Abstract

We report on the detection of high-contrast and narrow Coherent Population Trapping (CPT) Ramsey fringes in a Cs vapor cell using a simple-architecture laser system. The latter allows the combination of push-pull optical pumping (PPOP) and a temporal Ramsey-like pulsed interrogation. An originality of the optics package is the use of a single Mach-Zehnder electro-optic modulator (MZ EOM) both for optical sidebands generation and light switch for pulsed interaction. Typical Ramsey fringes with a linewidth of 166 Hz and a contrast of 33 % are detected in a cm-scale buffer-gas filled Cs vapor cell. This technique could be interesting for the development of high-performance and low power consumption compact vapor cell clocks based on CPT.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review”, Appl. Phys. B Lasers Opt.81, 421–442 (2005).
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  2. S. Knappe, “Emerging topics: MEMS Atomic Clocks,” Comp. Microsys.3, 571–612 (2007).
  3. Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Pull-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(16), 160802 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark line resonances on the D1line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Letters80(4), 236–240 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Zanon, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High Contrast Ramsey Fringes with Coherent-Population-Trapping Pulses in a Double Lambda Atomic System,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 193002 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett.82, 398–403 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. I. Yudin, A. V. Taichenachev, D. I. Sevostianov, V. L. Velichansky, V. V. Vasiliev, A. A. Zibrov, A. S. Zibrov, and S. A. Zibrov, “Feedback spectroscopy of atomic resonances,” arXiv:1301.7305 [physics.atom-ph] (2013).
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    [CrossRef]
  9. N. F. Ramsey, “A Molecular Beam Resonance Method with Separated Oscillating Fields,” Phys. Rev.78, 695 (1950).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, C. Ezekiel, C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, “Observation of Ramsey Fringes Using a Stimulated, Resonance Raman Transition in a Sodium Atomic Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.48, 867 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Godone, S. Micalizio, F. Levi, and C. Calosso, “Physics characterization and frequency stability of the pulsed rubidium maser,” Phys. Rev. A74, 043401 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  12. N. Castagna, R. Boudot, S. Guérandel, E. De Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Investigations on continuous and pulsed interrogation for a CPT atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelec. Freq. Contr.56(2), 246–253 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Boudot, S. Guérandel, E. De Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Current status of a pulsed CPT Cs cell clock,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.58(4), 1217–1222 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. X. Esnault, J. Kitching, and E. Donley, “A compact cold-atom frequency standard based on coherent population trapping,” Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IFCS), Baltimore, MD, USA, 697–699 (2012).
  15. S. H. Yim, T. H. Yoon, and D. Cho, “Polarization orthogonalizer for a pair of laser beams with nearly equal frequencies,” Rev. Sci. Instr.79, 126104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Yun, B. Tan, W. Deng, and S. Gu, “High coherent bi-chromatic laser with gigahertz splitting produced by the high diffraction orders of acousto-optic modulator used for coherent population trapping experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instr.82, 123104 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. Zhang, S. Qu, and S. Gu, “Spin-polarized dark state free CPT state preparation with co-propagating left and right circularly polarized lasers,” Opt. Exp.20(6), 6400–6405 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Yun, Y. Zhang, G. Liu, W. Deng, L. You, and S. Gu, “Multipulse Ramsey-CPT interference fringes for the 87Rb clock transition,” EPL97, 63004 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. X. Liu, J. M. Merolla, S. Guérandel, C. Gorecki, E. De Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Coherent population trapping resonances in buffer gas-filled Cs vapor cells with push-pull optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. A87, 013416 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  20. X. Liu and R. Boudot, “A distributed-feedback diode laser frequency stabilized on Doppler-free Cs D1line,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.61(10), 2852–2855 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Y. Liao, H. Zhou, and Z. Meng, “Modulation efficiency of a LiNbO3waveguide electro-optic intensity modulator operating at high microwave frequency,” Opt. Lett.34(12), 1822–1824 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. F. Liu, C. Wang, L. Li, and L. Chen, “Long-term and wideband laser intensity stabilization with an electro-optic amplitude modulator,” Opt. Laser Tech., 45, 775–781 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. Micalizio, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, “Metrological characterization of the pulsed Rb clock with optical detection,” Metrologia49, 425–436 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Guérandel, T. Zanon, N. Castagna, F. Dahes, E. De Clercq, and A. Clairon, “Raman-Ramsey interaction for coherent population trapping Cs clock,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.56(2), 383–387 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  25. G. J. Dick, “Local oscillator induced instabilities in trapped ion frequency standards,” Proc. 19th Precise Time and Time interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting, Redondo Beach, California, 1987, 133–147.

