Abstract

We report spatial and vectorial imaging of local fields’ confinement properties in metal nanoparticles with branched shapes, using Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy. Taking advantage of the coherent nature of this nonlinear process, the technique provides a direct evidence of the coupling between the excitation polarization and both localization and polarization specificities of local fields at the sub-diffraction scale. These combined features, which are governed by the nanoparticles’ symmetry, are not accessible using other contrasts such as linear optical techniques or two-photon luminescence.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. M. Stranahan and K. A. Willet, “Super-resolution Optical Imaging of Single-Molecule SERS Hot Spots,” Nano Lett.10, 3777–3784 (2010).
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  10. A. McLeod, A. Weber-Bargioni, Z. Zhang, S. Dhuey, B. Harteneck, J. B. Neaton, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Nonperturbative Visualization of Nanoscale Plasmonic Field Distributions via Photon Localization Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 037402 (2011).
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  11. O. Schubert, J. Becker, L. Carbone, Y. Khalavka, T. Provalska, I. Zins, and C. Sönnichsen, “Mapping the polarization pattern of plasmon modes reveals nanoparticle symmetry,” Nano Lett.8, 2345–2350 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
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  20. G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Multipolar second-harmonic generation in noble metal nanoparticles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 955–960 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Zhang, N. K. Grady, C. Ayala-Orozco, and N. J. Halas, “Three-Dimensional Nanostructures as Highly Efficient Generators of Second Harmonic Light,” Nano Lett.11, 5519–5523 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. H. Husu, R. Siikanen, J. Mäkitalo, J. Lehtolahti, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Metamaterials with Tailored Nonlinear Optical Response,” Nano Lett.12, 673–677 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. S. Brasselet, V. Le Floc’h, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In Situ Diagnostics of the Crystalline Nature of Single Organic Nanocrystals by Nonlinear Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 207401 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. R. E. Thompson, D. R. Larson, and W. W. Webb, “Precise nanometer localization analysis for individual fluorescent probes,” Biophys. J.82, 2775–2783 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2012

C. Awada, T. Popescu, L. Douillard, F. Charra, A. Perron, H. Yockell-Lelièvre, A.L. Baudrion, P. M. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Selective Excitation of Plasmon Resonances of Single Au Triangles by Polarization-Dependent Light Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 14591–14598 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Yurtsever and A. H. Zewail, “Direct Visualization of Near-Fields in Nanoplasmonics and Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett.12, 3334–3338 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hu, H. Duan, J. K. W. Yang, and Z. X. Shen, “Plasmon-Modulated Photoluminescence of Individual Gold Nanostructures,” ACS Nano6, 10147–10155 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-Harmonic Generation Imaging of Metal Nano-Objects with Cylindrical Vector Beams,” Nano Lett.12, 3207–3212 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Husu, R. Siikanen, J. Mäkitalo, J. Lehtolahti, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Metamaterials with Tailored Nonlinear Optical Response,” Nano Lett.12, 673–677 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A.S lablab, L. L. Xuan, M. Zielinski, Y. de Wilde, V. Jacques, D. Chauvat, and J.-F. Roch, “Second-harmonic generation from coupled plasmon modes in a single dimer of gold nanospheres,” Opt. Express20, 220–227 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Berthelot, G. Bachelier, M. Song, P. Rai, G. Colas des Francs, A. Dereux, and A. Bouhelier, “Silencing and enhancement of second-harmonic generation in optical gap antennas,” Opt. Express20, 10498–10508 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

Y. Zhang, N. K. Grady, C. Ayala-Orozco, and N. J. Halas, “Three-Dimensional Nanostructures as Highly Efficient Generators of Second Harmonic Light,” Nano Lett.11, 5519–5523 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hrelescu, T.K. Sau, Tapan K. A. L. Rogach, F. Jäckel, G. Laurent, L. Douillard, and F. Charra, “Selective Excitation of Individual Plasmonic Hotspots at the Tips of Single Gold Nanostars,” Nano Lett.2, 402–407 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Cang, A. Labno, C. Lu, X. Yin, M. Liu, C. Gladden, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Probing the electromagnetic field of a 15-nanometre hotspot by single molecule imaging,” Nature469, 385–388 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. McLeod, A. Weber-Bargioni, Z. Zhang, S. Dhuey, B. Harteneck, J. B. Neaton, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Nonperturbative Visualization of Nanoscale Plasmonic Field Distributions via Photon Localization Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 037402 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

