 3rd editionM. Bass, ed. (McGraw Hill Professional, 2010).

Vainos, N.

A. A. Anderson, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Low loss (0.5 dB/cm) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide layers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.183–186 (1997).

Verdun, H.

Y. Guyot, R. Moncorgé, L. D. Merkle, A. Pinto, B. McIntosh, and H. Verdun, “Luminescence properties of Y2O3single crystals doped with Pr3+or Tm3+and codoped with Yb3+, Tb3+or Ho3+ions,” Opt. Mater.5, 127–136 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Viana, B.

A. Huignard, A. Aron, P. Aschehoug, B. Viana, J. Théry, A. Laurent, and J. Perrière, “Growth by laser ablation of Y2O3and Tm:Y2O3thin films for optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem.10, 549–554 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, B.

O. Pons-Y-Moll, J. Perrier, E. Millon, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, B. Vincent, A. Essahlaoui, A. Boudrioua, and W. Seiler, “Structural and optical properties of rare-earth-doped Y2O3waveguides grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 4885–4890 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wellenius, P.

E. R. Smith, J. B. Gruber, P. Wellenius, J. F. Muth, and H. O. Everitt, “Spectra and energy levels of Eu3+in cubic phase Gd2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi B, 247, 1807–1813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wörhoff, K.

Xiao, R.

S. Zhang and R. Xiao, “Yttrium oxide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.83, 3842–3848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zelmon, D. E.

Zhang, S.

S. Zhang and R. Xiao, “Yttrium oxide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.83, 3842–3848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Optics (1)

T. C. May-Smith, A. C. Muir, M. S. B. Darby, and R. W. Eason, “Design and performance of a ZnSe tetra-prism for homogeneous substrate heating using a CO2laser for pulsed laser deposition experiments,” Appl. Optics47, 1767–1780 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A. (1)

P. B. W. Burmester, G. Huber, M. Kurfiss, and M. Schilling, “Crystalline growth of cubic (Eu, Nd):Y2O3thin films on α-Al2O3,” Appl. Phys. A.80, 627–360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. R. Salcedo, J. M. Sousa, and V. V. Kuzmin, “Theoretical treatment of relaxation oscillations in quasi-three-level systems,” Appl. Phys. B62, 83–85 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Gun, A. Kahn, B. Ileri, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Two-dimensional growth of lattice matched Nd-doped (Gd,Lu)2O3films on Y2O3by pulsed laser deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 053108 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. I. Mackenzie, C. Li, D. P. Shepherd, R. J. Beach, and S. C. Mitchell, “Modeling of high-power continuous-wave Tm:YAG side-pumped double-clad waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38, 222–230 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

O. Pons-Y-Moll, J. Perrier, E. Millon, R. M. Defourneau, D. Defourneau, B. Vincent, A. Essahlaoui, A. Boudrioua, and W. Seiler, “Structural and optical properties of rare-earth-doped Y2O3waveguides grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.92, 4885–4890 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhang and R. Xiao, “Yttrium oxide films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.83, 3842–3848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

V. Peters, A. Bolz, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Growth of high-melting sesquioxides by the heat exchanger method,” J. Cryst. Growth237–239879–883 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

A. Huignard, A. Aron, P. Aschehoug, B. Viana, J. Théry, A. Laurent, and J. Perrière, “Growth by laser ablation of Y2O3and Tm:Y2O3thin films for optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem.10, 549–554 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Nucl. Mater. (1)

A. K. Singh, T. R. G. Kutty, and S. Sinha, “Pulsed laser deposition of corrosion protective Yttrium Oxide (Y2O3) coating,” J. Nucl. Mater.420, 374–381 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

C. Grivas, T. C. May-Smith, D. P. Shepherd, and R. W. Eason, “Laser operation of a low loss (0.1 dBcm−1) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12thick (40 μm) planar waveguide grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.229, 355–361 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Barrington, T. Bhutta, D. P. Shepherd, and R. W. Eason, “The effect of particulate density on performance of Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide lasers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.185, 145–152 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Anderson, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, R. W. Eason, C. Grivas, D. S. Gill, and N. Vainos, “Low loss (0.5 dB/cm) Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 waveguide layers grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Opt. Commun.183–186 (1997).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

Y. Guyot, R. Moncorgé, L. D. Merkle, A. Pinto, B. McIntosh, and H. Verdun, “Luminescence properties of Y2O3single crystals doped with Pr3+or Tm3+and codoped with Yb3+, Tb3+or Ho3+ions,” Opt. Mater.5, 127–136 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

E. R. Smith, J. B. Gruber, P. Wellenius, J. F. Muth, and H. O. Everitt, “Spectra and energy levels of Eu3+in cubic phase Gd2O3,” Phys. Status Solidi B, 247, 1807–1813 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

L. Fornasiero, N. Berner, B.-M. Dicks, E. Mix, V. Peters, K. Petermann, and G. Huber, “Broadly tunable laser emission from Tm:Y2O3and Tm:Sc2O3at 2 μm,” in Advanced Solid State LasersM. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds. (Optical Society of America, 1999), paper WD5.

“Inorganic Crystal Structure Database,” http://icsd.cds.rsc.org/

W. J. Tropf, M. E. Thomas, and E. W. Rogala, “Properties of crystals and glasses,” in Handbook of Optics, 3rd editionM. Bass, ed. (McGraw Hill Professional, 2010).

F. S. Ermeneux, Y. Sun, R. L. Cone, R. W. Equall, R. L. Hutcheson, and R. Moncorge, “Efficient CW 2 μm Tm3+:Y2O3 Laser,” in Advanced Solid State LasersM. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds.(Optical Society of America, 1999), paper TuB8.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of experimental setup, including UV ablating and IR heating laser beams.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

XRD spectra of (a) the 12 μm-thick Tm3+:Y2O3 waveguide and (b) a 50 nm-thick Tm3+:Y2O3 film. Very small peaks corresponding to growth in orientations other than the primary (222) and (444) orientation can be observed, particularly in case (a). Unassigned film peaks are observed around 26.4° (A) and 17.6° (E). Peaks arising from substrate contributions may also be observed: peaks labelled B and C may correspond to orientations of cubic yttria, while peaks D, F and G likely correspond to orientations of YAlO3.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured variation in absorption coefficient of the Tm:Y2O3 film with wavelength (black), with previously reported absorption cross section data for bulk crystal [22] shown for comparison (red).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured fluorescence emission spectrum of the Tm3+:Y2O3 waveguide (black), with data previously observed for bulk crystal [20] shown for comparison (red).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Setup of the Tm3+:Y2O3 waveguide lasing experiments. Abbreviations are as follows: MM – metal mirror; L1 – in-plane collimating cylindrical lens; L2 – aspheric lens; IC – input coupling mirror; OC – interchangeable output coupling mirror; L3 – collection lens.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Laser output power versus incident pump power for configuration (a) collimated in-plane pump (aspheric and cylindrical coupling lenses), and (b) diverging in-plane pump (single aspheric coupling lens).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Round trip cavity losses as determined via the measured relaxation oscillations

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

γ = ln ( P out P in ( 1 R ) 2 ) / l w
ω RO 2 = γ c γ τ ( 1 + N σ a l c n γ c ) ( P p P p t h 1 )
L = 1 1 R in R out exp ( 2 γ c l opt c )

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