2013 (1)

X. Liu, J. M. Merolla, S. Guérandel, C. Gorecki, E. De Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Coherent population trapping resonances in buffer gas-filled Cs vapor cells with push-pull optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. A87, 013416 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (5)

X. Liu and R. Boudot, “A distributed-feedback diode laser frequency stabilized on Doppler-free Cs D1line,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.61(10), 2852–2855 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, S. Qu, and S. Gu, “Spin-polarized dark state free CPT state preparation with co-propagating left and right circularly polarized lasers,” Opt. Exp.20(6), 6400–6405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Yun, Y. Zhang, G. Liu, W. Deng, L. You, and S. Gu, “Multipulse Ramsey-CPT interference fringes for the 87Rb clock transition,” EPL97, 63004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Liu, C. Wang, L. Li, and L. Chen, “Long-term and wideband laser intensity stabilization with an electro-optic amplitude modulator,” Opt. Laser Tech., 45, 775–781 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Micalizio, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, “Metrological characterization of the pulsed Rb clock with optical detection,” Metrologia49, 425–436 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

P. Yun, B. Tan, W. Deng, and S. Gu, “High coherent bi-chromatic laser with gigahertz splitting produced by the high diffraction orders of acousto-optic modulator used for coherent population trapping experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instr.82, 123104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A81, 013833 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

N. Castagna, R. Boudot, S. Guérandel, E. De Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Investigations on continuous and pulsed interrogation for a CPT atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelec. Freq. Contr.56(2), 246–253 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Boudot, S. Guérandel, E. De Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Current status of a pulsed CPT Cs cell clock,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.58(4), 1217–1222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liao, H. Zhou, and Z. Meng, “Modulation efficiency of a LiNbO3waveguide electro-optic intensity modulator operating at high microwave frequency,” Opt. Lett.34(12), 1822–1824 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

S. H. Yim, T. H. Yoon, and D. Cho, “Polarization orthogonalizer for a pair of laser beams with nearly equal frequencies,” Rev. Sci. Instr.79, 126104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Knappe, “Emerging topics: MEMS Atomic Clocks,” Comp. Microsys.3, 571–612 (2007).

S. Guérandel, T. Zanon, N. Castagna, F. Dahes, E. De Clercq, and A. Clairon, “Raman-Ramsey interaction for coherent population trapping Cs clock,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.56(2), 383–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. Godone, S. Micalizio, F. Levi, and C. Calosso, “Physics characterization and frequency stability of the pulsed rubidium maser,” Phys. Rev. A74, 043401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

T. Zanon, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High Contrast Ramsey Fringes with Coherent-Population-Trapping Pulses in a Double Lambda Atomic System,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett.82, 398–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review”, Appl. Phys. B Lasers Opt.81, 421–442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Pull-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(16), 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark line resonances on the D1line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Letters80(4), 236–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, C. Ezekiel, C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, “Observation of Ramsey Fringes Using a Stimulated, Resonance Raman Transition in a Sodium Atomic Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1950 (1)

N. F. Ramsey, “A Molecular Beam Resonance Method with Separated Oscillating Fields,” Phys. Rev.78, 695 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Boudot, R.