S. M. Stranahan and K. A. Willet, “Super-resolution Optical Imaging of Single-Molecule SERS Hot Spots,” Nano Lett.10, 3777–3784 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Butet, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Interference between Selected Dipoles and Octupoles in the Optical Second-Harmonic Generation from Spherical Gold Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 077401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic Ratchet Wheels: Switching Circular Dichroism by Arranging Chiral Nanostructures,” Nano Lett.9, 3945–3948 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zeng, W. Hoyer, J. Liu, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Classical theory for second-harmonic generation from metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B79, 235109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Multipolar second-harmonic generation in noble metal nanoparticles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 955–960 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic Mode Mapping of Resonant Plasmon Nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Schubert, J. Becker, L. Carbone, Y. Khalavka, T. Provalska, I. Zins, and C. Sönnichsen, “Mapping the polarization pattern of plasmon modes reveals nanoparticle symmetry,” Nano Lett.8, 2345–2350 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rang, A.C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z.Y. Li, B.J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.8, 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

J. Nelayah, M. Kociak, O. Stphan, F. J. Garca de Abajo, M. Tencé, L. Henrard, D. Taverna, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzn, and C. Colliex, “Mapping surface plasmons on a single metallic nanoparticle,” Nat. Phys.3, 348–353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. J. R. Vesseur, R. de Waele, M. Kuttge, and A. Polman, “Direct Observation of Plasmonic Modes in Au Nanowires Using High-Resolution Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.7, 2843–2846 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Sandeau, L. Le Xuan, D. Chauvat, C. Zhou, J.-F. Roch, and S. Brasselet, “Defocused imaging of second harmonic generation from a single nanocrystal,” Opt. Express15, 16051–16060 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kujala, B.K. Canfield, M. Kauranen, Y. Svirko, and J. Turunen, “Multipole Interference in the Second-Harmonic Optical Radiation from Gold Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.16, 167403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005

J. Nappa, G. Revillod, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Electric dipole origin of the second harmonic generation of small metallic particles,” Phys. Rev. B71, 165407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Jin, J. E. Jureller, H. Y. Kim, and N. F. Scherer, “Correlating Second Harmonic Optical Responses of Single Ag Nanoparticles with Morphology,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.127, 12482–12483 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. Brasselet, V. Le Floc’h, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In Situ Diagnostics of the Crystalline Nature of Single Organic Nanocrystals by Nonlinear Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 207401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

K.L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L.L. Zhao, and G.C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107, 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Anceau, S. Brasselet, J. Zyss, and P. Gadenne, “Local second-harmonic generation enhancement on gold nanostructures probed by two-photon microscopy,” Opt. Lett.28, 713–715 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. E. Thompson, D. R. Larson, and W. W. Webb, “Precise nanometer localization analysis for individual fluorescent probes,” Biophys. J.82, 2775–2783 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

A.V. Zayats, T. Kalkbrenner, V. Sandoghdar, and J. Mlynek, “Second-harmonic generation from individual surface defects under local excitation,” Phys. Rev. B61, 4545–4548 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Second-Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering from a Sphere of Centrosymmetric Material,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83, 4045–4048 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1986

P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, and Y. R. Shen, “General considerations on optical second-harmonic generation from surfaces and interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B33, 8254–8263 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1959

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanetic system,” Royal Soc. Lond. Proc. Series A253, 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Adam, P. M.

C. Awada, T. Popescu, L. Douillard, F. Charra, A. Perron, H. Yockell-Lelièvre, A.L. Baudrion, P. M. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Selective Excitation of Plasmon Resonances of Single Au Triangles by Polarization-Dependent Light Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 14591–14598 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ameloot, M.

V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic Ratchet Wheels: Switching Circular Dichroism by Arranging Chiral Nanostructures,” Nano Lett.9, 3945–3948 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anceau, C.

Awada, C.

C. Awada, T. Popescu, L. Douillard, F. Charra, A. Perron, H. Yockell-Lelièvre, A.L. Baudrion, P. M. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Selective Excitation of Plasmon Resonances of Single Au Triangles by Polarization-Dependent Light Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 14591–14598 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ayala-Orozco, C.

Y. Zhang, N. K. Grady, C. Ayala-Orozco, and N. J. Halas, “Three-Dimensional Nanostructures as Highly Efficient Generators of Second Harmonic Light,” Nano Lett.11, 5519–5523 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bachelier, G.