X. Liu, J. M. Merolla, S. Guérandel, C. Gorecki, E. De Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Coherent population trapping resonances in buffer gas-filled Cs vapor cells with push-pull optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. A87, 013416 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu and R. Boudot, “A distributed-feedback diode laser frequency stabilized on Doppler-free Cs D1line,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.61(10), 2852–2855 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Castagna, R. Boudot, S. Guérandel, E. De Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Investigations on continuous and pulsed interrogation for a CPT atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelec. Freq. Contr.56(2), 246–253 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Boudot, S. Guérandel, E. De Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Current status of a pulsed CPT Cs cell clock,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.58(4), 1217–1222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Calosso, C.

A. Godone, S. Micalizio, F. Levi, and C. Calosso, “Physics characterization and frequency stability of the pulsed rubidium maser,” Phys. Rev. A74, 043401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Calosso, C. E.

S. Micalizio, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, “Metrological characterization of the pulsed Rb clock with optical detection,” Metrologia49, 425–436 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Castagna, N.

N. Castagna, R. Boudot, S. Guérandel, E. De Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Investigations on continuous and pulsed interrogation for a CPT atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelec. Freq. Contr.56(2), 246–253 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Guérandel, T. Zanon, N. Castagna, F. Dahes, E. De Clercq, and A. Clairon, “Raman-Ramsey interaction for coherent population trapping Cs clock,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.56(2), 383–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

F. Liu, C. Wang, L. Li, and L. Chen, “Long-term and wideband laser intensity stabilization with an electro-optic amplitude modulator,” Opt. Laser Tech., 45, 775–781 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cho, D.

S. H. Yim, T. H. Yoon, and D. Cho, “Polarization orthogonalizer for a pair of laser beams with nearly equal frequencies,” Rev. Sci. Instr.79, 126104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clairon, A.

R. Boudot, S. Guérandel, E. De Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Current status of a pulsed CPT Cs cell clock,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.58(4), 1217–1222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Castagna, R. Boudot, S. Guérandel, E. De Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Investigations on continuous and pulsed interrogation for a CPT atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelec. Freq. Contr.56(2), 246–253 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Guérandel, T. Zanon, N. Castagna, F. Dahes, E. De Clercq, and A. Clairon, “Raman-Ramsey interaction for coherent population trapping Cs clock,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.56(2), 383–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Zanon, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High Contrast Ramsey Fringes with Coherent-Population-Trapping Pulses in a Double Lambda Atomic System,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dahes, F.

S. Guérandel, T. Zanon, N. Castagna, F. Dahes, E. De Clercq, and A. Clairon, “Raman-Ramsey interaction for coherent population trapping Cs clock,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.56(2), 383–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

De Clercq, E.

X. Liu, J. M. Merolla, S. Guérandel, C. Gorecki, E. De Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Coherent population trapping resonances in buffer gas-filled Cs vapor cells with push-pull optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. A87, 013416 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Castagna, R. Boudot, S. Guérandel, E. De Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Investigations on continuous and pulsed interrogation for a CPT atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelec. Freq. Contr.56(2), 246–253 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Boudot, S. Guérandel, E. De Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Current status of a pulsed CPT Cs cell clock,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.58(4), 1217–1222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Guérandel, T. Zanon, N. Castagna, F. Dahes, E. De Clercq, and A. Clairon, “Raman-Ramsey interaction for coherent population trapping Cs clock,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.56(2), 383–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Zanon, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High Contrast Ramsey Fringes with Coherent-Population-Trapping Pulses in a Double Lambda Atomic System,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, W.

P. Yun, Y. Zhang, G. Liu, W. Deng, L. You, and S. Gu, “Multipulse Ramsey-CPT interference fringes for the 87Rb clock transition,” EPL97, 63004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Yun, B. Tan, W. Deng, and S. Gu, “High coherent bi-chromatic laser with gigahertz splitting produced by the high diffraction orders of acousto-optic modulator used for coherent population trapping experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instr.82, 123104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dick, G. J.

G. J. Dick, “Local oscillator induced instabilities in trapped ion frequency standards,” Proc. 19th Precise Time and Time interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting, Redondo Beach, California, 1987, 133–147.