Bachelot, R.

C. Awada, T. Popescu, L. Douillard, F. Charra, A. Perron, H. Yockell-Lelièvre, A.L. Baudrion, P. M. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Selective Excitation of Plasmon Resonances of Single Au Triangles by Polarization-Dependent Light Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 14591–14598 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baudrion, A.L.

C. Awada, T. Popescu, L. Douillard, F. Charra, A. Perron, H. Yockell-Lelièvre, A.L. Baudrion, P. M. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Selective Excitation of Plasmon Resonances of Single Au Triangles by Polarization-Dependent Light Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 14591–14598 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bautista, G.

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-Harmonic Generation Imaging of Metal Nano-Objects with Cylindrical Vector Beams,” Nano Lett.12, 3207–3212 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, J.

O. Schubert, J. Becker, L. Carbone, Y. Khalavka, T. Provalska, I. Zins, and C. Sönnichsen, “Mapping the polarization pattern of plasmon modes reveals nanoparticle symmetry,” Nano Lett.8, 2345–2350 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benichou, E.

J. Butet, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Interference between Selected Dipoles and Octupoles in the Optical Second-Harmonic Generation from Spherical Gold Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 077401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Multipolar second-harmonic generation in noble metal nanoparticles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 955–960 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Nappa, G. Revillod, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Electric dipole origin of the second harmonic generation of small metallic particles,” Phys. Rev. B71, 165407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Berthelot, J.

Botzung-Appert, E.

S. Brasselet, V. Le Floc’h, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In Situ Diagnostics of the Crystalline Nature of Single Organic Nanocrystals by Nonlinear Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 207401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouhelier, A.

Brasselet, S.

Brevet, P.-F.

J. Butet, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Interference between Selected Dipoles and Octupoles in the Optical Second-Harmonic Generation from Spherical Gold Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 077401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Multipolar second-harmonic generation in noble metal nanoparticles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25, 955–960 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Nappa, G. Revillod, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Electric dipole origin of the second harmonic generation of small metallic particles,” Phys. Rev. B71, 165407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Butet, J.

J. Butet, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Interference between Selected Dipoles and Octupoles in the Optical Second-Harmonic Generation from Spherical Gold Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 077401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabrini, S.

A. McLeod, A. Weber-Bargioni, Z. Zhang, S. Dhuey, B. Harteneck, J. B. Neaton, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Nonperturbative Visualization of Nanoscale Plasmonic Field Distributions via Photon Localization Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 037402 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Canfield, B.K.

S. Kujala, B.K. Canfield, M. Kauranen, Y. Svirko, and J. Turunen, “Multipole Interference in the Second-Harmonic Optical Radiation from Gold Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.16, 167403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cang, H.

H. Cang, A. Labno, C. Lu, X. Yin, M. Liu, C. Gladden, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Probing the electromagnetic field of a 15-nanometre hotspot by single molecule imaging,” Nature469, 385–388 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carbone, L.

O. Schubert, J. Becker, L. Carbone, Y. Khalavka, T. Provalska, I. Zins, and C. Sönnichsen, “Mapping the polarization pattern of plasmon modes reveals nanoparticle symmetry,” Nano Lett.8, 2345–2350 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charra, F.

C. Awada, T. Popescu, L. Douillard, F. Charra, A. Perron, H. Yockell-Lelièvre, A.L. Baudrion, P. M. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Selective Excitation of Plasmon Resonances of Single Au Triangles by Polarization-Dependent Light Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 14591–14598 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Hrelescu, T.K. Sau, Tapan K. A. L. Rogach, F. Jäckel, G. Laurent, L. Douillard, and F. Charra, “Selective Excitation of Individual Plasmonic Hotspots at the Tips of Single Gold Nanostars,” Nano Lett.2, 402–407 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chauvat, D.

Chen, W.

P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, and Y. R. Shen, “General considerations on optical second-harmonic generation from surfaces and interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B33, 8254–8263 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cherukulappurath, S.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic Mode Mapping of Resonant Plasmon Nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Colas des Francs, G.

Colliex, C.

J. Nelayah, M. Kociak, O. Stphan, F. J. Garca de Abajo, M. Tencé, L. Henrard, D. Taverna, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzn, and C. Colliex, “Mapping surface plasmons on a single metallic nanoparticle,” Nat. Phys.3, 348–353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coronado, E.

K.L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L.L. Zhao, and G.C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107, 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dadap, J. I.

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J. Butet, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Interference between Selected Dipoles and Octupoles in the Optical Second-Harmonic Generation from Spherical Gold Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 077401 (2010).
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R. Jin, J. E. Jureller, H. Y. Kim, and N. F. Scherer, “Correlating Second Harmonic Optical Responses of Single Ag Nanoparticles with Morphology,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.127, 12482–12483 (2005).
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Y. Zeng, W. Hoyer, J. Liu, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Classical theory for second-harmonic generation from metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B79, 235109 (2009).
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G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-Harmonic Generation Imaging of Metal Nano-Objects with Cylindrical Vector Beams,” Nano Lett.12, 3207–3212 (2012).
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H. Husu, R. Siikanen, J. Mäkitalo, J. Lehtolahti, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Metamaterials with Tailored Nonlinear Optical Response,” Nano Lett.12, 673–677 (2012).
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C. Hrelescu, T.K. Sau, Tapan K. A. L. Rogach, F. Jäckel, G. Laurent, L. Douillard, and F. Charra, “Selective Excitation of Individual Plasmonic Hotspots at the Tips of Single Gold Nanostars,” Nano Lett.2, 402–407 (2011).
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S. Brasselet, V. Le Floc’h, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In Situ Diagnostics of the Crystalline Nature of Single Organic Nanocrystals by Nonlinear Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 207401 (2004).
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H. Husu, R. Siikanen, J. Mäkitalo, J. Lehtolahti, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Metamaterials with Tailored Nonlinear Optical Response,” Nano Lett.12, 673–677 (2012).
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M. Rang, A.C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z.Y. Li, B.J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.8, 3357–3363 (2008).
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Y. Zeng, W. Hoyer, J. Liu, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Classical theory for second-harmonic generation from metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B79, 235109 (2009).
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H. Cang, A. Labno, C. Lu, X. Yin, M. Liu, C. Gladden, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Probing the electromagnetic field of a 15-nanometre hotspot by single molecule imaging,” Nature469, 385–388 (2011).
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J. Nelayah, M. Kociak, O. Stphan, F. J. Garca de Abajo, M. Tencé, L. Henrard, D. Taverna, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzn, and C. Colliex, “Mapping surface plasmons on a single metallic nanoparticle,” Nat. Phys.3, 348–353 (2007).
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H. Cang, A. Labno, C. Lu, X. Yin, M. Liu, C. Gladden, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Probing the electromagnetic field of a 15-nanometre hotspot by single molecule imaging,” Nature469, 385–388 (2011).
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G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-Harmonic Generation Imaging of Metal Nano-Objects with Cylindrical Vector Beams,” Nano Lett.12, 3207–3212 (2012).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Nappa, G. Revillod, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Electric dipole origin of the second harmonic generation of small metallic particles,” Phys. Rev. B71, 165407 (2005).
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A. McLeod, A. Weber-Bargioni, Z. Zhang, S. Dhuey, B. Harteneck, J. B. Neaton, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Nonperturbative Visualization of Nanoscale Plasmonic Field Distributions via Photon Localization Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 037402 (2011).
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C. Awada, T. Popescu, L. Douillard, F. Charra, A. Perron, H. Yockell-Lelièvre, A.L. Baudrion, P. M. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Selective Excitation of Plasmon Resonances of Single Au Triangles by Polarization-Dependent Light Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 14591–14598 (2012).
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E. J. R. Vesseur, R. de Waele, M. Kuttge, and A. Polman, “Direct Observation of Plasmonic Modes in Au Nanowires Using High-Resolution Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.7, 2843–2846 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Awada, T. Popescu, L. Douillard, F. Charra, A. Perron, H. Yockell-Lelièvre, A.L. Baudrion, P. M. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Selective Excitation of Plasmon Resonances of Single Au Triangles by Polarization-Dependent Light Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 14591–14598 (2012).
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O. Schubert, J. Becker, L. Carbone, Y. Khalavka, T. Provalska, I. Zins, and C. Sönnichsen, “Mapping the polarization pattern of plasmon modes reveals nanoparticle symmetry,” Nano Lett.8, 2345–2350 (2008).
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P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic Mode Mapping of Resonant Plasmon Nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 116805 (2008).
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M. Rang, A.C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z.Y. Li, B.J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.8, 3357–3363 (2008).
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M. Rang, A.C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z.Y. Li, B.J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.8, 3357–3363 (2008).
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J. Nappa, G. Revillod, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Electric dipole origin of the second harmonic generation of small metallic particles,” Phys. Rev. B71, 165407 (2005).
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J. Butet, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Interference between Selected Dipoles and Octupoles in the Optical Second-Harmonic Generation from Spherical Gold Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 077401 (2010).
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C. Hrelescu, T.K. Sau, Tapan K. A. L. Rogach, F. Jäckel, G. Laurent, L. Douillard, and F. Charra, “Selective Excitation of Individual Plasmonic Hotspots at the Tips of Single Gold Nanostars,” Nano Lett.2, 402–407 (2011).
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K.L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L.L. Zhao, and G.C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107, 668–677 (2003).
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R. Jin, J. E. Jureller, H. Y. Kim, and N. F. Scherer, “Correlating Second Harmonic Optical Responses of Single Ag Nanoparticles with Morphology,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.127, 12482–12483 (2005).
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A. McLeod, A. Weber-Bargioni, Z. Zhang, S. Dhuey, B. Harteneck, J. B. Neaton, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Nonperturbative Visualization of Nanoscale Plasmonic Field Distributions via Photon Localization Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 037402 (2011).
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H. Hu, H. Duan, J. K. W. Yang, and Z. X. Shen, “Plasmon-Modulated Photoluminescence of Individual Gold Nanostructures,” ACS Nano6, 10147–10155 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Husu, R. Siikanen, J. Mäkitalo, J. Lehtolahti, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Metamaterials with Tailored Nonlinear Optical Response,” Nano Lett.12, 673–677 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silhanek, A. V.