Dimarcq, N.

R. Boudot, S. Guérandel, E. De Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Current status of a pulsed CPT Cs cell clock,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.58(4), 1217–1222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Castagna, R. Boudot, S. Guérandel, E. De Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Investigations on continuous and pulsed interrogation for a CPT atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelec. Freq. Contr.56(2), 246–253 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Zanon, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High Contrast Ramsey Fringes with Coherent-Population-Trapping Pulses in a Double Lambda Atomic System,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donley, E.

F. X. Esnault, J. Kitching, and E. Donley, “A compact cold-atom frequency standard based on coherent population trapping,” Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IFCS), Baltimore, MD, USA, 697–699 (2012).

Esnault, F. X.

F. X. Esnault, J. Kitching, and E. Donley, “A compact cold-atom frequency standard based on coherent population trapping,” Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IFCS), Baltimore, MD, USA, 697–699 (2012).

Ezekiel, C.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, C. Ezekiel, C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, “Observation of Ramsey Fringes Using a Stimulated, Resonance Raman Transition in a Sodium Atomic Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Godone, A.

S. Micalizio, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, “Metrological characterization of the pulsed Rb clock with optical detection,” Metrologia49, 425–436 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Godone, S. Micalizio, F. Levi, and C. Calosso, “Physics characterization and frequency stability of the pulsed rubidium maser,” Phys. Rev. A74, 043401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gorecki, C.

X. Liu, J. M. Merolla, S. Guérandel, C. Gorecki, E. De Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Coherent population trapping resonances in buffer gas-filled Cs vapor cells with push-pull optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. A87, 013416 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gu, S.

P. Yun, Y. Zhang, G. Liu, W. Deng, L. You, and S. Gu, “Multipulse Ramsey-CPT interference fringes for the 87Rb clock transition,” EPL97, 63004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, S. Qu, and S. Gu, “Spin-polarized dark state free CPT state preparation with co-propagating left and right circularly polarized lasers,” Opt. Exp.20(6), 6400–6405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Yun, B. Tan, W. Deng, and S. Gu, “High coherent bi-chromatic laser with gigahertz splitting produced by the high diffraction orders of acousto-optic modulator used for coherent population trapping experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instr.82, 123104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Guérandel, S.

X. Liu, J. M. Merolla, S. Guérandel, C. Gorecki, E. De Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Coherent population trapping resonances in buffer gas-filled Cs vapor cells with push-pull optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. A87, 013416 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Castagna, R. Boudot, S. Guérandel, E. De Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Investigations on continuous and pulsed interrogation for a CPT atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelec. Freq. Contr.56(2), 246–253 (2009).
[CrossRef]

R. Boudot, S. Guérandel, E. De Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Current status of a pulsed CPT Cs cell clock,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.58(4), 1217–1222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Guérandel, T. Zanon, N. Castagna, F. Dahes, E. De Clercq, and A. Clairon, “Raman-Ramsey interaction for coherent population trapping Cs clock,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.56(2), 383–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Zanon, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High Contrast Ramsey Fringes with Coherent-Population-Trapping Pulses in a Double Lambda Atomic System,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Happer, W.

Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Pull-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(16), 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hemmer, P. R.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, C. Ezekiel, C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, “Observation of Ramsey Fringes Using a Stimulated, Resonance Raman Transition in a Sodium Atomic Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark line resonances on the D1line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Letters80(4), 236–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holleville, D.

T. Zanon, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High Contrast Ramsey Fringes with Coherent-Population-Trapping Pulses in a Double Lambda Atomic System,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jau, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Pull-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(16), 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kargapoltsev, S. V.

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark line resonances on the D1line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Letters80(4), 236–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kitching, J.

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark line resonances on the D1line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Letters80(4), 236–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Esnault, J. Kitching, and E. Donley, “A compact cold-atom frequency standard based on coherent population trapping,” Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IFCS), Baltimore, MD, USA, 697–699 (2012).

Knappe, S.