V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic Ratchet Wheels: Switching Circular Dichroism by Arranging Chiral Nanostructures,” Nano Lett.9, 3945–3948 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simonen, J.

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-Harmonic Generation Imaging of Metal Nano-Objects with Cylindrical Vector Beams,” Nano Lett.12, 3207–3212 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smisdom, N.

V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic Ratchet Wheels: Switching Circular Dichroism by Arranging Chiral Nanostructures,” Nano Lett.9, 3945–3948 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, M.

Sönnichsen, C.

O. Schubert, J. Becker, L. Carbone, Y. Khalavka, T. Provalska, I. Zins, and C. Sönnichsen, “Mapping the polarization pattern of plasmon modes reveals nanoparticle symmetry,” Nano Lett.8, 2345–2350 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stphan, O.

J. Nelayah, M. Kociak, O. Stphan, F. J. Garca de Abajo, M. Tencé, L. Henrard, D. Taverna, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzn, and C. Colliex, “Mapping surface plasmons on a single metallic nanoparticle,” Nat. Phys.3, 348–353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stranahan, S. M.

S. M. Stranahan and K. A. Willet, “Super-resolution Optical Imaging of Single-Molecule SERS Hot Spots,” Nano Lett.10, 3777–3784 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svirko, Y.

S. Kujala, B.K. Canfield, M. Kauranen, Y. Svirko, and J. Turunen, “Multipole Interference in the Second-Harmonic Optical Radiation from Gold Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.16, 167403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Taminiau, T. H.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic Mode Mapping of Resonant Plasmon Nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taverna, D.

J. Nelayah, M. Kociak, O. Stphan, F. J. Garca de Abajo, M. Tencé, L. Henrard, D. Taverna, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzn, and C. Colliex, “Mapping surface plasmons on a single metallic nanoparticle,” Nat. Phys.3, 348–353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tencé, M.

J. Nelayah, M. Kociak, O. Stphan, F. J. Garca de Abajo, M. Tencé, L. Henrard, D. Taverna, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzn, and C. Colliex, “Mapping surface plasmons on a single metallic nanoparticle,” Nat. Phys.3, 348–353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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R. E. Thompson, D. R. Larson, and W. W. Webb, “Precise nanometer localization analysis for individual fluorescent probes,” Biophys. J.82, 2775–2783 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Treussart, F.

S. Brasselet, V. Le Floc’h, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In Situ Diagnostics of the Crystalline Nature of Single Organic Nanocrystals by Nonlinear Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 207401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turunen, J.

S. Kujala, B.K. Canfield, M. Kauranen, Y. Svirko, and J. Turunen, “Multipole Interference in the Second-Harmonic Optical Radiation from Gold Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.16, 167403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Valev, V. K.

V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic Ratchet Wheels: Switching Circular Dichroism by Arranging Chiral Nanostructures,” Nano Lett.9, 3945–3948 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. F.

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic Mode Mapping of Resonant Plasmon Nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verbiest, T.

V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic Ratchet Wheels: Switching Circular Dichroism by Arranging Chiral Nanostructures,” Nano Lett.9, 3945–3948 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vesseur, E. J. R.

E. J. R. Vesseur, R. de Waele, M. Kuttge, and A. Polman, “Direct Observation of Plasmonic Modes in Au Nanowires Using High-Resolution Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.7, 2843–2846 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. E. Thompson, D. R. Larson, and W. W. Webb, “Precise nanometer localization analysis for individual fluorescent probes,” Biophys. J.82, 2775–2783 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber-Bargioni, A.

A. McLeod, A. Weber-Bargioni, Z. Zhang, S. Dhuey, B. Harteneck, J. B. Neaton, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Nonperturbative Visualization of Nanoscale Plasmonic Field Distributions via Photon Localization Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 037402 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiley, B.J.

M. Rang, A.C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z.Y. Li, B.J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.8, 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willet, K. A.

S. M. Stranahan and K. A. Willet, “Super-resolution Optical Imaging of Single-Molecule SERS Hot Spots,” Nano Lett.10, 3777–3784 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, E.

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanetic system,” Royal Soc. Lond. Proc. Series A253, 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

M. Rang, A.C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z.Y. Li, B.J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.8, 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xuan, L. L.

Yang, J. K. W.

H. Hu, H. Duan, J. K. W. Yang, and Z. X. Shen, “Plasmon-Modulated Photoluminescence of Individual Gold Nanostructures,” ACS Nano6, 10147–10155 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. Cang, A. Labno, C. Lu, X. Yin, M. Liu, C. Gladden, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Probing the electromagnetic field of a 15-nanometre hotspot by single molecule imaging,” Nature469, 385–388 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Awada, T. Popescu, L. Douillard, F. Charra, A. Perron, H. Yockell-Lelièvre, A.L. Baudrion, P. M. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Selective Excitation of Plasmon Resonances of Single Au Triangles by Polarization-Dependent Light Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 14591–14598 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yurtsever, A.

A. Yurtsever and A. H. Zewail, “Direct Visualization of Near-Fields in Nanoplasmonics and Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett.12, 3334–3338 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zayats, A.V.

A.V. Zayats, T. Kalkbrenner, V. Sandoghdar, and J. Mlynek, “Second-harmonic generation from individual surface defects under local excitation,” Phys. Rev. B61, 4545–4548 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, Y.

Y. Zeng, W. Hoyer, J. Liu, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Classical theory for second-harmonic generation from metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B79, 235109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zewail, A. H.

A. Yurtsever and A. H. Zewail, “Direct Visualization of Near-Fields in Nanoplasmonics and Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett.12, 3334–3338 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

H. Cang, A. Labno, C. Lu, X. Yin, M. Liu, C. Gladden, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Probing the electromagnetic field of a 15-nanometre hotspot by single molecule imaging,” Nature469, 385–388 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, N. K. Grady, C. Ayala-Orozco, and N. J. Halas, “Three-Dimensional Nanostructures as Highly Efficient Generators of Second Harmonic Light,” Nano Lett.11, 5519–5523 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Z.

A. McLeod, A. Weber-Bargioni, Z. Zhang, S. Dhuey, B. Harteneck, J. B. Neaton, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Nonperturbative Visualization of Nanoscale Plasmonic Field Distributions via Photon Localization Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 037402 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, L.L.

K.L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L.L. Zhao, and G.C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107, 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, C.

Zhou, F.

M. Rang, A.C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z.Y. Li, B.J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.8, 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zielinski, M.

Zins, I.

O. Schubert, J. Becker, L. Carbone, Y. Khalavka, T. Provalska, I. Zins, and C. Sönnichsen, “Mapping the polarization pattern of plasmon modes reveals nanoparticle symmetry,” Nano Lett.8, 2345–2350 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zyss, J.

ACS Nano

H. Hu, H. Duan, J. K. W. Yang, and Z. X. Shen, “Plasmon-Modulated Photoluminescence of Individual Gold Nanostructures,” ACS Nano6, 10147–10155 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J.