S. Knappe, “Emerging topics: MEMS Atomic Clocks,” Comp. Microsys.3, 571–612 (2007).

Kuzma, N. N.

Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Pull-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(16), 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leiby, C.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, C. Ezekiel, C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, “Observation of Ramsey Fringes Using a Stimulated, Resonance Raman Transition in a Sodium Atomic Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Levi, F.

S. Micalizio, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, “Metrological characterization of the pulsed Rb clock with optical detection,” Metrologia49, 425–436 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Godone, S. Micalizio, F. Levi, and C. Calosso, “Physics characterization and frequency stability of the pulsed rubidium maser,” Phys. Rev. A74, 043401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

F. Liu, C. Wang, L. Li, and L. Chen, “Long-term and wideband laser intensity stabilization with an electro-optic amplitude modulator,” Opt. Laser Tech., 45, 775–781 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y.

Liu, F.

F. Liu, C. Wang, L. Li, and L. Chen, “Long-term and wideband laser intensity stabilization with an electro-optic amplitude modulator,” Opt. Laser Tech., 45, 775–781 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, G.

P. Yun, Y. Zhang, G. Liu, W. Deng, L. You, and S. Gu, “Multipulse Ramsey-CPT interference fringes for the 87Rb clock transition,” EPL97, 63004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, J. M. Merolla, S. Guérandel, C. Gorecki, E. De Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Coherent population trapping resonances in buffer gas-filled Cs vapor cells with push-pull optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. A87, 013416 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu and R. Boudot, “A distributed-feedback diode laser frequency stabilized on Doppler-free Cs D1line,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.61(10), 2852–2855 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Meng, Z.

Merolla, J. M.

X. Liu, J. M. Merolla, S. Guérandel, C. Gorecki, E. De Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Coherent population trapping resonances in buffer gas-filled Cs vapor cells with push-pull optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. A87, 013416 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Micalizio, S.

S. Micalizio, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, “Metrological characterization of the pulsed Rb clock with optical detection,” Metrologia49, 425–436 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Godone, S. Micalizio, F. Levi, and C. Calosso, “Physics characterization and frequency stability of the pulsed rubidium maser,” Phys. Rev. A74, 043401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miron, E.

Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Pull-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(16), 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novikova, I.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A81, 013833 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, D. F.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A81, 013833 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Picard, R. H.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, C. Ezekiel, C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, “Observation of Ramsey Fringes Using a Stimulated, Resonance Raman Transition in a Sodium Atomic Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Post, A. B.

Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Pull-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(16), 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qu, S.

Y. Zhang, S. Qu, and S. Gu, “Spin-polarized dark state free CPT state preparation with co-propagating left and right circularly polarized lasers,” Opt. Exp.20(6), 6400–6405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, N. F.

N. F. Ramsey, “A Molecular Beam Resonance Method with Separated Oscillating Fields,” Phys. Rev.78, 695 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Sevostianov, D. I.

V. I. Yudin, A. V. Taichenachev, D. I. Sevostianov, V. L. Velichansky, V. V. Vasiliev, A. A. Zibrov, A. S. Zibrov, and S. A. Zibrov, “Feedback spectroscopy of atomic resonances,” arXiv:1301.7305 [physics.atom-ph] (2013).

Taichenachev, A. V.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A81, 013833 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett.82, 398–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark line resonances on the D1line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Letters80(4), 236–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Yudin, A. V. Taichenachev, D. I. Sevostianov, V. L. Velichansky, V. V. Vasiliev, A. A. Zibrov, A. S. Zibrov, and S. A. Zibrov, “Feedback spectroscopy of atomic resonances,” arXiv:1301.7305 [physics.atom-ph] (2013).

Tan, B.

P. Yun, B. Tan, W. Deng, and S. Gu, “High coherent bi-chromatic laser with gigahertz splitting produced by the high diffraction orders of acousto-optic modulator used for coherent population trapping experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instr.82, 123104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J. E.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, C. Ezekiel, C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, “Observation of Ramsey Fringes Using a Stimulated, Resonance Raman Transition in a Sodium Atomic Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Vanier, J.