R. E. Thompson, D. R. Larson, and W. W. Webb, “Precise nanometer localization analysis for individual fluorescent probes,” Biophys. J.82, 2775–2783 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc.

R. Jin, J. E. Jureller, H. Y. Kim, and N. F. Scherer, “Correlating Second Harmonic Optical Responses of Single Ag Nanoparticles with Morphology,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.127, 12482–12483 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. Chem. B

K.L. Kelly, E. Coronado, L.L. Zhao, and G.C. Schatz, “The Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles: The Influence of Size, Shape, and Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. B107, 668–677 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

C. Awada, T. Popescu, L. Douillard, F. Charra, A. Perron, H. Yockell-Lelièvre, A.L. Baudrion, P. M. Adam, and R. Bachelot, “Selective Excitation of Plasmon Resonances of Single Au Triangles by Polarization-Dependent Light Excitation,” J. Phys. Chem. C116, 14591–14598 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

A. Yurtsever and A. H. Zewail, “Direct Visualization of Near-Fields in Nanoplasmonics and Nanophotonics,” Nano Lett.12, 3334–3338 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. R. Vesseur, R. de Waele, M. Kuttge, and A. Polman, “Direct Observation of Plasmonic Modes in Au Nanowires Using High-Resolution Cathodoluminescence Spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.7, 2843–2846 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rang, A.C. Jones, F. Zhou, Z.Y. Li, B.J. Wiley, Y. Xia, and M. B. Raschke, “Optical near-field mapping of plasmonic nanoprisms,” Nano Lett.8, 3357–3363 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Stranahan and K. A. Willet, “Super-resolution Optical Imaging of Single-Molecule SERS Hot Spots,” Nano Lett.10, 3777–3784 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hrelescu, T.K. Sau, Tapan K. A. L. Rogach, F. Jäckel, G. Laurent, L. Douillard, and F. Charra, “Selective Excitation of Individual Plasmonic Hotspots at the Tips of Single Gold Nanostars,” Nano Lett.2, 402–407 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Schubert, J. Becker, L. Carbone, Y. Khalavka, T. Provalska, I. Zins, and C. Sönnichsen, “Mapping the polarization pattern of plasmon modes reveals nanoparticle symmetry,” Nano Lett.8, 2345–2350 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Bautista, M. J. Huttunen, J. Mäkitalo, J. M. Kontio, J. Simonen, and M. Kauranen, “Second-Harmonic Generation Imaging of Metal Nano-Objects with Cylindrical Vector Beams,” Nano Lett.12, 3207–3212 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, N. K. Grady, C. Ayala-Orozco, and N. J. Halas, “Three-Dimensional Nanostructures as Highly Efficient Generators of Second Harmonic Light,” Nano Lett.11, 5519–5523 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Valev, N. Smisdom, A. V. Silhanek, B. De Clercq, W. Gillijns, M. Ameloot, V. V. Moshchalkov, and T. Verbiest, “Plasmonic Ratchet Wheels: Switching Circular Dichroism by Arranging Chiral Nanostructures,” Nano Lett.9, 3945–3948 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Husu, R. Siikanen, J. Mäkitalo, J. Lehtolahti, J. Laukkanen, M. Kuittinen, and M. Kauranen, “Metamaterials with Tailored Nonlinear Optical Response,” Nano Lett.12, 673–677 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys.

J. Nelayah, M. Kociak, O. Stphan, F. J. Garca de Abajo, M. Tencé, L. Henrard, D. Taverna, I. Pastoriza-Santos, L. M. Liz-Marzn, and C. Colliex, “Mapping surface plasmons on a single metallic nanoparticle,” Nat. Phys.3, 348–353 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

H. Cang, A. Labno, C. Lu, X. Yin, M. Liu, C. Gladden, Y. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Probing the electromagnetic field of a 15-nanometre hotspot by single molecule imaging,” Nature469, 385–388 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

A.V. Zayats, T. Kalkbrenner, V. Sandoghdar, and J. Mlynek, “Second-harmonic generation from individual surface defects under local excitation,” Phys. Rev. B61, 4545–4548 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Guyot-Sionnest, W. Chen, and Y. R. Shen, “General considerations on optical second-harmonic generation from surfaces and interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B33, 8254–8263 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Nappa, G. Revillod, I. Russier-Antoine, E. Benichou, C. Jonin, and P.-F. Brevet, “Electric dipole origin of the second harmonic generation of small metallic particles,” Phys. Rev. B71, 165407 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zeng, W. Hoyer, J. Liu, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Classical theory for second-harmonic generation from metallic nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B79, 235109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