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review”, Appl. Phys. B Lasers Opt.81, 421–442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vasiliev, V. V.

V. I. Yudin, A. V. Taichenachev, D. I. Sevostianov, V. L. Velichansky, V. V. Vasiliev, A. A. Zibrov, A. S. Zibrov, and S. A. Zibrov, “Feedback spectroscopy of atomic resonances,” arXiv:1301.7305 [physics.atom-ph] (2013).

Velichansky, V. L.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A81, 013833 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett.82, 398–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark line resonances on the D1line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Letters80(4), 236–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Yudin, A. V. Taichenachev, D. I. Sevostianov, V. L. Velichansky, V. V. Vasiliev, A. A. Zibrov, A. S. Zibrov, and S. A. Zibrov, “Feedback spectroscopy of atomic resonances,” arXiv:1301.7305 [physics.atom-ph] (2013).

Walsworth, R. L.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A81, 013833 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C.

F. Liu, C. Wang, L. Li, and L. Chen, “Long-term and wideband laser intensity stabilization with an electro-optic amplitude modulator,” Opt. Laser Tech., 45, 775–781 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Willis, C. R.

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, C. Ezekiel, C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, “Observation of Ramsey Fringes Using a Stimulated, Resonance Raman Transition in a Sodium Atomic Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Wynands, R.

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark line resonances on the D1line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Letters80(4), 236–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yim, S. H.

S. H. Yim, T. H. Yoon, and D. Cho, “Polarization orthogonalizer for a pair of laser beams with nearly equal frequencies,” Rev. Sci. Instr.79, 126104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T. H.

S. H. Yim, T. H. Yoon, and D. Cho, “Polarization orthogonalizer for a pair of laser beams with nearly equal frequencies,” Rev. Sci. Instr.79, 126104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

You, L.

P. Yun, Y. Zhang, G. Liu, W. Deng, L. You, and S. Gu, “Multipulse Ramsey-CPT interference fringes for the 87Rb clock transition,” EPL97, 63004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yudin, V. I.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A81, 013833 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett.82, 398–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark line resonances on the D1line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Letters80(4), 236–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Yudin, A. V. Taichenachev, D. I. Sevostianov, V. L. Velichansky, V. V. Vasiliev, A. A. Zibrov, A. S. Zibrov, and S. A. Zibrov, “Feedback spectroscopy of atomic resonances,” arXiv:1301.7305 [physics.atom-ph] (2013).

Yun, P.

P. Yun, Y. Zhang, G. Liu, W. Deng, L. You, and S. Gu, “Multipulse Ramsey-CPT interference fringes for the 87Rb clock transition,” EPL97, 63004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Yun, B. Tan, W. Deng, and S. Gu, “High coherent bi-chromatic laser with gigahertz splitting produced by the high diffraction orders of acousto-optic modulator used for coherent population trapping experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instr.82, 123104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zanon, T.

S. Guérandel, T. Zanon, N. Castagna, F. Dahes, E. De Clercq, and A. Clairon, “Raman-Ramsey interaction for coherent population trapping Cs clock,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.56(2), 383–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Zanon, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High Contrast Ramsey Fringes with Coherent-Population-Trapping Pulses in a Double Lambda Atomic System,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

P. Yun, Y. Zhang, G. Liu, W. Deng, L. You, and S. Gu, “Multipulse Ramsey-CPT interference fringes for the 87Rb clock transition,” EPL97, 63004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, S. Qu, and S. Gu, “Spin-polarized dark state free CPT state preparation with co-propagating left and right circularly polarized lasers,” Opt. Exp.20(6), 6400–6405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H.

Zibrov, A. A.

V. I. Yudin, A. V. Taichenachev, D. I. Sevostianov, V. L. Velichansky, V. V. Vasiliev, A. A. Zibrov, A. S. Zibrov, and S. A. Zibrov, “Feedback spectroscopy of atomic resonances,” arXiv:1301.7305 [physics.atom-ph] (2013).

Zibrov, A. S.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A81, 013833 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Yudin, A. V. Taichenachev, D. I. Sevostianov, V. L. Velichansky, V. V. Vasiliev, A. A. Zibrov, A. S. Zibrov, and S. A. Zibrov, “Feedback spectroscopy of atomic resonances,” arXiv:1301.7305 [physics.atom-ph] (2013).

Zibrov, S. A.

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A81, 013833 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett.82, 398–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Yudin, A. V. Taichenachev, D. I. Sevostianov, V. L. Velichansky, V. V. Vasiliev, A. A. Zibrov, A. S. Zibrov, and S. A. Zibrov, “Feedback spectroscopy of atomic resonances,” arXiv:1301.7305 [physics.atom-ph] (2013).

Appl. Phys. B Lasers Opt. (1)

J. Vanier, “Atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping: a review”, Appl. Phys. B Lasers Opt.81, 421–442 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Comp. Microsys. (1)

S. Knappe, “Emerging topics: MEMS Atomic Clocks,” Comp. Microsys.3, 571–612 (2007).

EPL (1)

P. Yun, Y. Zhang, G. Liu, W. Deng, L. You, and S. Gu, “Multipulse Ramsey-CPT interference fringes for the 87Rb clock transition,” EPL97, 63004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas. (3)

X. Liu and R. Boudot, “A distributed-feedback diode laser frequency stabilized on Doppler-free Cs D1line,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.61(10), 2852–2855 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Guérandel, T. Zanon, N. Castagna, F. Dahes, E. De Clercq, and A. Clairon, “Raman-Ramsey interaction for coherent population trapping Cs clock,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.56(2), 383–387 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. Boudot, S. Guérandel, E. De Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Current status of a pulsed CPT Cs cell clock,” IEEE Trans. Instr. Meas.58(4), 1217–1222 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelec. Freq. Contr. (1)

N. Castagna, R. Boudot, S. Guérandel, E. De Clercq, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “Investigations on continuous and pulsed interrogation for a CPT atomic clock,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelec. Freq. Contr.56(2), 246–253 (2009).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (1)

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, and S. A. Zibrov, “On the unique possibility of significantly increasing the contrast of dark resonances on the D1line of 87Rb,” JETP Lett.82, 398–403 (2005).
[CrossRef]

JETP Letters (1)

A. V. Taichenachev, V. I. Yudin, V. L. Velichansky, S. V. Kargapoltsev, R. Wynands, J. Kitching, and L. Hollberg, “High-contrast dark line resonances on the D1line of alkali metals in the field of counterpropagating waves,” JETP Letters80(4), 236–240 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

S. Micalizio, C. E. Calosso, A. Godone, and F. Levi, “Metrological characterization of the pulsed Rb clock with optical detection,” Metrologia49, 425–436 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Exp. (1)

Y. Zhang, S. Qu, and S. Gu, “Spin-polarized dark state free CPT state preparation with co-propagating left and right circularly polarized lasers,” Opt. Exp.20(6), 6400–6405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Tech. (1)

F. Liu, C. Wang, L. Li, and L. Chen, “Long-term and wideband laser intensity stabilization with an electro-optic amplitude modulator,” Opt. Laser Tech., 45, 775–781 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. (1)

N. F. Ramsey, “A Molecular Beam Resonance Method with Separated Oscillating Fields,” Phys. Rev.78, 695 (1950).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (3)

S. A. Zibrov, I. Novikova, D. F. Phillips, R. L. Walsworth, A. S. Zibrov, V. L. Velichansky, A. V. Taichenachev, and V. I. Yudin, “Coherent-population-trapping resonances with linearly polarized light for all-optical miniature atomic clocks,” Phys. Rev. A81, 013833 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Godone, S. Micalizio, F. Levi, and C. Calosso, “Physics characterization and frequency stability of the pulsed rubidium maser,” Phys. Rev. A74, 043401 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, J. M. Merolla, S. Guérandel, C. Gorecki, E. De Clercq, and R. Boudot, “Coherent population trapping resonances in buffer gas-filled Cs vapor cells with push-pull optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. A87, 013416 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