J. I. Dadap, J. Shan, K. B. Eisenthal, and T. F. Heinz, “Second-Harmonic Rayleigh Scattering from a Sphere of Centrosymmetric Material,” Phys. Rev. Lett.83, 4045–4048 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Butet, G. Bachelier, I. Russier-Antoine, C. Jonin, E. Benichou, and P.-F. Brevet, “Interference between Selected Dipoles and Octupoles in the Optical Second-Harmonic Generation from Spherical Gold Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 077401 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ghenuche, S. Cherukulappurath, T. H. Taminiau, N. F. van Hulst, and R. Quidant, “Spectroscopic Mode Mapping of Resonant Plasmon Nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101, 116805 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. McLeod, A. Weber-Bargioni, Z. Zhang, S. Dhuey, B. Harteneck, J. B. Neaton, S. Cabrini, and P. J. Schuck, “Nonperturbative Visualization of Nanoscale Plasmonic Field Distributions via Photon Localization Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 037402 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kujala, B.K. Canfield, M. Kauranen, Y. Svirko, and J. Turunen, “Multipole Interference in the Second-Harmonic Optical Radiation from Gold Nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. Lett.16, 167403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Brasselet, V. Le Floc’h, F. Treussart, J.-F. Roch, J. Zyss, E. Botzung-Appert, and A. Ibanez, “In Situ Diagnostics of the Crystalline Nature of Single Organic Nanocrystals by Nonlinear Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92, 207401 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Royal Soc. Lond. Proc. Series A

B. Richards and E. Wolf, “Electromagnetic diffraction in optical systems. II. Structure of the image field in an aplanetic system,” Royal Soc. Lond. Proc. Series A253, 358–379 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge University Press, 2006).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, Boston, 1985).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) FDTD calculations of the electric field at the nano-stars particles/glass interface, at the incident fundamental wavelength 800 nm, for two incident polarization directions (white arrows). The scale represents the total field enhancement produced by the nano-star. (b) Similar calculation (horizontal polarization) for an incident wavelength at 400nm. (c) Vectorial map of the induced nonlinear dipoles generated from (a) for two incident polarization directions (nano-star positioned with its center on the optical axis). (d) Deduced SHG intensity map in the object plane (scale in arbitrary units).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SHG scanning image of an individual nano-star for two different incident polarizations (upper image: 0° along one branch, lower image: 90°). Pixel size: 60 nm. The maximum intensity is 105 counts/s (above) and 5.104 counts/s (below). (b) Experimentally measured locations of the SHG spots reported in the object plane for a single nano-star, at different incident polarization angles indicated by different colors. The colored lines correspond to the measured positions relative to their global barycenter (four measurements are performed per incident polarization angle). The crosses indicate the positions expected from FDTD calculations.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a,b) Experimental SHG and TPL polarization responses I X S H G , T P L ( α ) (green markers) and I Y S H G , T P L ( α ) (red markers) from two different individual nano-stars, with their corresponding polarization resolved SHG fits (continuous black lines). The corresponding SEM images are shown on the right. (c) Phenomenological model used for polarization responses fitting, represented by three independent nonlinear induced dipoles. (d) The characteristics of the nonlinear induced dipoles deduced from the polarization responses fits are represented schematically with their orientation and amplitude, together with the information of their distance H to the nano-star center. Fitting parameters values for star (a)/(b) (see text) χ 1 ( 2 ) = 62.2 / 36.2 (a.u.); χ 2 ( 2 ) = 67.2 / 34.3 (a.u.); χ 3 ( 2 ) = 78.6 / 42.5 (a.u.); ν1 = 130° / 109°; ν2 = 120° / 112°, φ = −6° / −10°, H = 65nm / 122nm.

Equations (2)

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r ( θ ) = 49 ( 1 + 0.5 cos ( 3 θ ) + 0.07 cos ( 6 θ ) 0.02 cos ( 9 θ ) 0.01 cos ( 12 θ ) )
P n 2 ω = ɛ 0 χ n n n ( 2 ) E n ω E n ω

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