J. E. Thomas, P. R. Hemmer, C. Ezekiel, C. Leiby, R. H. Picard, and C. R. Willis, “Observation of Ramsey Fringes Using a Stimulated, Resonance Raman Transition in a Sodium Atomic Beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett.48, 867 (1982).
[CrossRef]

T. Zanon, S. Guérandel, E. de Clercq, D. Holleville, N. Dimarcq, and A. Clairon, “High Contrast Ramsey Fringes with Coherent-Population-Trapping Pulses in a Double Lambda Atomic System,” Phys. Rev. Lett.94, 193002 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Jau, E. Miron, A. B. Post, N. N. Kuzma, and W. Happer, “Pull-pull optical pumping of pure superposition states,” Phys. Rev. Lett.93(16), 160802 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instr. (2)

S. H. Yim, T. H. Yoon, and D. Cho, “Polarization orthogonalizer for a pair of laser beams with nearly equal frequencies,” Rev. Sci. Instr.79, 126104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Yun, B. Tan, W. Deng, and S. Gu, “High coherent bi-chromatic laser with gigahertz splitting produced by the high diffraction orders of acousto-optic modulator used for coherent population trapping experiments,” Rev. Sci. Instr.82, 123104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

F. X. Esnault, J. Kitching, and E. Donley, “A compact cold-atom frequency standard based on coherent population trapping,” Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (IFCS), Baltimore, MD, USA, 697–699 (2012).

V. I. Yudin, A. V. Taichenachev, D. I. Sevostianov, V. L. Velichansky, V. V. Vasiliev, A. A. Zibrov, A. S. Zibrov, and S. A. Zibrov, “Feedback spectroscopy of atomic resonances,” arXiv:1301.7305 [physics.atom-ph] (2013).

G. J. Dick, “Local oscillator induced instabilities in trapped ion frequency standards,” Proc. 19th Precise Time and Time interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting, Redondo Beach, California, 1987, 133–147.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. DFB: Distributed-Feedback diode laser, HWP: half-wave plate, EOM: electro-optic modulator, MS: microwave synthesizer, FPI: Fabry-Perot interferometer, BPF: bandpass filter, S.A: microwave spectrum analyzer, PD: photodiode, FPD: fast photodiode, Cs+BG: Cs + buffer gas, PBS: polarizing beam splitter, QWP: quarter-wave plate, M1 and M2: mirrors, LNA: low-noise amplifier. The inset shows the energy-level diagram involved in Cs vapor with PPOP. The clock transition is the ground-state 0-0 transition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical power in the carrier (squares), first-order sidebands (circles) at the output of the MZ EOM and height of the CPT signal (triangles) versus the EOM bias voltage V.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pulsed sequence to scan and detect the CPT Ramsey fringes. The CPT pumping time τp is typically 1–2 ms. The Ramsey time T is of a few ms.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

166-Hz width Ramsey fringes with a contrast of 33 %. Experimental conditions: T = 3 ms, τ = 2 ms, PL = 3.8 mW.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of Ramsey fringes obtained with standard circular polarization (dotted line) and push-pull optical pumping (solid line). Experimental conditions: T = 3 ms, τ = 2 ms.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contrast (a) and contrast/linewidth ratio (b) of the central Ramsey fringe versus the dark time T. The solid line on (a) is an exponential decay function fit to experimental data. Experimental conditions are: τ = 2 ms, PL = 3 mW.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Contrast of the central fringe versus the laser power PL. Experimental conditions are: T = 5 ms, τp = 2 ms.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

CPT fringe peak-peak signal versus laser power seen by the atoms in the Ramsey time T. The CPT signal for the lowest power point is normalized to 1. The inset shows a zoom on first points of the graph.

Equations (1)

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σ y ( τ ) Δ ν ν 0 1 C h ν P o T c t m τ ,

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